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Hanstock, H., Govus, A., Stenqvist, T. B., Melin, A. K., Sylta, Ø. & Torstveit, M. K. (2019). Influence of Immune and Nutritional Biomarkers on Illness Risk During Interval Training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Immune and Nutritional Biomarkers on Illness Risk During Interval Training
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Intensive training periods may negatively influence immune function, but the immunological consequences of specific high-intensity training (HIT) prescriptions are not well defined. Purpose: This study explored whether three different HIT prescriptions influence multiple health-related biomarkers and whether biomarker responses to HIT were associated with upper respiratory illness (URI) risk. Methods: Twenty-five male cyclists and triathleteswere randomised to three HIT groups and completed twelve HIT sessions over four weeks. Peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) was determined using an incremental cycling protocol, while resting serum biomarkers (cortisol, testosterone, 25(OH)D and ferritin), salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and energy availability (EA) were assessed before and after the training intervention. Participants self-reported upper respiratory symptoms during the interventionand episodes of URI were identified retrospectively. Results: Fourteen athletes reported URIs, but there were no differences in incidence, duration or severity between groups. Increased risk of URI was associated with higher s-IgA secretion rates (odds ratio=0.90, 90% CI:0.83-0.97). Lower pre-intervention cortisol and higher EA predicted a 4% increase in URI duration. Participants with higher V̇O2peak reported higher total symptom scores (incidence rate ratio=1.07, 90% CI:1.01-1.13). Conclusions: Although multiple biomarkers wereweakly associated with risk of URI, the direction of associations between s-IgA, cortisol, EA and URI risk were inverse to previous observations and physiological rationale. There was a cluster of URIs within the first week of the training intervention, but no samples were collected at this time-point. Future studies should incorporate more frequent sample time-points, especially around the onset of new training regimes, and include athletes with suspected or known nutritional deficiencies.

Keywords
Endurance athletes, HIT, immunity, training load, URTI
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36069 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2018-0527 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Ahokas, E. K., Kyrolainen, H., Mero, A., Walker, S., Hanstock, H. & Ihalainen, J. K. (2019). Minimal effect of water immersion on markers of inflammation and muscle damage after intensive exercise. In: Proc Physiol Soc 44: . Paper presented at Extreme Environmental Physiology (University of Portsmouth, UK). , Article ID C43.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimal effect of water immersion on markers of inflammation and muscle damage after intensive exercise
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2019 (English)In: Proc Physiol Soc 44, 2019, article id C43Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Water immersion methods, such as cold water immersion and contrast water therapy are popular recovery interventions after athletic training and competition. Nevertheless, post-exercise cold water immersion may actually inhibit hypertrophic signalling pathways and muscle adaptation to training (1). It is has been commonly assumed that the mechanism of impaired training adaptation is mediated by blunted inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise, although this assumption has been questioned by recent data (2). A weakness of previous studies is omission of active recovery in water immersion interventions, which would arguably be utilised in addition to water immersion by athletic populations. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of three water immersion methods, performed after active recovery, on inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise. Nine male participants (age 20-35 y) performed an intensive exercise protocol, consisting of maximal jumps and sprinting, on four occasions. After each trial, participants completed one of four recovery protocols in a randomised, crossover design (ACT, active recovery only, 10 min cycling; heart rate 120-140 b/min; CWI, active recovery followed by 10 min cold water immersion, 10°C; TWI, active recovery followed by 10 min temperate water immersion, 24°C and CWT, active recovery followed by contrast water therapy, 10 min alternating 10°C and 38°C in 1 min cycles). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local ethical review board. Venous blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 5 min, 60 min, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h post-exercise, then analysed for myocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and creatine kinase (CK) using ELISA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) using a chemiluminescence assay. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare biomarker concentrations between groups over time. There were no differences in biomarker concentrations during exercise and recovery between groups across the six time points, however main effects of time were present for all three markers (MCP-1: F(2.32, 18.56) = 23.1, p < 0.0001; CK: F(2.059, 16.47) = 8.74, p = 0.002; hs-CRP: F(1.07, 8.57 = 13.8, p = 0.005). Tukey’s post-hoc analysis of simple time effects revealed increases in MCP-1 at post-5 min versus pre in all groups except CWT. In TWI and CWI, MCP-1 was still elevated above pre at 60 min post-exercise. hs-CRP peaked at 24 h post-exercise in all groups. CK was elevated at post-60 versus pre in all groups and at post-24 except in CWT. Our findings suggest that use of cold or thermoneutral water immersion in combination with active recovery may slightly prolong the immediate post-exercise elevation in MCP-1 but have minimal overall effect on markers of inflammation and muscle damage.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37266 (URN)
Conference
Extreme Environmental Physiology (University of Portsmouth, UK)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, R., Söderström, L., Klockmo, C., Patrician, A., Sandström, T., Björklund, G., . . . Stenfors, N. (2019). Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 78(1), Article ID 1583528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1583528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to cold air is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is difficult to study the effects of whole-body exposure to cold air under controlled conditions in real life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to (1) explore and describe the experience of symptoms in humans during experimental and controlled exposures to cold air, by using controlled environmental chamber exposures and qualitative methodology, and to (2) categorise the symptoms. Method: The study used a randomised, double blind design, in which 34 subjects undertook rest and moderate-intensity exercise in an environmental chamber set to two or three different temperatures (0, −10, and −17°C) on separate occasions. During the chamber exposures, subjects were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was selected as the method of analysis. Findings: Subjects reported 50 distinct symptoms during the exposures. The symptoms were grouped into ten sub-categories and two major categories; airway versus whole-body symptoms. Conclusion: We have identified a broad range of symptoms in humans undertaking rest and moderate-intensity exercise at sub-zero temperatures. The symptoms and their categories may well be used to more extensively and quantitatively map cold-induced morbidity.

Keywords
Cold temperature, environmental chamber, healthy, physical activity, qualitative analysis, respiratory disease
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35730 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2019.1583528 (DOI)000459975500001 ()30821652 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062417054 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Hanstock, H., Edwards, J. & Walsh, N. (2019). Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence. Frontiers in Immunology, 10, Article ID 1178.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tears have attracted interest as a minimally-invasive biological fluid from which to assess biomarkers. Lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lys) are abundant in the tear fluid and have antimicrobial properties. Since the eye is a portal for infection transmission, assessment of immune status at the ocular surface may be clinically relevant. Therefore, the aim of this series of studies was to investigate the tear fluid antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) Lf and Lys as biomarkers of mucosal immune status. To be considered biomarkers of interest, we would expect tear AMPs to respond to stressors known to perturb immunity but be robust to confounding variables, and to be lower in participants with heightened risk or incidence of illness. We investigated the relationship between tear AMPs and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; study 1) as well as the response of tear AMPs to prolonged treadmill exercise (study 2) and dehydration (study 3). Study 1 was a prospective cohort study conducted during the common cold season whereas studies 2 and 3 used repeated-measures crossover designs. In study 1, tear Lys concentration (C) as well as tear AMP secretion rates (SRs) were lower in individuals who reported pathogen-confirmed URTI (n = 9) throughout the observation period than in healthy, pathogen-free controls (n = 17; Lys-C, P = 0.002, d = 0.85; Lys-SR, P < 0.001, d = 1.00; Lf-SR, P = 0.018, d = 0.66). Tear AMP secretion rates were also lower in contact lens wearers. In study 2, tear AMP SRs were 42–49% lower at 30 min−1 h post-exercise vs. pre-exercise (P < 0.001, d = 0.80–0.93). Finally, in study 3, tear AMPs were not influenced by dehydration, although tear AMP concentrations (but not secretion rates) displayed diurnal variation. We conclude that Lf and Lys have potential as biomarkers of mucosal immune competence; in particular, whether these markers are lower in infection-prone individuals warrants further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lausanne: Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), common cold, contact lenses, dehydration, endurance exercise, infection risk, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36238 (URN)10.3389/fimmu.2019.01178 (DOI)000470172600001 ()31231369 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068544011 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-31 Created: 2019-05-31 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Hanstock, H., Govus, A., Stenqvist, T. B., Melin, A., Sylta, Ö. & Torstveit, M. K. (2018). Evaluation of physiological and nutritional risk factors for upper respiratory illness using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. In: Journal of Sports Sciences: Volume 36, 2018 - Issue sup1: BASES Conference 2018 – Programme and Abstracts. Paper presented at BASES Conference 2018, 27-28 November 2018, Harrogate, UK (pp. 44-45). Routledge, 36 (S1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of physiological and nutritional risk factors for upper respiratory illness using a zero-inflated negative binomial model
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences: Volume 36, 2018 - Issue sup1: BASES Conference 2018 – Programme and Abstracts, Routledge, 2018, Vol. 36 (S1), p. 44-45Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Intensified training periods may increase incidence of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes (Meeusen et al., 2013,Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(1), 186–205). Many physiological and nutritional risk factors have beenassociated with increased risk of URI (Bermon et al., 2017, Exercise Immunology Review, 23, 8–50), including reductionsin salivary IgA (sIgA), elevated cortisol, vitamin D insufficiency, iron deficiency and low energy availability (EA). However, few studies have explored the relative importance of each of thesehealth-related biomarkers in a multivariate model. Our aimwas therefore to investigate the relationship between multiplebiological risk factors for illness and incidence, duration andseverity of URIs that present during intensified training. 3815Twenty-five well-trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 30 ± 9 y, VO2peak 64 ± mL· kg−1· min−1) performed one ofthree different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programmes for three sessions per week over four weeks in November-December. The study received local ethical approval and participants provided written, informed consentto participate. Participants performed each HIT session at “isoeffort” intensity and sessions were matched for total accumulated work duration. Participants logged upper respiratorysymptoms (URS) daily using the Jackson Common Cold Scale; episodes of URI were identified retrospectively using the followinga priori criteria: weekly symptom score > 14 or selfreportedcommon cold for > 2 consecutive days (Jacksonet al., 1958, American Medical Association Archives of Internal Medicine, 101, 267–278). Before commencing the training period, VO2peak was determined using an incremental maximal cycling protocol and participants provided rested, fasted blood and saliva samples prior to the training period foranalysis of plasma 25(OH)D, ferritin, cortisol, testosterone and sIgA secretion rate. EA was calculated based on a 3-day registration of energy intake and expenditure relative to fat-free mass measured in a rested, fasted state using indirect calorimetry (Torstveit et al., 2018 February, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1–28). We used a zero-inflated negative binomial model to investigate the relationship between baseline VO2peak, health-related biomarkers and URI incidence/duration/global URS severity. Fourteen athletes(56%) reported an episode of URI during the four-week monitoring period. Higher sIgA was associated with reduced risk of URI (odds ratio = 0.90, 90% confidence interval (CI): [0.83,0.97]). Lower plasma cortisol (P = 0.02) and higher EA (P = 0.02) were associated with longer URI duration; holding cortisol constant, the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for a one-unit increase in EA was 1.04 (90% CI: [1.01, 1.07]). Participants with higher VO2peak reported higher total symptom scores during the intervention period (P = 0.03, IRR = 1.07, 90% CI: [1.01,1.13]). Several health-related biomarkers and physiological parameters may therefore be associated with risk and severityof URI, including sIgA, cortisol, EA and VO2peak.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34995 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2018.1521633 (DOI)
Conference
BASES Conference 2018, 27-28 November 2018, Harrogate, UK
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Hanstock, H., Edwards, J., Roberts, R. & Walsh, N. (2018). High heart rate reactors display greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration following a novel acute stressor. Biological Psychology, 133, 85-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High heart rate reactors display greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration following a novel acute stressor
2018 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 133, p. 85-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tear secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA) is a putative biomarker of common-cold risk with potential utility in non-invasive diagnostics. As SIgA secretion at the ocular surface is under strong autonomic control, we investigated the relationship between HR reactivity and tear SIgA responses to novel experiential stress. Thirty-two healthy participants undertook a 60-second zip-line ride to evoke acute stress and a seated-rest control trial in a randomised-crossover design. We recorded heart rate (HR) continuously and collected unstimulated tear samples 5-min-pre-, 2-min-post- and 20-min-post-stress/control. Stress increased HR and state anxiety whereas tear SIgA concentration decreased 44% post-stress vs. control. Higher peak HR values during stress uniquely explained 21% of the variance in tear SIgA reactivity to stress (p < .01); high HR reactors displayed greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration. We conclude that physiological arousal increases immune reactivity to acute stress and highlight tear SIgA as a minimally-invasive, physiologically relevant biomarker of immune reactivity.

Keywords
Biomarkers, Tears, Noninvasive measures, Immunity, Stress reactivity, Immune reactivity, State anxiety, Acute stress, Psychological stress
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32815 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.02.002 (DOI)000426971000011 ()29427602 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042173239 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Hanstock, H., Govus, A., Stenqvist, T. B., Melin, A. K., Sylta, Ö. & Torstveit, M. K. (2018). Influence of interval duration on immunological responses to 4-weeks’ high-intensity interval training. In: Journal of Sports Sciences: BASES Conference 2018 – Programme and Abstracts. Paper presented at BASES Conference 2018, 27-28 November, Harrogate, UK (pp. 1-94). Routledge, 36 (S1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of interval duration on immunological responses to 4-weeks’ high-intensity interval training
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences: BASES Conference 2018 – Programme and Abstracts, Routledge, 2018, Vol. 36 (S1), p. 1-94Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High-intensity interval training (HIT) encompasses a wide range of training prescriptions where up to nine variables can be manipulated (Buchheit and Laursen, 2013, Sports Medicine, 43(5), 313–338). Four weeks of HIT with longer intervals and accumulated work durations (AWD) has been shown to elicit greater improvements in peak oxygen consumption (V O 2peak ) despite more modest physiological, hormonal and perceptual responses (Sylta et al., 2017, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(6), 1137–1146). However, immunological responses to different HIT pre- scriptions have rarely been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cumulative effects of a four-week HIT intervention, performed either as short or long intervals with the same AWD, on V O 2peak , the immunological biomarker salivary secretory IgA (s-IgA) and upper respiratory illness (URI) incidence. In addition, we explored the influence of HIT on serum cortisol, testosterone, 25(OH)D and ferritin as biomarkers related to immune competence. Following local ethics committee approval, twenty-five well-trained male cyclists and triath- letes provided written consent to take part and were randomised to one of three HIT groups (Long Intervals [LI]: 4 × 8min; Short Intervals 1 [SI1]: 4×[12 × 40/20s]; Short Intervals 2 [SI2]: 4×[8 ×40/20s]). Participants per- formed three cycling HIT sessions per week for four weeks at maximal session effort (“isoeffort”) intensity, supplemented with ad libitumlow-intensity training. Participants recorded upper respiratory symptoms (URS) daily using the Jackson Common Cold Scale; episodes of URI were identified retrospectively. V O 2peak as well as rested saliva and blood biomarkers were analysed before and after the training period. Fourteen of twenty-five participants reported an episode of URI (LI: 4/8, SI1: 4/8, SI2: 6/9) but there were no differences in URI incidence, severity or duration between groups. Following the train- ing intervention, we observed a moderate increase in V O 2peak across the cohort (mean± SD: 4.75 ± 0.42 to 4.86 ± 0.43 L· min−1 ,Cohen’s d= 0.65, 90% confidence intervals: [0.16, 1.13]) but the change in V O 2peak was not different between groups. Serum cortisol displayed a moderate increase (367 ± 98 to 415 ± 108 nmol· L −1 ,d=0.60 [0.12, 1.08]) and 25(OH)D a large decrease (79.2 ± 17.1 to 70.4 ± 17.6 nmol· L −1 ,d= -0.87 [−1.36,−0.37]) from pre- to post-training, but there were no differences in the magnitude of the responses between groups. Four weeks’HIT did not influence s-IgA secretion rate, serum testosterone or ferritin. We conclude that four weeks’ AWD-matched HIT performed as short- or long-intervals at isoeffort intensity does not differentially influence ill- ness incidence, immunological responses to training nor other immune-related biomarkers. This observation can be viewed as a positive finding for training planning, since it could allow coaches some flexibility in constructing AWD-matched isoeffort HIT sessions to achieve performance goals, without concern about detrimental effects on athletes’ immune status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34997 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2018.1521633 (DOI)
Conference
BASES Conference 2018, 27-28 November, Harrogate, UK
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, L., Schagatay, F., Sjöström, R., Söderström, L., Hanstock, H., Sandström, T. & Stenfors, N. (2018). Symptom av måttlig träning i minusgrader: En experimentell exponeringsstudie. In: : . Paper presented at Svenska Lungkongressen, Linköping, 16-17 april, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptom av måttlig träning i minusgrader: En experimentell exponeringsstudie
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2018 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Exponering för kyla leder till ökad sjuklighet och dödlighet i befolkningen. Tidigare studier av symptom i samband med köldexponering har mestadels varit befolkningsbaserade enkätstudier fokuserade på ett smalt symptomspektrum. Syftet meddenna studie var att undersöka effekten av kyla och fysisk aktivitet på ett brett spektrumav symptom hos friska individer.Material och metod: Trettioen friska försökspersoner exponerades i en köldkammare för +10 °C och -10 °C under en timme, vid två separata tillfällen. Under varje exponeringsprang försökspersonerna intermittent på 62-78% av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. Vid fem tillfällen, före, under och efter exponeringarna, frågades försökspersonerna om 18 symptom och dessas intensitet. Borgs CR10 skala användes för att skatta intensitetenfrån 0 till 11, där 0 betydde ”inget alls” och 11 betydde ”maximalt”. Maximalt Borg-värdeför varje symptom under exponeringarna jämfördes med värdena innan exponeringarna. Summan av alla fem Borg CR10-värdena jämfördes mellan de två exponeringarna. PairedWilcoxon signed-rank test användes för analyser. Data presenteras som medianvärden.Resultat: En signifikant stegring av symptomen hosta, ögonirritation, fysiskt obehag ochkalla extremiteter förekom endast vid -10 °C. I jämförelse med fysisk aktivitet i +10 °C, gav fysisk aktivitet i -10 °C upphov till signifikant högre summerade värden för ögonirritation 2,0 jfr 0,5 (p=0,011), rinit 12,0 jfr 8,0 (p=0,000), irritation i näsan 3,5 jfr 0,5 (p=0,001), kyla i ansiktet 7,0 jfr 1,0 (p=0,000), fysiskt obehag 6,5 jfr 0,0 (p=0,000), och kalla extremiteter 10,0 jfr 0,5 (p=0,000).Slutsats: Hos friska individer kan fysisk aktivitet på måttlig intensitet i -10 °C ge upphovtill och öka intensiteten av ett brett spektrum av symptom. Symptom från de nedre luftvägarna var milda och inte frekventa vid de aktuella exponeringarna.

National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33476 (URN)
Conference
Svenska Lungkongressen, Linköping, 16-17 april, 2018
Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Eklund, L., Schagatay, F., Sjöström, R., Söderström, L., Hanstock, H., Sandström, T. & Stenfors, N. (2018). Symptoms of moderate exercise in subzero temeperatures: An experimental exposure study. In: : . Paper presented at European Respiratory Society Congress, Paris, France, 15-19 September.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of moderate exercise in subzero temeperatures: An experimental exposure study
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34615 (URN)
Conference
European Respiratory Society Congress, Paris, France, 15-19 September
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, L., Schagatay, F., Sjöström, R., Soderstrom, L., Hanstock, H., Sandström, T. & Stenfors, N. (2018). Symptoms of moderate exercise in subzero temperatures - An experimental exposure study. Paper presented at 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), SEP 15-19, 2018, Paris, FRANCE. European Respiratory Journal, 52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of moderate exercise in subzero temperatures - An experimental exposure study
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2018 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans react to cold with various symptoms. Previous studies enquiring about symptoms during cold exposure have for the most part been population based studies using questionnaries and have focused on a narrow spectrum of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of cold air and physical exercise on a wide range of symptoms in healthy individuals.

A total of 31 healthy subjects were experimentally exposed to +10 °C and -10 °C in an environmental chamber for one hour, on two separate occasions. During each exposure, subjects performed an intermittent moderate-intensity running protocol between 62-78% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). At five timepoints, before, during and after the exposures, subjects were asked about 18 symptoms and their intensity. The Borg CR10 scale was used to rate the intensity from 0 to 11, where 0 meant "none" and 11 meant "maximal". The sum of all five Borg CR10-scores were added together to form a single score for each exposure. Paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for analysis. Data are presented as medians.

Symptoms of cough, eye irritation, physical discomfort, and cold extremities were present only at -10 °C. Compared to exercise in +10 °C, exercise in -10 °C induced significantly higher summed symptom scores for eye irritation 2.0 vs 0.5 (p=0.011), rhinitis 12.0 vs 8.0 (p=0.000), nasal irritation 3.5 vs 0.5 (p=0.001), cold face 7.0 vs 1.0 (p=0.000), physical discomfort 6.5 vs 0.0 (p=0.000), and cold extremities 10.0 vs 0.5 (p=0.000).

In healthy subjects, moderate-intensity exercise in -10 °C can induce and enhance the intensity of a wide range of symptoms. Symptoms of the lower airways were infrequent and mild.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Respiratory Society, 2018
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35857 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2018.PA4514 (DOI)000455567106165 ()
Conference
28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), SEP 15-19, 2018, Paris, FRANCE
Note

Supplement: 62

Meeting Abstract: PA4514

Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5381-736X

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