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Friman, Linda
Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Logenius, L., Friman, L. & Agnemo, R. (2008). The influence of temperature and moisture on the optical properties of cellulose in the presence of metal chlorides and glucuronic acid. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 23(1), 72-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of temperature and moisture on the optical properties of cellulose in the presence of metal chlorides and glucuronic acid
2008 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ ions and glucuronic acid on the dry and humid heat-induced (120180C) discoloration of cotton linter sheets was investigated. The quantity of the added metal ions was similar to that of metal ions found in wood and pulp. Heat-induced ageing (120150C, pH 5) under dry conditions caused only slight discoloration of the reference sheets and of the sheets impregnated with the metal ions. However, during ageing at 180C, the presence of Mg2+ ions accelerated the discoloration. An initial pH in the range of 38 had no great influence on the discoloration of the reference sheets, but a low pH in combination with Mg2+ ions increased the discoloration drastically. Under humid ageing conditions at 180C (<30 min), the sheets discolored approximately twice as much as under dry conditions; the difference in discoloration caused by the metal ions was less than in dry ageing. Adding glucuronic acid to the sheets caused extensive discoloration under dry ageing conditions (120180°C), while Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions decreased the glucuronic acid induced discoloration. Under humid conditions (180°C), however, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions did not prevent the discoloration caused by glucuronic acid. An increase in the absorption coefficient was observed at 285 nm, most likely due to the formation of 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-furaldehyde (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural). GC-MS analysis reveals increased formation of HMF in the sheets impregnated with Mg2+ ions. Degradation of the cellulose in which the alkaline earth metals act as Lewis acids is proposed.

Keywords
Cellulose, Discoloration, Temperature, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, HMF, Furfural
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-982 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2008-23-01-p072-080 (DOI)000255491400012 ()2-s2.0-50949125887 (Scopus ID)5157 (Local ID)5157 (Archive number)5157 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-19 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Logenius, L., Friman, L. & Agnemo, R. (2008). The influence of temperature and moisture on the physical properties of cellulose in the presence of metal chlorides and glucuronic acid. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 23(1), 81-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of temperature and moisture on the physical properties of cellulose in the presence of metal chlorides and glucuronic acid
2008 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the influence of Mg2+, Ca2+, and Fe3+ ions and glucuronic acid on the viscosity, after dry or humid ageing, of two different cellulosic materials, cotton linters and dissolving pulp. The quantity of added metal ions was similar to that found in pulp. In the cotton linters sheets, especially in those containing Mg2+, increased 5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural) concentrations were accompanied by decreased viscosity under dry conditions at 180C (pH 5). This indicates that Mg2+ ions can promote the Lewis-acidcatalyzed degradation of cellulose. For cotton linters and dissolving pulp sheets, adding Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions is detrimental when ageing at 180C under dry conditions (pH 5). Adding glucuronic acid increases the viscosity of cotton linters sheets, especially when Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions are present. Due to formation of complexes between the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and glucuronic acid, these ions reduce pulp viscosity to a smaller degree.

Keywords
Cellulose, High temperature, Metal ions, Glucuronic acid, Viscosity
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4323 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2008-23-01-p081-086 (DOI)000255491400013 ()2-s2.0-50949083981 (Scopus ID)5158 (Local ID)5158 (Archive number)5158 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-19 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Logenius, L., Friman, L. & Agnemo, R. (2005). The influence of high temperature on the ageing of cellulose impregnated with metal chlorides under dry and moist conditions.. In: Proceedings, 13th International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, 16-19 May, Auckland, New Zealand: . Paper presented at 13th International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, 16-19-May, 2005, Auckland, New Zealand (pp. 243-249).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of high temperature on the ageing of cellulose impregnated with metal chlorides under dry and moist conditions.
2005 (English)In: Proceedings, 13th International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, 16-19 May, Auckland, New Zealand, 2005, p. 243-249Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cellulose sheets impregnated with metal chlorides were treated at high temperatures in either a dry or a humid environment. The influence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Fe3+ on the heat-induced discolouration and on the viscosity of cellulose was investigated. Addition of metal ions to cellulose sheets did not significantly influence the colour of the un-aged sheets. At 120 and 150C there are only small increases in the discolouration during heat-ageing. The samples with iron are somewhat more discoloured than the others. After 3,5 hours at 150C Mg2+ also showed an increased discolouration. When the sheets are aged at 180C for short time no large difference between the cellulose reference and the metal impregnated cellulose can be observed. After longer time there is a significant discolouration caused by Ca2+ and Mg2+. Samples with Ca2+ and Mg2+ are 4 and 10 times, respectively, more discoloured than cellulose reference and cellulose impregnated with Fe3+. Under humid conditions at 180C and after 30 minutes Ca2+ and Mg2+ impregnated cellulose are more discoloured than the cellulose reference and the Fe3+ impregnated cellulose. Moisture more than doubles the effect of temperature. pH has no large influence on the discolouration of the cellulose but acid in combination with Mg2+ increases the discolouration 20 times compared to the un-aged reference. The k-values are related to the amount of chromophore formed during ageing. The largest increase in k-values was observed at 285 nm, which was due to the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) from wood hexoses formed during hydrolysis of cellulose. Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused a large decrease in DP and increased formation of HMF, compared to the cellulose reference with subsequent formation of chromophores upon heating.

Keywords
Cellulose, Heat-induced ageing, High temperature, Metal ions, UV/VIS spectroscopy, DP
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-2894 (URN)2548 (Local ID)0-9585548-9-7 (ISBN)2548 (Archive number)2548 (OAI)
Conference
13th International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, 16-19-May, 2005, Auckland, New Zealand
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-06-08 Last updated: 2014-04-24Bibliographically approved
Friman, L., Höglund, H., Högberg, H.-E. & Agnemo, R. (2004). Tannin-iron impregnated thermomechanical pulp: Part I: Effects of extractions and heat on brightness. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 19(2), 229-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tannin-iron impregnated thermomechanical pulp: Part I: Effects of extractions and heat on brightness
2004 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tannins are polyphenolic compounds found mainly in bark. When reacting with iron, they form strongly coloured complexes, which through contamination from the bark may induce a brightness decrease of mechanical pulps. Wood itself contains phenolic compounds, which can form coloured complexes with iron. We have investigated gallotannin as a model for metal-binding sites in the pulp. The behaviour of tannin-iron complexes in solution and in pulp has been studied. In aqueous solution, the tannin-iron complexes can be decolourised by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The colour of the tannin-iron complexes was very pH-dependent. Thus in solution, these were decolourised at low pH and at high pH the spectral characteristics were changed substantially. We have studied the effects on brightness and heatinduced brightness loss of the impregnation of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with 30 parts per million iron (ppm i.e. mg/kg) either as iron or tannin-iron as well as the possibility to decrease such effects by using various solvent extractions. The tannin-iron impregnation causes a decrease in ISO-brightness of approximately 3% and an increase in the light absorption coefficient (k) by approximately 2 m(2)/kg at the tannin-iron absorbance maximum. 565 run. These effects are approximately ten times higher than those observed for the Pulp only impregnated with iron. Extraction with 1% by weight of DTPA provides a way to reduce the brightness decrease induced by the tanniniron complexes and the observed decrease can be attributed to removal of iron from the pulp. Acid extraction was the most efficient way to reduce the iron content in the pulps and to decoulorise the tannin-iron impregnated pulp. However, after acid extraction of iron impregnated Pulps, new chromophores were evidently formed. Addition of the reducing agent, sulphite, to extractions had no effect on the iron removal or the brightness of the impregnated pulps. The heat-induced brightness loss is not influenced by the addition of tannin-iron or iron. The brightness loss caused by heat was lower for pulps extracted with DTPA.

Keywords
Iron Tannin Pulp
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4727 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2004-19-02-p229-236 (DOI)000222092600016 ()907 (Local ID)907 (Archive number)907 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Friman, L., Höglund, H., Högberg, H.-E. & Agnemo, R. (2004). Tannin-iron impregnated thermomechanical pulp: Part II: Bleachability and brightness reversion. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 19(4), 525-531
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tannin-iron impregnated thermomechanical pulp: Part II: Bleachability and brightness reversion
2004 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 525-531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tannins are polymeric, phenolic constituents found in the bark of pine and spruce. When reacting with iron ions, tannins form strongly coloured complexes. Thus, the presence of bark in the mechanical pulping process leads to decreased brightness of the pulp. In order to evaluate the effects of the presence of iron on the properties of pulp, we have impregnated thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with 30 parts per million (ppm i.e. mg/kg) iron either as Fe3+ or as tannin-iron complexes and studied how such treatments affect bleachability and heat-induced brightness reversion. The bleaching agents studied are hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite. Treatment of the tannin-iron impregnated pulp with 1% by weight of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) before bleaching with 4% hydrogen peroxide almost eliminated the brightness loss caused by the impregnation. Such a treatment also removed all of the added iron from both the tannin-iron and FeCl3 impregnated pulps. Approximately 5% more of the added peroxide was required for oxidation of the tannins in the tannin-iron impregnated pulp. Contrary to what was observed with peroxide bleaching, dithionite bleaching did not reduce the amount of iron in the pulps. Instead, the added iron and tannin-iron negatively affected the dithionite bleaching, even if the pulps were extracted with DTPA before bleaching. It should therefore be advantageous to first bleach with peroxide, which removes most of the iron, and then with dithionite. Compared with dithionite, peroxide yields a more efficient bleaching. The reason for this is that the former reduces the light absorption coefficient, the k-value, more efficiently in the whole visible spectrum, whereas dithionite reduces it mainly at shorter wavelengths. In our experiments, the addition of tannin-iron or FeCl3 to the untreated pulp did not increase heat-induced brightness reversion. This is Supported by the fact that although extraction of the samples with DTPA before bleaching lowered the iron content slightly, it-did not affect the brightness reversion. The initial brightness reversion of the dithionite bleached pulps was larger than that observed for the peroxide bleached pulps.

Keywords
Iron, tannin, mechanical pulp, bleachability, yellowing
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4722 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2004-19-04-p525-531 (DOI)000226067800018 ()2197 (Local ID)2197 (Archive number)2197 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Friman, L. (2004). The influence of Iron and Some Other Metals on the Optical Properties of Thermomechanical Pulps. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of Iron and Some Other Metals on the Optical Properties of Thermomechanical Pulps
2004 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2004
Series
TRITA-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2004:3
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9353 (URN)
Presentation
(English)
Available from: 2009-07-10 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2011-04-06Bibliographically approved
Friman, L., Logenius, L., Agnemo, R. & Högberg, H.-E. (2003). Comparison of metal profiles in thermomechanical pulping processes in which either hydrogen peroxide or dithionite bleaching is used. Paperi ja Puu/Paper and timber, 85(6), 334-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of metal profiles in thermomechanical pulping processes in which either hydrogen peroxide or dithionite bleaching is used
2003 (English)In: Paperi ja Puu/Paper and timber, ISSN 0031-1243, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Metals in pulp
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-1597 (URN)2-s2.0-0142228676 (Scopus ID)808 (Local ID)808 (Archive number)808 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved
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