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Niskanen, Ilpo
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Ashraf, S., Niskanen, I., Kanyathare, B., Vartiainen, E., Mattsson, C., Heikkilä, R. & Thungström, G. (2019). Determination of complex refractive index of SU-8 by Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method at the wavelength range 2.5 – 22.0 μm. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 224, 309-311
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of complex refractive index of SU-8 by Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method at the wavelength range 2.5 – 22.0 μm
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 224, p. 309-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of SU-8 epoxy has significant for the wide variety of applications in optical sensor technology at IR range. The complex refractive index of SU-8 is determined by recording the transmission of light spectra for the wavelength range of 2.5 – 22.0 μm.  The data analysis is based on the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method. The method has several merits, such as ease of operation, non-contact technique, measurement accuracy, and rapid measurement. The present method is not restricted to the case of SU-8 but it is also proposed to be applicable across a broad range of applications, such as assessment of the optical properties of paints and biomedical samples.

Keywords
Complex refractive index, SU-8 epoxy, Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method, FT-IR spectrophotometer, Infrared region
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34927 (URN)10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.11.026 (DOI)000456754800034 ()2-s2.0-85057277091 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Niskanen, I., Forsberg, V., Zakrisson, D., Reza, S., Hummelgård, M., Andres, B., . . . Thungström, G. (2019). Determination of nanoparticle size using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory. Chemical Engineering Science, 201(29), 222-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of nanoparticle size using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory
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2019 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 201, no 29, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate determination of the size of nanoparticles has an important role in many different scientific and industrial purposes, such as in material, medical and environment sciences, colloidal chemistry and astrophysics. We describe an effective optical method to determine the size of nanoparticles by analysis of transmission and scattering of visible spectral range data from a designed UV-Vis multi-spectrophotometer. The size of the nanoparticles was calculated from the extinction cross section of the particles using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory. We validated the method using polystyrene nanospheres, cellulose nanofibrils, and cellulose nanocrystals. A good agreement was achieved through graphical analysis between measured extinction cross section values and theoretical Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory predictions for the sizes of polystyrene nanospheres at wavelength range 450 - 750 nm. Provided that Rayleigh approximation's forward scattering (FS)/back scattering (BS) ratio was smaller than 1.3 and Mie theory's FS/BS ratio was smaller than 1.8. A good fit for the hydrodynamic diameter of nanocellulose was achieved using the Mie theory and Rayleigh approximation. However, due to the high aspect ratio of nanocellulose, the obtained results do not directly reflect the actual cross-sectional diameters of the nanocellulose. Overall, the method is a fast, relatively easy, and simple technique to determine the size of a particle by a spectrophotometer. Consequently, the method can be utilized for example in production and quality control purposes as well as for research and development applications.

Keywords
Nanoparticles, size, Rayleigh approximation, Mie theory, spectrophotometer, nanocellulose
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35764 (URN)10.1016/j.ces.2019.02.020 (DOI)000462034900020 ()2-s2.0-85062846560 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Niskanen, I., Suopajärvi, T., Liimatainen, H., Fabritius, T., Heikkilä, R. & Thungström, G. (2019). Determining the complex refractive index of cellulose nanocrystals by combination of Beer-Lambert and immersion matching methods. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 235, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determining the complex refractive index of cellulose nanocrystals by combination of Beer-Lambert and immersion matching methods
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 235, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanocelluloses have received significant interest due to their unique structural, mechanical, and optical properties. Nanocellulose refractive indices can be used to indicate many crucial characteristics, such as crystallinity, transparency, and purity. Thus, accurate measurement is important. This study describes a new method to determine the wavelength dependent complex refractive index of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by the measurement of light transmittance with a spectrophotometer. The data analysis is based on a combination of the Beer-Lambert and immersion liquid matching equations. The immersion liquid method's main advantage is that it is independent of particle shape and size. Moreover, the measurement is easy and relatively quick to perform. The present procedure is not restricted to the nanocellulose and could potentially be applied to other nanomaterials, such as hyphenate nanoparticle-based, lignin nanoparticles, nanopigments, biological entities, structural elements of dielectric metamaterials, and nanoparticle-based composites. 

Keywords
Beer-Lambert, Cellulose nanocrystals, Complex refractive index, Immersion matching method, Spectroscopy, Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, Crystallinity, Nanocellulose, Nanocrystals, Nanoparticles, Particle size analysis, Accurate measurement, Cellulose nano-crystals, Cellulose nanocrystal (CNCs), Immersion liquid methods, Matching methods, Particle shape and size, Refractive index
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36688 (URN)10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.06.023 (DOI)000485334200001 ()2-s2.0-85067548357 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Soetedjo, H., Niskanen, I., Rautkari, L., Altgen, M., Hiltunen, E., Thungström, G., . . . Räty, J. (2018). Determining the degree of heat treatment of wood by light polarization technique. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 76(4), 1359-1362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determining the degree of heat treatment of wood by light polarization technique
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 1359-1362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal modification of wood enables the use of non-durable wood species in exterior applications, but quality control methods are required to monitor the product variability. This study tests the potential of a light polarization technique where visible light (400–500 nm) is directed through a linear polarizer to the surface of thermally modified wood to measure the reflectance. Besides an effect of the grain direction, the reflectance decreased with increasing temperature during the thermal modification process. The technique could be used for quality control, but further studies are required to understand its modes of action. 

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33664 (URN)10.1007/s00107-018-1311-2 (DOI)000435782200029 ()2-s2.0-85045912828 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Niskanen, I., Sutinen, V., Thungström, G. & Räty, J. (2018). Image Information Obtained Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera During an Immersion Liquid Evaporation Process for Measuring the Refractive Index of Solid Particles. Applied Spectroscopy, 72(6), 908-912
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Image Information Obtained Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera During an Immersion Liquid Evaporation Process for Measuring the Refractive Index of Solid Particles
2018 (English)In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 908-912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a medium, which can be used for the identification and purity issues of all media. Here we describe a refractive index measurement technique to determine simultaneously the refractive index of different solid particles by monitoring the transmittance of light from a suspension using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An important feature of the measurement is the liquid evaporation process for the refractive index matching of the solid particle and the immersion liquid; this was realized by using a pair of volatile and non-volatile immersion liquids. In this study, refractive indices of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and barium fluoride (BaF2) were determined using the proposed method.

Keywords
BaF2, barium fluoride, CaF2, calcium fluoride, CCD camera, charge-coupled device camera, evaporation, image immersion liquid method, liquid mixture, Refractive index
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33666 (URN)10.1177/0003702818756660 (DOI)000434314700010 ()29336586 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046036635 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Niskanen, I., Räty, J. & Peiponen, K.-E. (2017). On the Immersion Liquid Evaporation Method Based on the Dynamic Sweep of Magnitude of the Refractive Index of a Binary Liquid Mixture: A Case Study on Determining Mineral Particle Light Dispersion. Applied Spectroscopy, 71(7), 1586-1592
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Immersion Liquid Evaporation Method Based on the Dynamic Sweep of Magnitude of the Refractive Index of a Binary Liquid Mixture: A Case Study on Determining Mineral Particle Light Dispersion
2017 (English)In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1586-1592Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This is a feasibility study of a modified immersion liquid technique for determining the refractive index of micro-sized particles. The practical challenge of the traditional liquid immersion method is to find or produce a suitable host liquid whose refractive index equals that of a solid particle. Usually, the immersion liquid method uses a set of immersion liquids with different refractive indices or continuously mixes two liquids with different refractive indices, e.g., using a pumping system. Here, the phenomenon of liquid evaporation has been utilized in defining the time-dependent refractive index variation of the host liquid. From the spectral transmittance data measured during the evaporation process, the refractive index of a solid particle in the host liquid can be determined as a function of the wavelength. The method was tested using calcium fluoride (CaF2) particles with an immersion liquid mixed from diethyl ether and diffusion pump fluid. The dispersion data obtained were consistent with the literature values thus indicating the proper functioning of the proposed procedure.

Keywords
Refractive index, light dispersion, liquid mixture, evaporation, modified immersion liquid method, solid particles
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31348 (URN)10.1177/0003702817693237 (DOI)000404688100020 ()28195502 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021732924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-08-11Bibliographically approved
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