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Eriksson, Maria
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Eriksson, M., Bäckström, I., Ingelsson, P. & Åslund, A. (2018). Measuring customer value in commercial experiences. Total quality management and business excellence (Online), 29(5-6), 618-632
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring customer value in commercial experiences
2018 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 5-6, p. 618-632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Customer value is of importance to all businesses in the search for competitive advantage. To learn about what customers truly appreciate, measuring can be a vital source of information towards an understanding of what creates customer value. Commercial experiences are claimed to be an offering of their own, separate from goods and services. The existing tools and models for measuring customer value do not focus on the elements pointed out as vital for commercial experiences. A case study was performed on customers participating in a high-impact commercial experience to understand what is valuable to the customer. The results were used todevelop an approach to measuring customer value specifically for commercial experiences. In the study, questionnaires were designed to find out about custom erexpectations before the experience compared with customer satisfaction after theexperience in search for important factors of customer value. The study achieved a high score indicating a high level of received customer value, reinforcing the selected measurement variables. The approach proposes the development of a measuring tool consisting of 22 elements along with the WOW-impact specificallyadapted for measuring customer value in commercial experiences. This is one way of expressing the created experiential quality.

Keywords
customer value, hedonic value, commercial experiences, measuring service quality, experiential value, experiential quality
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29376 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2016.1224084 (DOI)000424128600007 ()2-s2.0-85041626825 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M. (2017). Customer value in commercial experiences: Expecting the unexpected. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer value in commercial experiences: Expecting the unexpected
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To an ever greater extent, customers desire experiences that are highly emotional, personally designed and memorable. Today’s customer has an increasing need to be entertained and often searches for pleasurable offerings of hedonic value. Many academics also argue that commercial experiences deliver a higher customer value than goods and services. More research regarding the character of the commercial experience is needed to understand the needs of the customer and what creates value to the customer. However the existing tools and methods for measuring customer value and customer satisfaction seldom contain the elements pointed out as important to customers in a commercial experience. Is it enough to focus on values, methods and tools developed within for instance Total Quality Management (TQM) or is there a need for further development to include the offering of a commercial experience?

 The overall purpose of this thesis has been to explore the field of commercial experiences and establish new knowledge on how customer value is created when delivering commercial experiences. Within the overall purpose the research also intended to contribute to the area of quality development. In order to fulfill the overall purpose three research questions were asked and three case studies and one validation study were conducted. In the first case study, focus was on exploring the commercial experience sector and searching for best practices as regards how to create value to the customer. One organization was studied and empirical data was collected by site visit, direct observation, participant observation, open seminars, follow-up interview questions and documentation. In the second case study the aim was on how organizations were working to create customer value in commercial experiences. Empirical data was collected at eight organizations where top managers were interviewed. In the third study the aim was to develop a method or tool to measure customer value in a commercial experience. A validation study and a case study were conducted. In the validation study a questionnaire was developed as a measuring tool for commercial experiences and later tested on customers in the third and last case study.

 The findings in the three case studies presented in this thesis contribute to expanding earlier research concerning commercial experiences and how customer value is created when delivering them. From the findings of research the commercial experience is defined as “a memorable event that the customer is willing to pay for” and identified as a unique business offering providing hedonic customer value. Further the findings describe the commercial experience by three vital factors: strong engagement, highly emotional and being memorable. To additionally describe the characterizing elements of the commercial experience, the research identified these factors as important to customers: having fun, novelty, surprise, learning, a challenge, co-creation, the unexpected, storytelling, being in control, the venue for the experience (or the room of the experience), personal contact with staff and emotions creating strong engagement. Using the theory of attractive quality by Kano is suggested as one way to recognize elements of high customer value and to identify and deliver the unexpected, novelty and surprise the customers.

 Further findings of the research revealed that existing tools and methods developed for measuring customer value and satisfaction do not sufficiently consider or measure the effect of customer emotions or the characterizing elements of the commercial experience. As a consequence, a questionnaire was developed and tested to identify and measure elements of value to customers in a commercial experience. From the results, a new instrument for measuring variables of value in a commercial experience is proposed. One of the conclusions is that a specific tool for measuring customer value in commercial experiences is both required and needed. It was also concluded that there is a shortage of well-known and applied methods for measuring customer value in commercial experiences and that further research of this area is needed.

 The research presented in this thesis also proves that successful organizations delivering commercial experiences have a strong organizational culture built on core values. The conclusion was that working according to the core values of TQM is also a successful approach for these organizations, even though this does not seem to be enough. The characterizing element “co-creating” the experience between the customer and the provider was identified as a vital factor of business success. Giving the customer the power to affect the outcome within certain limitations and an opportunity to enhance the customer value meant that the experience becomes more personal and delivers a higher customer value than other offerings. Further identified ways of working to enhance customer value in the offering were: to recruit and select co-workers not only on competence and skills but also based on the core values; to stimulate creative thinking among co-workers and to further enhance the offering with storytelling and theming. These ways of working were categorized as specific and more unique or necessary in the experience industry and can therefore be vital in the competition between different organizations to deliver superior customer value.

Abstract [sv]

I en allt större utsträckning letar kunder efter att konsumera upplevelser som berör på ett emotionellt plan, är personligt utformade och minnesvärda. Dagens kunder har ett växande behov av att underhållas och letar allt oftare efter erbjudanden enbart för nöjes skull. Flera forskare är överens om att kommersiella upplevelser handlar om att leverera ett högre kundvärde än för varor och tjänster. Det behövs mer forskning kring vad en kommersiell upplevelse innehåller för viktiga egenskaper som skapar värde för kunden samt att öka förståelsen kring kundens behov. De befintliga metoder och verktyg för att mäta kundvärde och kundnöjdhet innehåller få av de egenskaper som utpekas som vitala för en kommersiell upplevelse. Räcker det att arbeta med de värderingar, metoder och verktyg som utvecklats inom till exempel offensiv kvalitetsutveckling (TQM) eller behövs det ytterligare utveckling för att även inkludera den kommersiella upplevelsen?

 Det övergripande syftet med den här avhandlingen har varit att utforska området av kommersiella upplevelser och öka kunskapen kring hur kundvärde skapas när en kommersiell upplevelse levereras. Inom ramen för det övergripande syftet fanns även ett fokus att forskningen skulle bidra till ämnesområdet kvalitetsutveckling. För att uppfylla det övergripande syftet har tre forskningsfrågor ställts och tre fallstudier och en valideringsstudie genomförts. I den första fallstudien var syftet att utforska området av kommersiella upplevelser, inhämta kunskap och leta efter goda exempel för att skapa förståelse för hur kundvärde skapas inom kommersiella upplevelser. En utvald organisation studerades och besöktes. Empirisk data insamlades genom flera olika datakällor såsom direkt observation, deltagande observation, insamling av dokument, öppna seminarier och uppföljande intervjufrågor. I den andra fallstudien var syftet att studera hur organisationer arbetar med att skapa kundvärde i en kommersiell upplevelse. Den empiriska datainsamlingen insamlades via intervjuer med högsta ledningen i åtta olika organisationer. I den tredje och sista studien var syftet att utveckla ett sätt att mäta kundvärdet i en kommersiell upplevelse. Studien delades in i två delar, en valideringsstudie för att utveckla ett sätt att mäta och en fallstudie där mätverktyget testades bland kunder i en kommersiell upplevelse.

Resultatet av de tre fallstudierna som presenteras i avhandlingen bidrar till en vidareutveckling av tidigare forskning om kommersiella upplevelser och hur kundvärde skapas när en kommersiell upplevelse levereras. Som ett resultat av forskningen definieras en kommersiell upplevelse som “en minnesvärd händelse som kunden är beredd att betala för” och identifieras som ett unikt erbjudande som innehåller ett hedoniskt kundvärde. Vidare visar forskningsresultaten på att den kommersiella upplevelsen utgörs av tre viktiga faktorer för kunden såsom att vara djupt engagerande, starkt känslomässigt berörande och minnesvärd. För att ytterligare beskriva upplevelsens karaktärsdrag har ett flertal egenskaper identifierats som ett resultat av fallstudie tre. En användning av Kanos teorier om attraktiv kvalitet föreslås som ett sätt att fortsätta arbetet med att identifiera egenskaper som dels kan skapa ett högre kundvärde men också för att kunna överraska, leverera något nytt och ge kunden det oväntade som ofta efterfrågas.

Forskningsresultaten påvisar en brist bland befintliga mätverktyg och metoder för kundvärde och kundnöjdhet att mäta effekten av ett känslomässigt värde och de övriga egenskaper som utpekas viktiga för kommersiella upplevelser. Som en följd av det utvecklas en enkät för att identifiera och mäta viktiga egenskaper av värde för kunden i en kommersiell upplevelse. Från resultaten föreslås ett nytt mätinstrument för att mäta värdefulla egenskaper i en kommersiell upplevelse. En av slutsatserna är att mätverktyg specifikt utvecklade för att mäta kundvärdet i kommersiella upplevelser behövs. Erkända och tillämpade metoder för att mäta kundvärdet i en kommersiell upplevelse identifieras som en brist och mer forskning behövs inom området.

Forskningen i avhandlingen visar att framgångsrika organisationer som levererar kommersiella upplevelser har en stark organisationskultur som bygger på värderingar. En av slutsatserna var att arbeta enligt kärnvärderingarna inom offensiv kvalitetsutveckling är en framgångsrik metod, även för organisationer som erbjuder kommersiella upplevelser. Men det verkar inte vara tillräckligt. En annan viktig framgångsfaktor som identifieras är att samskapa (co-create) upplevelsen mellan kund och leverantör. Det ger kunden möjligheten att påverka resultatet av upplevelsen inom vissa begränsningar och därmed en chans att förstärka kundvärdet, bli mer personlig och leverera ett högre kundvärde än andra erbjudanden. Vidare identifierade arbetssätt för att öka kundvärdet i erbjudandet var: rekrytera och välj medarbetare baserat på kompetens, färdigheter och värderingar; stimulera kreativt tänkande bland medarbetare; samt förstärk erbjudandet genom användningen av storytelling och tematisering. Dessa arbetssätt kategoriseras som specifika och mer unika eller nödvändiga inom upplevelseindustrin och kan vara avgörande i konkurrensen mellan olika organisationer för att leverera ett högre kundvärde.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 102
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 262
Keywords
Commercial Experience, Customer Value, Hedonic Value, Quality, Experiential quality, TQM, Kano model, Attractive Quality, Co-creation, Storytelling, Strong Engagement, Kommersiell upplevelse, Kundvärde, Njutnings-/upplevelseinriktat värde, Kvalitet, Upplevelsekvalitet, TQM, Kano-modellen, Attraktiv kvalitet, Samskapa, Storytelling och Starkt engagemang
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30593 (URN)978-91-88025-60-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-12, Q221, Akademigatan 1, Hus Q, Östersund, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M. & Ingelsson, P. (2016). Building an organizational culture when delivering commercial experiences – the leaders’ perspective. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 8(2), 229-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building an organizational culture when delivering commercial experiences – the leaders’ perspective
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify, present and analyze the strengths and weaknesses mentioned by leaders when describing how their organization works with creating customer value in commercial experiences. Furthermore, the overall research purpose is to explore the creation of customer value in commercial experiences.

Design/methodology/approach – An interview study with eight managers focused on how their organization creates customer value when offering commercial experiences. Results were analyzed with regard to creating customer value, customer involvement and development of new experiences.

Findings – A literature study confirms an increasing interest in commercial experiences both financially and because of customer demand. The conducted interview study found several areas of improvement where the greatest potential was in the building of a strong organizational culture based on values to ensure co-creation of customer value between the organization and the customer. Also found to be important were working with customer involvement when co-producing the experience,discovering customer expectations and measuring the results of the delivered customer value.

Originality/value – When it comes to commercial experiences, one of the keys to creating customer value is the element of surprise and delivering the unexpected. This advocates studying the theory of attractive quality, discovering the unspoken needs of the customer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Organizational culture, Kano model, Customer value, Attractive quality, Co-create, Commercial experience
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29375 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-04-2015-0040 (DOI)000413090200007 ()2-s2.0-85010702841 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Ingelsson, P., Eriksson, M. & Lilja, J. (2012). Can selecting the right values help TQM implementation?: A case study about organisational homogeneity at the Walt Disney Company. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 23(1), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can selecting the right values help TQM implementation?: A case study about organisational homogeneity at the Walt Disney Company
2012 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Total Quality Management, TQM, is often referred to as a value based management philosophy, built on a set of core values. These TQM values should ideally be conformed to by all employees in order to achieve a thriving organisation. A strong organisational culture with shared core values can therefore be identified as of importance for a successful TQM implementation. This paper discusses how organisations need to act in order to achieve shared values among co-workers. In the theory two strategies appear: to select people who appear to possess the desired values in the first place and to socialize employees once hired. When working with TQM, several examples of socialization can be found in described techniques and tools, however the selection strategy seems to be both unapplied and underestimated. In order to find empirical examples a case study was conducted at an organisation which is renowned for the way in which they work with values. A conclusion of this paper is that, as a complement to the use of socialization, a selection strategy is proposed in order to achieve shared values in order to facilitate TQM implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2012
Keywords
Values, Total Quality Management; Socialization; Selection; Organizational Culture; Recruitment; Disney, Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8773 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2011.637801 (DOI)000302474300001 ()2-s2.0-84859887794 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Lilja, J., Eriksson, M. & Ingelsson, P. (2010). Commercial experiences from a customer perspective elaborated, defined and distinguished. The TQM Journal, 22(3), 285-292
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commercial experiences from a customer perspective elaborated, defined and distinguished
2010 (English)In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 285-292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - A new type of business offering is currently gaining much attention, a type which in some aspects appears to be distinct from goods and services. These offerings are usually denoted as commercial experiences and are claimed to provide higher customer value than other types of offerings as they, for example, engage customers in an inherently memorable way. The understanding of what constitutes commercial experiences is however still scant. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look at the commercial experience concept from a customer perspective. The paper aims specifically at elaborating and defining commercial experiences as well as distinguishing them from goods and services. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on literature studies. Findings - The authors identify memorable as the fundamental distinctive characteristic for commercial experiences. Memorable events are then shown to be strongly emotional events. Finally the two-factor structure of affect is used to show that the factor "strong engagement" is a critical driver of commercial experiences. As a result of the elaboration the authors also propose a new definition of commercial experiences and distinguish commercial experiences from goods and services in three ways. Originality/value - The paper increases the currently scant understanding of commercial experiences.

Keywords
Business enterprise; Corporate strategy; Customer orientation; Innovation; Value chain
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11700 (URN)10.1108/17542731011035523 (DOI)2-s2.0-77951872260 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Lilja, J. & Eriksson, M. (2010). From problem to Attraction Detection Study (ADS): towards a new methodology for quality practice. In: Electronic Proceedings. Paper presented at QMOD. Cottbus, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From problem to Attraction Detection Study (ADS): towards a new methodology for quality practice
2010 (English)In: Electronic Proceedings, Cottbus, Germany, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cottbus, Germany: , 2010
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12060 (URN)
Conference
QMOD
Available from: 2010-10-03 Created: 2010-10-03 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M. & Wiklund, H. (2010). Towards Attractive Experiences. In: 13th QMOD conference in Cottbus, Germany, 2010, 30/8-1/9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Attractive Experiences
2010 (English)In: 13th QMOD conference in Cottbus, Germany, 2010, 30/8-1/9, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PurposeThe main purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of commercial experiences, helping providers to satisfy their customers’ needs and expectations.

ApproachTheories describing the concept of Commercial Experiences are analyzed through a quality perspective. The analysis was made through the Kano Model (Kano et. al. 1984), to build more knowledge about the customer’s need and expectations.

FindingsThe authors identify that focus on providing attributes of attractive quality can be a fundamental condition when providing commercial experiences. The paper raises the question for further discussion and future research to build more knowledge about the proposal that a commercial experience needs to contain attributes of attractive quality to actually fulfill the elements of a satisfying experience to the customer.

ValueThis paper increases the understanding of providing commercial experiences and points out the need to work with attributes of attractive quality.

Keywords
Experience Economy, Commercial Experience, Attractive Quality, Kano model, Customer Expectation, Customer Satisfaction
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12334 (URN)
Projects
Sportstech 1
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-11-30 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M. (2009). Creating customer value in commercial experiences. (Licentiate dissertation). Sundsvall: Kopieringen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating customer value in commercial experiences
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a type of business offering gaining much attention, both in the media and in financial figures, which provides the customer with something extra, something to be remembered. This offering is a commercial experience. It is claimed that commercial experiences are different from traditional industry and mass-production and even separated from goods and services. The possibility of creating something extraordinary in order to gain profit is of increasing interest in today’s business world. Consumers are seeking for experiences to reach a higher level of personal growth, an experience that create personal identity and lead to long-lasting memories. This is something an increasing amount of consumers are willing to pay money for - the commercial experience market.

The purpose of this thesis is to contribute knowledge about and a deeper understanding of commercial experiences, both in general and especially with regard to how customer value is created. The focus of the research was also to strengthen and support organizations that offer commercial experiences. In order to fulfill the purpose, two case studies were conducted with different focal points. The first aimed to find best practice and explore excellent ways of working when providing commercial experiences. The second study aimed to identify the needs for improvement to strengthen organizations offering commercial experiences.

According to my findings, there seems to be several distinctions between commercial experiences and goods and services. These include; the level of price, the time spent by the customer, the customer affect as strongly emotional and maybe most importantly, the finding that commercial experiences create a higher level of customer value than goods and services. All this proves that the commercial experience is to be considered an offering on its own, a refined customer offer of higher value. Since commercial experiences are said to engage customers in an inherently memorable way, reaching a higher level of customer value than goods and services, is seen as a critical factor. Understanding what the customer really wants, needs and what builds customer value when offering commercial experiences then become particularly important as drivers of success. When studying a particular organization for best practice, several similarities between providing commercial experiences and working according to the core values of TQM were found and established as a factor of business excellence. Further when it comes to providing commercial experiences storytelling, theming and a creative environment stood out as additional factors of business excellence. Moreover, selecting the right co-workers based on their values rather than merely their skills and academic qualifications was seen as an important factor of success. The co-worker is often the co-creator of the experience together with the customer and therefore has an important part to play in the organization. Creating a corporate culture with co-workers sharing the values is seen as essential in order to run a successful business. It appears that any type of organization can provide an experience for the customer, the key is adding on the extra value to reach the level of attractive quality. The commercial experience is described as deeply affecting both the feelings and senses of the customer, resulting in new memories; it is a memorable event the customer is willing to pay for. The commercial experience contains elements of engagement, personal relevance, novelty, surprise and learning and is not limited to certain types of businesses. The fact that this is an area of increasing business interest but as yet a poorly explored one indicates that there is a need to develop improved ways of working, tools and methods, tailor-made for providing commercial experiences. Improved tools for identifying customer expectations and measuring customer satisfaction are clearly needed, especially since this is a growing industry that cannot be ignored. Welcome to further explore the experience economy where new memories are so highly valued that people are prepared to pay for them!

Abstract [sv]

Det är en ny industri på växande frammarsch som får allt större uppmärksamhet i massmedia både utifrån erbjudandet och genom allt mer betydande ekonomiska resultat. En industri som erbjuder kunden något extra, någonting att minnas, en kommersiell upplevelse. Det finns de som hävdar att den kommersiella upplevelsen skiljer sig från traditionell industri med massproduktion och att den till och med är skild från varor och tjänster. Att kunna erbjuda sina kunder någonting extraordinärt för att nå en ökad vinstmarginal är av allt större intresse bland företag idag. Allt fler kunder letar efter en upplevelse som tar dig till en högre nivå av personlig utveckling, en upplevelse som skapar en personlig identitet och leder till minnen för livet. Detta fenomen är något som allt fler människor är villiga att betala pengar för, en kommersiell upplevelsemarknad.

Det övergripande syftet med licentiatuppsatsen är att bidra med kunskap och skapa en djupare förståelse för kommersiella upplevelser, både på ett generellt plan men även med avseende på hur kundvärde skapas. Ett ytterligare fokus för forskningen är att stärka de organisationer som erbjuder sina kunder en upplevelse. För att uppnå syftet har två fallstudier med olika fokus genomförts. Den första fallstudien innebar att leta efter ett föredöme och belysa goda exempel på arbetssätt som kan användas för att skapa en kommersiell upplevelse. Den andra studien syftade till att identifiera behov för att utveckla och stärka de organisationer som erbjuder sina kunder en kommersiell upplevelse.

Utifrån mina observationer i fallstudie 1 så verkar det finnas flera saker som skiljer en kommersiell upplevelse från varor och tjänster, som t.ex. prisnivå, kundens spenderade tid, kundens emotionella beröring och kanske mest betydande att den kommersiella upplevelsen når en högre nivå av skapat kundvärde än vad varor och tjänster gör. Allt detta bidrar till att klassificera kommersiella upplevelser som ett eget fenomen, ett erbjudande med ett förädlat kundvärde. Eftersom kommersiella upplevelser påstås beröra kunder på ett minnesvärt sätt, uppnås också en högre nivå av skapat kundvärde än för varor och tjänster. Detta är en kritisk faktor för den kommersiella upplevelsen. Att förstå kundens behov, och vad det är som skapar kundvärde, blir därmed av extra vikt för att lyckas för de organisationer som erbjuder en kommersiell upplevelse.

Vid studien av en framgångsrik organisation hittades flera likheter i de arbetssätt som användes för att på ett framgångsrikt sätt skapa en upplevelse med de värderingar som beskrivs inom TQM. Ytterligare arbetssätt som utpekas som framgångsfaktorer är storytelling, tematisering och att skapa kreativa arbetsmiljöer. Utöver arbetssätten belystes också vikten av att bygga en organisationskultur baserad på värderingar som fokuserar på att skapa kundvärde. Att rekrytera sin personal baserat i huvudsak på värderingar i stället för enbart på kompetens anses vara ytterligare en framgångsfaktor, detta eftersom medarbetaren ofta skapar upplevelsen i ett möte tillsammans med kunden. Att skapa en organisationskultur som bygger på gemensamma värderingar är viktigt för att nå framgång inom upplevelseindustrin. Det är inte begränsat till en specifik typ av organisation att erbjuda kommersiella upplevelser, det är i stället vikten av att lägga till det extra kundvärdet för att uppnå attraktiv kvalitet som är essentiellt för framgång.

Den kommersiella upplevelsen beskrivs som något djupt berör kundens känslor och dess sinnen med ett resultat i nya värdefulla minnesbilder. Det är ett minnesvärt ögonblick som kunden är beredd att betala för. De ingredienser som används för att beskriva en kommersiell upplevelse är engagemang, personlig betydelse, nyhetsvärde, överraskning och lärande. Egenskaperna är inte begränsade till att enbart gälla för en viss typ av organisation eller bransch. Det faktum att intresset för att erbjuda kommersiella upplevelser är växande, och att området är relativt outforskat indikerar att det finns flera behov av utveckling, framförallt i att hitta bra arbetssätt och metoder för att identifiera kundens förväntningar och mäta kundnöjdhet. Varmt välkommen att här vidareutforska upplevelseindustrin, där nya minnen värderas så högt att människor är beredda att betala för dem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Kopieringen, 2009. p. 65
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 39
Keywords
Commercial Experience, Customer Value, Customer Expectations, Customer Satisfaction, Total Quality Management, TQM, Kommersiella upplevelser, Kundvärde, Kundförväntningar, Kundnöjdhet, Offensiv kvalitetsutveckling, TQM
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10599 (URN)978-91-86073-51-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-11-18, Q171, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-12-09 Created: 2009-12-09 Last updated: 2009-12-09Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M., Ingelsson, P. & Lilja, J. (2007). Achieving shared values: Learning from Disney. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving shared values: Learning from Disney
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The need to achieve a strong corporate culture is one of the key questions within Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is generally considered to be based on a number of core values; such as customer focus, decisions based on facts, process orientation, continuous improvement, everybody’s commitment and leadership, (Hellsten & Klefsjö, 2000). The core values should ideally be conformed to by all employees within a TQM organization, (ibid). Achieving these core values seems to be rewarding. Many companies that have succeeded in adapting their core values have received quality awards, e.g. Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award and EFQM Excellence Model. These quality awards are based on values that are widely considered to be the building blocks of effective TQM implementation (Hendricks & Singhal, 1999). There are a lot of descriptions in literature about the importance of working with the ideas of TQM such as putting focus on the customer, establishing processes and also about educating the employees in using tools of improvement, but very little focus on discussing how shared values really are achieved.   A common set of values within an organization is often referred to as the company or corporate culture. A strong culture implies that there is uniformity among the employees regarding, for example values (Pinder 1998). In our literature studies we came across two interesting strategies that combined together provide a tactic for working with shared values to attain a strong corporate culture. According to Chatman (1989) the best way is an integration of the strategies of selection and socialization. That implies both considering values at the selection when the organization chooses its members, by recruiting an individual with the right values and later on by maintaining or reinforcing values by socialization which can be done by training, orientation and other methods. As regards working with achieving TQM values we mostly encountered the use of socialization and feel that there is a need for broader thinking by putting greater emphasis on the selection process when recruiting new members into the organization.   The purpose of this paper is to raise the discussion about how to achieve homogeneity of values, such as TQM values in order to be a successful organization. The presented theories are accompanied by an observation from the renowned Walt Disney World in Florida, providing an example of how they are working with the selection strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007. p. -
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3740
Keywords
Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, Values, Total Quality Management, Socialization and Selection, Organizational Culture, Recruitment, Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-6059 (URN)5080 (Local ID)5080 (Archive number)5080 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
Lilja, J., Eriksson, M. & Ingelsson, P. (2007). Commercial experiences from a customer perspective: Elaborated, defined and distinguished. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Quality Management for Organisational and Regional Development, Lund 18-20/6 2007. Lund: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commercial experiences from a customer perspective: Elaborated, defined and distinguished
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Quality Management for Organisational and Regional Development, Lund 18-20/6 2007, Lund: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007, , p. -Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A new type of business offering is currently gaining much attention, a type which in some aspects appears to be distinct from goods and services. These offerings are usually denoted as commercial experiences and are claimed to provide higher customer value than other types of offerings as they, for example, engage customers in an inherently memorable way. The understanding of what constitutes commercial experiences is however still scant. The purpose of this paper is accordingly to take a closer look at the commercial experience concept from a customer perspective. The paper aims specifically at elaborating and defining commercial experiences as well as distinguishing them from goods and services. Approach The paper is based on literature studies. Findings The authors identify memorable as the fundamental distinctive characteristic for commercial experiences. Memorable events are then shown to be strongly emotional events. Finally the two-factor structure of affect is used to show that the factor �strong engagement� is a critical driver of commercial experiences. As a result of the elaboration the authors also propose a new definition of commercial experiences and distinguish commercial experiences from goods and services in three ways. Originality/Value The paper increases the currently scant understanding of commercial experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007. p. -
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3740
Keywords
Experience economy, customer focus, commercial experience, Quality Technology and Management, TQM, Quality control, Kvalitetsteknik, Kvalitet
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-5389 (URN)5099 (Local ID)5099 (Archive number)5099 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-14 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
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