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Traffic Analysis, Modeling and Their Applications in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks: On Network Optimization and Anomaly Detection
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (STC)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information processing. A wide range of WSN applications have been proposed such as habitat monitoring, environmental observations and forecasting systems, health monitoring, etc. In these applications, many low power and inexpensive sensor nodes are deployed in a vast space to cooperate as a network.

Although WSN is a promising technology, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This dissertation concentrates on three factors which are holding back the development of WSNs. Firstly, there is a lack of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs. Secondly, network optimization for WSNs needs more investigation. Thirdly, the development of anomaly detection techniques for WSNs remains a seldomly touched area.

In the field of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs, this dissertation presents several ways of modeling different aspects relating to WSN traffic, including the modeling of sequence relations among arriving packets, the modeling of a data traffic arrival process for an event-driven WSN, and the modeling of a traffic load distribution for a symmetric dense WSN. These research results enrich the current understanding regarding the traffic dynamics within WSNs, and provide a basis for further work on network optimization and anomaly detection for WSNs.

In the field of network optimization for WSNs, this dissertation presents network optimization models from which network performance bounds can be derived. This dissertation also investigates network performances constrained by the energy resources available in an indentified bottleneck zone. For a symmetric dense WSN, an optimal energy allocation scheme is proposed to minimize the energy waste due to the uneven energy drain among sensor nodes. By modeling the interrelationships among communication traffic, energy consumption and WSN performances, these presented results have efficiently integrated the knowledge on WSN traffic dynamics into the field of network optimization for WSNs.

Finally, in the field of anomaly detection for WSNs, this dissertation uses two examples to demonstrate the feasibility and the ease of detecting sensor network anomalies through the analysis of network traffic. The presented results will serve as an inspiration for the research community to develop more secure and more fault-tolerant WSNs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Tryckeriet Mittuniversitetet , 2010. , p. 120
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 78
Keywords [en]
Wireless sensor network, traffic analysis, network optimization, anomaly detection
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10690ISBN: 978-91-86073-64-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-10690DiVA, id: diva2:281643
Public defence
2010-02-03, L111, Mittuniversitetet, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
STCAvailable from: 2010-01-26 Created: 2009-12-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bounding the Information Collection performance of Wireless Sensor Network Routing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bounding the Information Collection performance of Wireless Sensor Network Routing
2007 (English)In: CNSR 2007: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research, Washing, DC. USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 55-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks have maily been designed for information-collecting purposes, such as habitat monitoring, product process tracing, battlefield surveillance, etc. In order to support efficient communications for such networks, many routing protocols have been proposed. However, protocol designs are out-pacing formal analysis. We propose an optimization model in this paper to bound the routing performance in terms of network information collection. We first argue that a network can only be given a death sentence when it fails to satisfy the application's requirement and propose a more reasonable network lifetime definition. Then, the optimization model concerning maximizing information collection routing is presented based on this new network lifetime definition. Existing typical routing algorithms: MH, MTE, FA and MREP are simulated as references to validate the model proposed. Results show our model can provide a tight upper bound and thus can be used to evaluate existing and up-coming routing algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washing, DC. USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Keywords
bound, information collection, network lifetime, sensor network routing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4042 (URN)10.1109/CNSR.2007.19 (DOI)000246988200011 ()2-s2.0-34548329768 (Scopus ID)4858 (Local ID)978-0-7695-2835-9 (ISBN)4858 (Archive number)4858 (OAI)
Conference
5th Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research, May 14-17, 2007, Fredericton, Canada
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-11-29 Created: 2008-11-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Detecting anomaly node behavior in wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting anomaly node behavior in wireless sensor networks
2007 (English)In: Proceedings - 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops/Symposia, AINAW'07, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 6p. 451-456, article id 4221100Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in a way "once deployed, never changed". The actions of sensor nodes are either pre-scheduled inside chips or triggered to respond outside events in the predefined way. This relatively predictable working flow make it easy to build accurate node profiles and detect any violation of normal profiles. In this paper, traffic patterns observed are used to model node behavior in wireless sensor networks. Firstly, selected traffic related features are used to translate observed packets into different events. Following this, unique patterns based on the arriving order of different packet events are extracted to form the normal profile for each sensor node during the profile learning stage. Finally, real time anomaly detection can be achieved based on the profile matching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007. p. 6
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8162 (URN)10.1109/AINAW.2007.148 (DOI)2-s2.0-35248878553 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-2847-3 (ISBN)
Conference
21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and ApplicationsWorkshops/Symposia, AINAW'07; Niagara Falls, ON; Canada; 21 May 2007 through 23 May 2007; Category numberP2847; Code 70261
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-09 Created: 2009-01-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. An effort to understand the optimal routing performance in wireless sensor network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An effort to understand the optimal routing performance in wireless sensor network
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications: AINA2008, Ginowan City , Okinawa, Japan. 25-28 March 2008, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 279-286Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor network is remarkable for its promising use on human-unattended information collection, such as forest fire monitoring. In order to support efficient communication, many routing algorithms specially designed for such networks have been proposed. However, there is no idea about whether these proposed routing algorithms are already good enough or still have a long way to become “perfect”, since there is currently a lack of understanding about the optimal routing performance. This paper makes a progress in the understanding of the optimal routing performance. Metrics here used to measure the routing performance are the network lifetime finally acquired and the total information finally collected. The condition used to judge the network’s death is defined by the user’s requirement on the guaranteed network information collecting ability. Optimization models based on the metrics and death condition mentioned above are proposed. Experiments show some existing routing proposals already work well when the user’s requirement is strict, but few of them satisfy when the user’s requirement is loose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2008
Keywords
Optimal Routing, Wireless Senson Networks
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4401 (URN)10.1109/AINA.2008.47 (DOI)2-s2.0-50249133776 (Scopus ID)5320 (Local ID)978-0-7695-3095-6 (ISBN)5320 (Archive number)5320 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
4. Source Traffic Modeling in Wireless Sensor Networks for Target Tracking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Source Traffic Modeling in Wireless Sensor Networks for Target Tracking
2008 (English)In: The 5th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad-Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN'08), USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2008, p. 96-100Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Researches around wireless sensor network (WSN) were very prolific recently. However, traffic modeling related WSN research was poorly less. In this paper, source traffic dynamics in a simulated target tracking WSN scenario are explored. We find the source traffic arrival process doesn't follow the usually considered Poisson model. Instead, an ON/OFF model is found to be capable of capturing the burst nature of source traffic arrival. Further, we find the measured ON/OFF periods follow the generalized Pareto distribution perfectly. Mathematical analysis also shows a surprising fact: all ON/OFF period distributions in the experiment exhibit short-tail property, which is a nice property that could be exploited by applications such as anomaly detection and node failure detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2008
Keywords
Traffic modeling, sensor network, target tracking
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7178 (URN)10.1145/1454609.1454629 (DOI)000265662200015 ()2-s2.0-63449084079 (Scopus ID)978-1-60558-055-5 (ISBN)978-1-60558-236-8 (ISBN)
Conference
5th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad-Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks, PE-WASUN'08; Vancouver, BC; Canada; 27 October 2008 through 28 October 2008; Code 75730
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Note

Electronics design division

Available from: 2008-11-29 Created: 2008-11-25 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
5. Bottleneck Zone Analysis in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bottleneck Zone Analysis in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks
2009 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 423-425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a typical sensor network, nodes around the sink bear more energy consumption than those further away. It is not unusual that limited energy resources available at the nodes around the sink become the bottleneck which confines the whole network's performance. In this article, we firstly formally define the so-called bottleneck zone inside sensor networks. Then, the effect of the bottleneck zone on network performance is investigated by deducting performance bounds limited by the energy resources available inside the bottleneck zone. In this article, both the performance bound in terms of network lifetime and the performance bound in terms of information collection are explored. Finally, the ways by which network deployment parameters may affect the performance bounds are analyzed.

National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8163 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2009.090119 (DOI)000267064800019 ()2-s2.0-67650658161 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-01-09 Created: 2009-01-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
6. Characterizing the traffic load distribution in dense sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing the traffic load distribution in dense sensor networks
2009 (English)In: 3rd International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, NTMS 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 5384829-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traffic load is not evenly distributed over the nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Understanding the traffic load distribution can guide the network-wide energy allocation, direct the design of routing algorithms, and optimize the node deployment in WSNs. In this paper, we consider a dense WSN with nodes uniformly distributed in a disk sensing area, and find the traffic load distribution over the nodes as a function of their distance from the sink. Further, the effects of network scale and routing strategy on traffic load are also investigated. The traffic loads on individual nodes are found to be in direct proportion to the radius of the network and in inverse proportion to the routing hop distance, while independent of network density. The results presented in this paper are verified through extensive simulation experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
Keywords
Traffic load distribution; Wireless sensor network
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10285 (URN)10.1109/NTMS.2009.5384829 (DOI)2-s2.0-77949815295 (Scopus ID)978-142446273-5 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, NTMS 2009; Cairo; 20 December 2009 through 23 December 2009
Projects
STC
Available from: 2009-11-09 Created: 2009-11-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
7. Fair energy allocation in large-scale and dense sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fair energy allocation in large-scale and dense sensor networks
2010 (English)In: GLOBECOM - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, article id 5683414Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with the energy allocation in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. Because the traffic loads are not evenly distributed in a multi-hop wireless sensor network, different sensor nodes usually experience different energy consumption rates. We present Routing Independent Fair Energy-Allocation Scheme (RIFES), which allocates the available energy resource to a sensor node according to its pre-estimated traffic load. Because traffic load is the dominating source of energy consumption, RIFES optimizes the network's lifetime by equalizing all individual nodes' expected energy exhaustion times. Due to the fact that a node's real experienced traffic load may differ to its pre-estimated traffic load in practice, it is hard for RIFES to achieve its theoretical optimal performance. To bridge this gap between theory and practice, this paper also presents several distributed routing algorithms, the use of which prolongs the network's lifetime by balancing the real-experienced traffic loads among neighboring nodes

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
Keywords
Available energy; Distributed routing; Distributed routing algorithm; Energy allocation; Energy allocations; Energy consumption rates; Expected energy; Multihop; Neighboring nodes; Optimal performance; Source of energy; Theory and practice; Traffic load distribution; Traffic loads
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11173 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5683414 (DOI)2-s2.0-79551653221 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5636-9 (ISBN)
Conference
53rd IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2010; Miami, FL; 6 December 2010 through 10 December 2010
Available from: 2010-01-26 Created: 2010-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved

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