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Große, Christine, Fil.LicORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4869-5094
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Nyman, M. & Große, C. (2019). Are You Ready When It Counts?: IT Consulting Firm’s Information Security Incident Management. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP): . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP), Prague, Czech Republic, 23-25 February, 2019 (pp. 26-37). SciTePress, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are You Ready When It Counts?: IT Consulting Firm’s Information Security Incident Management
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP), SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 26-37Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Information security incidents are increasing both in number and in scope. In consequence, the General Data Protection Regulation and the Directive on security of network and information systems force organisations to report such incidents to a supervision authority. Due to the growing of both the importance of managing incidents and the tendency to outsourcing, this study focuses on IT-consulting firms and highlights their vulnerable position as subcontractors. This study thereby addresses the lack of empirical research on incident management and contributes valuable insights in IT-consulting firms’ experiences with information security incident management. Evidence from interviews and a survey with experts at IT-consulting firms focuses on challenges in managing information security incidents. The analyses identify and clarify both new and known challenges, such as how the recent regulations affect the role of an IT-consulting firm and how the absence of major incidents influences stakeholder awareness. Improvements of IT-consulting firm’s incident management process need to address internal and external communication, the information security awareness of employees and customers and the adequacy of the cost focus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2019
Keywords
Security Awareness, Information Security Incident Management, IT Consulting, GDPR, NIS Directive
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35902 (URN)10.5220/0007247500260037 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064667686 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-359-9 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP), Prague, Czech Republic, 23-25 February, 2019
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Olausson, P. M. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2019). Blackout Ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of Critical Infrastructure Protection. In: Michael Beer and Enrico Zio (Ed.), Proceedings of the 29th European Safety and Reliability Conference(ESREL): . Paper presented at ESREL 2019, 22 – 26 September 2019, Hannover, Germany (pp. 1715-1723). Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, Article ID 304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blackout Ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of Critical Infrastructure Protection
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 29th European Safety and Reliability Conference(ESREL) / [ed] Michael Beer and Enrico Zio, Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, 2019, p. 1715-1723, article id 304Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights difficulties in studying the Swedish crisis management system with a specific focus on the planning process STYREL. This process seeks to identify and prioritize vital objects in the category of critical infrastructure (CI) in order to elaborate an emergency response plan for the case of a power shortage. The concerns in this paper originate from a research project on how actors assess CI and cooperate during the process as well as which consequences the prioritization of CI pose for society and its citizens. The project employed material from document studies in addition to interviews with security officers at municipalities, coordinators at CountyAdministrative Boards (CABs), and representatives from power grid operators (PGOs). Furthermore, a survey was conducted among all CABs and the ten PGOs that are responsible for effectuating the plan within the initial phaseof a power shortage. The results reveal problems regarding the availability of relevant planning material, gaps in knowledge due to deficient continuity, difficulties in tracing particular objects during the process, and a lack of feedback that hampers evaluation and development. Thus, Swedish critical infrastructure protection (CIP) suffers from not only a shift in responsibility to regional and local actors but also a severe lack of systemic governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, 2019
Keywords
Critical Infrastructure Protection, Information Security, Knowledge Management, Swedish Crisis Management, Complex System Governance, Research Methodology
National Category
Social Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37397 (URN)10.3850/978-981-11-2724-3_ 0304-cd (DOI)978-981-11-2724-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ESREL 2019, 22 – 26 September 2019, Hannover, Germany
Projects
From agencies to citizens and back - A study of collaboration and communication in the context of Styrel
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Große, C. & Olausson, P. M. (2019). Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection. Safety Science, 118, 424-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection
2019 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 424-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Failures in the power supply threaten the safety of developed countries, as they are increasingly dependent on electricity to maintain important societal functions through critical infrastructure. To protect electricity-dependent critical infrastructure, Sweden has implemented a multi-level planning, called Styrel, which involves national-, regional- and local-level actors. This study focuses on interactions among key actors and their roles in the planning as well as the Swedish crisis management system. With evidence from interviews and a survey among the actors, analyses indicate blind spots in the current proceeding, such as the reliance of the outcome of the process on the actors’ commitment to achieve a common understanding of the importance of infrastructure assets and participate in collaborations. This paper reveals that actors lack awareness, knowledge, capability and resources to fulfil their roles in the national planning for critical infrastructure protection. By highlighting interrelations, this study contributes to the international discussion of identification, prioritisation and protection of critical infrastructure to mitigate consequences of power failures for a depending society.

Keywords
National safety, Governance networks, Complex system governance, Multi-level planning, Interaction, Critical infrastructure protection
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36248 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.049 (DOI)000475999000042 ()2-s2.0-85066299123 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inom ramen för Styrel
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40307-1
Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Olausson, P. M. & Svensson, B. (2019). Den regionala flygplatsens roll i samhället - Perspektiv från en förstudie kring Sundsvall-Timrå flygplats. In: Erna Danielsson, Roine Johansson, Anna Olofsson, Susanna Öhman (Ed.), Festskrift till Björn Fjæstad: Utvecklingen av en forskningsmiljö: Ett verksamhetsnära engagemang på distans (pp. 49-67). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den regionala flygplatsens roll i samhället - Perspektiv från en förstudie kring Sundsvall-Timrå flygplats
2019 (Swedish)In: Festskrift till Björn Fjæstad: Utvecklingen av en forskningsmiljö: Ett verksamhetsnära engagemang på distans / [ed] Erna Danielsson, Roine Johansson, Anna Olofsson, Susanna Öhman, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2019, p. 49-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2019
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37890 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
Petridou, E., Danielsson, E., Olofsson, A., Lundgren, M. & Große, C. (2019). If Crisis or War Comes: A Study of Risk Communication of Eight European Union Member States. Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research, 2(2), 207-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>If Crisis or War Comes: A Study of Risk Communication of Eight European Union Member States
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2019 (English)In: Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research, ISSN 2576-0025, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 207-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How do European Union (EU) member states communicate risks to their citizens? In this study, we define risk communication as the information provided by different levels of government to citizens regarding possible future crises to which the general public might be subjected. We seek to answer the following questions: Are there any patterns in the risk communication strategies among EU member states in terms of the sender of information, the message conveyed, the method used, and the intended audience? Finally, to what extent is the state involved in ensuring the safety of its citizens? To tackle these questions, we examine the risk communication strategy of eight countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany, England, France, Estonia, Greece, and Cyprus. Our data consist of governmental web sites, publications, campaigns, and other modes of communication, such as videos posted on YouTube, with questions centering on institutional actors, methods of delivery, content, and effectiveness. We find that the institutional architecture of risk communication aligns with the broad administrative system of each member state. Countries tend to focus on risks that are specific to their context, with Sweden and, to a lesser extent, Germany having a special focus on consequences and providing guidelines to the public on how to survive for a certain period of time in the absence of the state. Especially in Sweden, though the state is a salient actor in risk communication through the dissemination of information at the agency level, the state retreats while urging the resilient citizen to take control of his or her own crisis management.

Keywords
Risk communication; comparative studies; European politics; resilience; public policy
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37688 (URN)10.30658/jicrcr.2.2.3 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Hahne, M., Olausson, P. M. & Svensson, B. (2019). Regionala flygplatser: En förstudie kring betydelsen av regionala flygplatser för samhället.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regionala flygplatser: En förstudie kring betydelsen av regionala flygplatser för samhället
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 104
Series
RCR Serie
Keywords
Samhällsviktig verksamhet, transportsystem, ekonomi, turism, krisberedskap
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36891 (URN)978-91-88947-16-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Regionala flygplatser
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Große, C. (2019). Sources of Uncertainty in Swedish Emergency-Response Planning. Journal of Risk Research, 22(6), 758-772
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of Uncertainty in Swedish Emergency-Response Planning
2019 (English)In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 758-772Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the growing importance of enhancing modern society’s resilience, planning for critical infrastructure protection has become essential. However, such national planning must contend with many types of uncertainty. This paper characterises sources of uncertainty that are associated with a lack of knowledge, as exemplified by Swedish planning of emergency power supplies. The planning under investigation concerns civil protection from the negative effects of a power shortage. A decision process is intended to support this national strategic management goal by identifying and prioritising electricity consumers who are critical to society at the local, regional and national levels. The analysis of related documentation yields three sources of uncertainty (S) interrelated with this multi-level planning (MLP) for emergency response: (S1) the planning process in general, (S2) the decision-making process in particular and (S3) the direction and guidance alongside these processes. Interviews with decision-makers reveal a detailed specification of these sources of uncertainty. The results thus provide a solid basis for further goal-directed improvement of national MLP approaches. Moreover, this specification contributes to scholarly debate on the systemic effects of sources of uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge. Lastly, the findings constitute a thinking framework that is suggested as a foundation for analytical work in similar complex planning environments as well as for evidence-based communication to the wider public concerning risks and resilience.

Keywords
complex planning environment, Critical infrastructure protection, decision process, emergency power supply, multi-level planning, public strategic management
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32823 (URN)10.1080/13669877.2018.1459796 (DOI)000475942700008 ()2-s2.0-85045453081 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 16 Apr 2018

Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Olausson, P. M. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2018). Blackout ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of National Crisis Management. In: : . Paper presented at Society of Risk Analysis - Nordic Chapter, Stavanger, 8-9 November, 2018. Stavanger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blackout ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of National Crisis Management
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights the difficulties in the studies of the crisis management system. Our focus is on the Swedish planning process in the case of power shortage, called Styrel. Our paper depart from a research project entitled From Authorities to Citizens and Back. The aim of the project is to increase the knowledge on the decision-making processes within Styrel with a focus on how the actors co-operate within the planning process, and what consequences the priorities of socially important objects have for society and its citizens. Methodologically, the project is based on document studies, interview with security officers in forty-seven municipalities, three coordinators at the County administrative board (CAB), and representatives for local power grid companies. Furthermore, a survey has been conducted with all coordinators at the CAB. The intended objective has also been to take part of the planning documents in order to investigate if there are any differences between how the objects were prioritized by the municipalities and how they were finally prioritized. Our experience from the study reviles problems with availability of relevant planning material, lack of knowledge due to deficient continuity at the local level regarding those responsible for Styrel, and finally difficulties in following individual objects during the planning process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stavanger: , 2018
Keywords
Energy policy; critical infrastructure, public policy, methods
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35618 (URN)
Conference
Society of Risk Analysis - Nordic Chapter, Stavanger, 8-9 November, 2018
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Olausson, P. M. & Große, C. (2018). Multi-Level Planning Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection:: Planning for Power Shortage in Germany, Sweden and USA. In: : . Paper presented at Mid-Western Political Science Association 76th annual conference, Chicago, April 5–8, 2018. Chicago
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Level Planning Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection:: Planning for Power Shortage in Germany, Sweden and USA
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electricity is a key resource for the majority of societal functions and constitutes an important sector in the critical infrastructure of modern societies. Disturbances in power supply can have cascading effects on interdependent public sectors and ordinary citizens (Rinaldi et al., 2001; Cohen, 2010; Ghanem et al., 2016). However, it seems nearly impossible to prevent the occurrence of power shortages. This has been evident in the aftermath of the hurricane Lee and the hurricane Maria in 2017. Because of the changing climate, an increase of hurricanes, flooding, and high river flows, are expected. The need of a national energy policy have been addressed (see e.g. Hoffman, 2015), including policy for manual power cut in the case of power shortage. The Swedish Energy Agency has developed a national policy for handling national power shortage. The policy, called STYREL is part of Swedish Crisis Management System. This paper focus on the Swedish power shortage policy, STYREL in relation to national policies in Germany and the USA. The aim is to compare the three countries policies in the event of power shortage. The focus is on the organization of the planning process, which actors are part of the process, and how the societal important users are identified and ranked. Policy networks, including actors from both public and private sector are of special interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago: , 2018
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35616 (URN)
Conference
Mid-Western Political Science Association 76th annual conference, Chicago, April 5–8, 2018
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, E., Petridou, E., Lundgren, M., Olofsson, A., Große, C. & Röslmaier, M. (2018). Risk Communication: A Comparative Study of Eight EU Countries. MSB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Communication: A Comparative Study of Eight EU Countries
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How do EU member states communicate risks to their citizens? In this study, we define risk communication as the information provided by different levels of government to citizens regarding possible future crises. The questions serving as departure points for this study are as follows: How is the administrative system for risk communication set up in the countries studied? How the different risk communication campaigns are (provided that they exist) embedded in the larger administrative context? How is risk communication strategy formulated in each country and what kind of threats are emphasized? In order to tackle these questions, we examine the risk communication strategy of eight countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany, England, France, Estonia, Greece and Cyprus. Our data consist of governmental web sites, publications, campaigns, as well as other modes of communication, such as videos posted on YouTube, with questions centering on institutional actors, methods of delivery, content, and effectiveness. We acknowledge that risk communication aims at supporting vulnerable populations and evening out imbalances, but at the same time we flesh out the power dimension of risk. In our analysis, we search for reproduction of norms and social inequality in risk communication practices. The results show that some patterns emerge regarding the way different EU countries convey information to the public, but they do not hold strictly to geography or administrative system. Digital media are the foremost vehicle of risk communication and the message generally conveyed is geared towards traditional, middle class households with the main language of the country as their first language. Volunteer organizations are present in all the countries in question, though not at the same degree. The conveyance of “self-protection” guidelines implicitly places the responsibility of protection to the individual. The results also show that in some countries, materiality has become more prevalent than the social dimension of risk in the message the public sector conveys, and that there is a move from focusing on risk to focusing on security.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MSB, 2018. p. 71
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35027 (URN)978-91-7383-868-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4869-5094

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