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Skoog Waller, Sara
Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Skoog Waller, S., Wikman, S. & Langeborg, L. (2018). Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse –: taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time. In: : . Paper presented at Viktimologisk forskarkonferens 2018, 20 november 2018, Stockholm.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse –: taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry. We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economical-material, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

Keywords
domestic violence, domestic abuse, coercive control, gender symmetry, gender asymmetry, Social Sciences Interdisciplinary, Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35852 (URN)
Conference
Viktimologisk forskarkonferens 2018, 20 november 2018, Stockholm
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Skoog Waller, S. & Eriksson, M. (2016). Vocal age disguise: the role of fundamental frequency and speech rate and  its perceived effects. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article ID 1814.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vocal age disguise: the role of fundamental frequency and speech rate and  its perceived effects
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relationship between vocal characteristics and perceived age is of interest in various contexts, as is the possibility to affect age perception through vocal manipulation. A few examples of such situations are when age is staged by actors, when ear witnesses make age assessments based on vocal cues only or when offenders disguise their voice to appear younger or older. This paper investigates how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (f0 and speech rate) in attempt to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulation corresponds to actual age related changes in f0 and speech rate (Study 1). Further aims of the paper is to determine how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples (Study 2) and to examine whether or not listeners use f0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. In Study 1, participants from three age groups (20-25, 40-45 and 60-65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. In Study 2, 60 participants (listeners) listened to speech samples from the three voice conditions in Study 1 and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results from Study 1 indicated that the speakers increased fundamental frequency (f0) and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased f0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. Study 2 showed that the voice manipulations had an effect in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not f0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

Keywords
age disguise, voice disguise, age estimation, fundamental frequency, speech rate, voice manipulation, deception, age perception, Psychology, Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35850 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01814 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Skoog Waller, S., Eriksson, M. & Sörqvist, P. (2015). Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article ID 978.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

Keywords
age estimation, speech perception, speech rate, cognitive speech processing, speech spontaneity, Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology), Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35851 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00978 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved

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