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Karlsson, Linda S.
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Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Sjöström, M., Härdling, P., Karlsson, L. S. & Olsson, R. (2011). Improved Depth-Image-Based Rendering Algorithm. In: 3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 5th 3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011;Antalya;16 May 2011through18 May 2011;Category numberCFP1155B-ART;Code85489 (pp. Art. no. 5877183). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Depth-Image-Based Rendering Algorithm
2011 (English)In: 3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. Art. no. 5877183-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present work analyses a layered depth-image-based-rendering algorithm based on possible errors occurring with perspective 3D warping. The outcome is improvements to the algorithm that treats depth reliably for scenes containing several levels of foreground objects. The filling of holes of different kinds is addressed so that results have better visual quality. The analysis compares the results of the algorithm with a reference algorithm for the potential error types, and visual examples exhibit the consequences of the improvements. Different objective metrics give ambiguous results, which may be explained by the reduction of structure caused by the reference algorithm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keywords
2DD, 3D, DIBR, Multiview plus Depth, SLERP, warp
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13408 (URN)10.1109/3DTV.2011.5877183 (DOI)000298189300030 ()2-s2.0-79960135484 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-61284-161-8 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
5th 3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011;Antalya;16 May 2011through18 May 2011;Category numberCFP1155B-ART;Code85489
Projects
3D-videoDigital 3D-reklamRealistisk 3D i medicinska och mediala tillämpningar
Note

5th 3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011; Antalya; 16 May 2011 through 18 May 2011; Category number CFP1155B-ART; Code 85489

Available from: 2011-07-20 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. S. & Sjöström, M. (2011). Layer assignment based on depth data distribution for multiview-plus-depth scalable video coding. IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print), 21(6), 742-754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Layer assignment based on depth data distribution for multiview-plus-depth scalable video coding
2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print), ISSN 1051-8215, E-ISSN 1558-2205, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 742-754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three dimensional (3D) video is experiencing a rapid growth in a number of areas including 3D cinema, 3DTV and mobile phones. Several problems must to be addressed to display captured 3D video at another location. One problem is how torepresent the data. The multiview plus depth representation of a scene requires a lower bit rate than transmitting all views required by an application and provides more information than a 2D-plus-depth sequence. Another problem is how to handle transmission in a heterogeneous network. Scalable video coding enables adaption of a 3D video sequence to the conditions at the receiver. In this paper we present a scheme that combines scalability based on the position in depth of the data and the distance to the center view. The general scheme preserves the center view data, whereas the data of the remaining views are extracted in enhancement layers depending on distance to the viewer and the center camera. The data is assigned into enhancement layers within a view based on depth data distribution. Strategies concerning the layer assignment between adjacent views are proposed. In general each extracted enhancement layer increases the visual quality and PSNR compared to only using center view data. The bit-rate per layer can be further decreased if depth data is distributed over the enhancement layers. The choice of strategy to assign layers between adjacent views depends on whether quality of the fore-most objects in the scene or the quality of the views close to the center is important.

Keywords
H.264/AVC; multiview; scalable video coding
National Category
Computer Engineering Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11435 (URN)10.1109/TCSVT.2011.2130350 (DOI)000291356500005 ()2-s2.0-79957982475 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Projects
Medi3DDigital 3D-reklam
Available from: 2010-04-21 Created: 2010-04-21 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. S. (2010). Coding for Improved Perceived Quality of 2D and 3D Video over Heterogeneous Networks. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coding for Improved Perceived Quality of 2D and 3D Video over Heterogeneous Networks
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of video applications for TV, the internet and mobile phones is being taken one step further in 2010 with the introduction of stereo 3D TV. The 3D experience can be further improved using multiple views in the visualization. The transmission of 2D and 3D video at a sufficiently perceived quality is a challenge considering the diversity in content, the resources of the network and the end-users.Two problems are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, how to improve the perceived quality for an application with a limited bit rate. Secondly, how to ensure the best perceived quality for all end-users in a heterogeneous network.

A solution to the first problem is region-of-interest (ROI) video coding, which adapts the coding to provide a better quality in regions of interest to the viewer. A spatio-temporal filter is proposed to provide codec and standard independent ROI video coding. The filter reduces the number of bits necessary to encode the background and successfully re-allocate these bits to the ROI. The temporal part of the filter reduces the complexity compared to only using a spatial filter. Adaption to the requirements of the transmission channel is possible by controlling the standard deviation of the filter. The filter has also been successfully applied to 3D video in the form of 2D-plus-depth, where the depth data was used in the detection of the ROI.

The second problem can be solved by providing a video sequence that has the best overall quality. Hence, the best quality for each part of the network and for each 2D and 3D visualization system over time. Scalable video coding enables the extraction of the parts of the data to adapt to the requirements of the network and the end-user. A scheme is proposed in this thesis that provides scalability in the depth and view domain of multi-view plus depth video. The data are divided into enhancement layers depending on the content’s distance to the camera. Schemes to divide the data into layers within a view and between adjacent views have been analyzed. The quality evaluation indicates that the position of the layers in depth as well as the number of layers should be determined by analyzing the depth distribution. The front-most layers in adjacent views should be given priority over the others unless the application requires a high quality of the center views.

Abstract [sv]

Den snabba utvecklingen av videoapplikation för TV, Internet och mobiltelefoner tar ytterliggare ett steg i och med introduceringen av stereo 3D TV under 2010. Upplevelsen av 3D kan förstärkas ytterliggare genom att använda multipla vyer i visualiseringen. Skillnaden i innehåll, nätverksresurser och slutanvändare gör överföring av 2D och 3D video med en tillräcklig hög upplevd kvalitet till en utmaning. För det första, hur man ökar den upplevda kvalitén hos en applikation med en begränsad överföringshastighet. För det andra, hur man tillhandahåller den bästa upplevda kvalitén hos alla slutanvändare i ett heterogent nätverk.

Region-of-interest (ROI) videokodning är en lösning till det första problemet, vilken anpassar kodningen för att ge högre kvalitet i regioner som är intressanta för användaren. Ett spatio-temporalt filter är föreslaget för att tillhandahålla codec- och standardoberoende ROI videokodning. Filtret reducerar antalet bitar som krävs för att koda bakgrunden och omfördelar dessa till ROI:t. Den temporala delen av filtret minskar komplexiteten jämfört med att använda enbart spatiala filter. Filtret kan anpassas till överföringshastigheten genom att ändra standardavvikelsen för filtret. Filtret har också˙ använts på˙ 3D video i formen 2D-plus-depth, där djupdata användes i ROI detektionen.

Det andra problemet kan lösas genom att tillhandahålla en videosekvens som har högsta möjliga kvalitet i hela nätverket. Därmed även den bästa kvaliteten för for varje del av nätverket och för varje 2D- och 3D-skärm. Skalbar videokodning gör det möjligt att extrahera delar av datan för anpassning till de rådande förutsättningarna. En metod som ger skalbarhet i djupet och mellan kameravyer hos multi-view plus depth video har föreslagits. Videosekvensen delas upp i lager beroende på innehållets avstånd till kameran. Metoder för att fördela data över lager i djupet och mellan närliggande vyer har analyserats. Kvalitetsutvärderingen visar att lagrens position i djupet och antalet lager bör bestämmas utifrån fördelningen av djupdata. De främsta lagren i närliggande vyer bör ges högre prioritet om inte applikationen kräver hög kvalitet hos vyer i centrum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2010. p. 87
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 87
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11461 (URN)978-91-86073-78-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-27, O111, O-Huset, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Medi3D3D-reklamMediaSense
Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, M. & Karlsson, L. (2010). Performance of scalable coding in depth domain. In: Andrew J. Woods, Nicolas S. Holliman, Neil A. Dodgson (Ed.), Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol 7524 : Conference on Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXI, San Jose, CA, JAN 18-20, 2010. (Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging): (pp. 75240A). SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of scalable coding in depth domain
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol 7524 : Conference on Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXI, San Jose, CA, JAN 18-20, 2010. (Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging) / [ed] Andrew J. Woods, Nicolas S. Holliman, Neil A. Dodgson, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, p. 75240A-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Common autostereoscopic 3D displays are based on multi-view projection. The diversity of resolutions and number of views of such displays implies a necessary flexibility of 3D content formats in order to make broadcasting efficient. Furthermore, distribution of content over a heterogeneous network should adapt to an available network capacity. Present scalable video coding provides the ability to adapt to network conditions; it allows for quality, temporal and spatial scaling of 2D video. Scalability for 3D data extends this list to the depth and the view domains. We have introduced scalability with respect to depth information. It allows for an increased number of quality steps; the cost is a slight increase of required capacity for the whole sequence. Our proposed scheme is based on the multi-view-plus-depth format where the center view data are preserved, and side views are extracted in layers depending on depth values. We investigate the performance of various layer assignment strategies: number of layers, and distribution of layers in depth, either based on equal number of pixels or histogram characteristics. We further consider the consequences to variable distortion due to encoder parameters. The results are evaluated considering their bit rate verses distortion as well as visual quality appearance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010
Series
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X
Keywords
3D video; Compression; Depth values; Multi-view; Scalable coding
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9997 (URN)10.1117/12.838999 (DOI)000284868500009 ()2-s2.0-77949587834 (Scopus ID)978-081947917-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Medi3DDigital 3D-reklam
Available from: 2010-03-17 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. & Sjöström, M. (2009). Multiview plus depth scalable coding in the depth domain. In: 3DTV-CON 2009 - 3rd 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, Proceedings. Paper presented at 3rd 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2009; Potsdam; 4 May 2009 through 6 May 2009 (pp. 5069631). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiview plus depth scalable coding in the depth domain
2009 (English)In: 3DTV-CON 2009 - 3rd 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 5069631-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Three dimensional (3D) TV is a growing area that provides an extra dimension at the cost of spatial resolution. The multi-view plus depth representation provides a lower bit rate when it is encoded than multi-view and higher resolution than a 2D-plus-depth sequence. Scalable video coding provides adaption to the conditions at the receiver. In this paper we propose a scheme that combines scalability in both the view and depth domain. The center view data is preserved, whereas the data of the side views are extracted in layers depending on distance to the camera. This allows a decrease in bit rate of 16-39 % for the colour part of a 3-view MV depending number of pixels in the first enhancement layer if one layer is extracted. Each additional layer increases the visual quality and PSNR compared only using center view data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
Keywords
Scalability, 3D video, multiview plus depth
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-8962 (URN)10.1109/3DTV.2009.5069631 (DOI)000270053600019 ()2-s2.0-70349916088 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4318-5 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2009; Potsdam; 4 May 2009 through 6 May 2009
Projects
3D ReklamMediaSense
Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2009-05-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. & Sjöström, M. (2008). Region-of-interest 3D video coding based on depth images. In: 2008 3DTV Conference - True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video: . Paper presented at 3DTV Conference - True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, May 28-30, 2008, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 121-124). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Region-of-interest 3D video coding based on depth images
2008 (English)In: 2008 3DTV Conference - True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 121-124Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Three dimensional (3D) TV is becoming a mature technology due to the progress within areas such as display and network technology among others. However, 3D video demands a higher bandwidth in order to transmit the information needed to render or directly display several different views at the receiver. The 2D plus depth representation requires less bit rate than most 3D video representations, although the necessary views have to be rendered at the receiver. In this paper we propose to combine the 2D plus depth representation with region-of-interest (ROI) video coding to ensure a higher quality at parts of the sequence that are of interest to the viewer. These include objects close to the viewer as well as faces. This allows either the bit rate to be reduced by 12-28 % or the quality within the ROI to be increased by 0.57 - 1.5 dB, when a fixed bit rate is applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2008
Keywords
Region-of-interest, ROI, 3D video, 2D plus depth
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4249 (URN)10.1109/3DTV.2008.4547828 (DOI)000258372100031 ()2-s2.0-50949115457 (Scopus ID)5478 (Local ID)978-1-4244-1760-5 (ISBN)5478 (Archive number)5478 (OAI)
Conference
3DTV Conference - True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, May 28-30, 2008, Istanbul, Turkey
Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. S. (2007). Spatio-Temporal Pre-Processing Methods for Region-of-Interest Video Coding. (Licentiate dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-Temporal Pre-Processing Methods for Region-of-Interest Video Coding
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In video transmission at low bit rates the challenge is to compress the video with a minimal reduction of the percieved quality. The compression can be adapted to knowledge of which regions in the video sequence are of most interest to the viewer. Region of interest (ROI) video coding uses this information to control the allocation of bits to the background and the ROI. The aim is to increase the quality in the ROI at the expense of the quality in the background. In order for this to occur the typical content of an ROI for a particular application is firstly determined and the actual detection is performed based on this information. The allocation of bits can then be controlled based on the result of the detection.

In this licenciate thesis existing methods to control bit allocation in ROI video coding are investigated. In particular pre-processing methods that are applied independently of the codec or standard. This makes it possible to apply the method directly to the video sequence without modifications to the codec. Three filters are proposed in this thesis based on previous approaches. The spatial filter that only modifies the background within a single frame and the temporal filter that uses information from the previous frame. These two filters are also combined into a spatio-temporal filter. The abilities of these filters to reduce the number of bits necessary to encode the background and to successfully re-allocate these to the ROI are investigated. In addition the computational compexities of the algorithms are analysed.

The theoretical analysis is verified by quantitative tests. These include measuring the quality using both the PSNR of the ROI and the border of the background, as well as subjective tests with human test subjects and an analysis of motion vector statistics.

The qualitative analysis shows that the spatio-temporal filter has a better coding efficiency than the other filters and it successfully re-allocates the bits from the foreground to the background. The spatio-temporal filter gives an improvement in average PSNR in the ROI of more than 1.32 dB or a reduction in bitrate of 31 % compared to the encoding of the original sequence. This result is similar to or slightly better than the spatial filter. However, the spatio-temporal filter has a better performance, since its computational complexity is lower than that of the spatial filter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ, 2007. p. 112
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 21
Keywords
Region-of-interest, video coding, pre-processing, spatio-temporal filters
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-51 (URN)5113 (Local ID)978-91-85317-45-5 (ISBN)5113 (Archive number)5113 (OAI)
Presentation
2007-04-27, L111, L, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-12-20 Created: 2007-12-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L., Sjöström, M. & Olsson, R. (2006). Spatio-Temporal Filter for ROI Video Coding. In: Proceedings of the 14th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2006) Florence, Italy 4-8.Sept. 2006: . Paper presented at 14th European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO 2006; Florence; Italy; 4 September 2006 through 8 September 2006; Code 90688.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-Temporal Filter for ROI Video Coding
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2006) Florence, Italy 4-8.Sept. 2006, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reallocating resources within a video sequence to the regions-of-interest increases the perceived quality at limited bandwidths. In this paper we combine a spatial filter with a temporal filter, which are both codec and standard independent. This spatio-temporal filter removes resources from both the motion vectors and the prediction error with a computational complexity lower than the spatial filter by itself. This decreases the bit rate by 30-50% compared to coding the original sequence using H.264. The released bits can be used by the codec to increase the PSNR of the ROI by 1.58 - 4.61 dB, which is larger than for the spatial and temporal filters by themselves.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3779 (URN)2-s2.0-84862634356 (Scopus ID)4072 (Local ID)4072 (Archive number)4072 (OAI)
Conference
14th European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO 2006; Florence; Italy; 4 September 2006 through 8 September 2006; Code 90688
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L., Olsson, R. & Sjöström, M. (2006). Temporal filter with bilinear interpolation for ROI video coding. Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ. Dept. of Information Technology and Media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal filter with bilinear interpolation for ROI video coding
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In videoconferencing and video over the mobile phone, themain visual information is found within limited regions ofthe video. This enables improved perceived quality byregion-of-interest coding. In this paper we introduce atemporal preprocessing filter that reuses values of theprevious frame, by which changes in the background areonly allowed for every second frame. This reduces the bitrateby 10-25% or gives an increase in average PSNR of0.29-0.98 dB. Further processing of the video sequence isnecessary for an improved re-allocation of the resources.Motion of the ROI causes absence of necessary backgrounddata at the ROI border. We conceal this by using a bilinearinterpolation between the current and previous frame at thetransition from background to ROI. This results in animprovement in average PSNR of 0.44 – 1.05 dB in thetransition area with a minor decrease in average PSNRwithin the ROI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden Univ. Dept. of Information Technology and Media, 2006
Series
MUCOM technical report
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-5879 (URN)4073 (Local ID)4073 (Archive number)4073 (OAI)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-07-29 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, L. & Sjöström, M. (2005). A preprocessing approach to ROI Video Coding using Variable Gaussian Filters and Variance in Intensity. In: Proceedings Elmar - International Symposium Electronics in Marine: . Paper presented at Elmar 2005 - 47th International Symposium Electronics in Marine; Zadar; Croatia; 8 June 2005 through 10 June 2005 (pp. 65-68). Zagreb, Croatia: IEEE conference proceedings, Article ID 1505643.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A preprocessing approach to ROI Video Coding using Variable Gaussian Filters and Variance in Intensity
2005 (English)In: Proceedings Elmar - International Symposium Electronics in Marine, Zagreb, Croatia: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 65-68, article id 1505643Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In applications involving video over mobile phones or Internet, the limited quality depending on the transmission rate can be further improved by region-of-interest (ROI) coding. In this paper we present a preprocessing method using variable Gaussian filters controlled by a quality map indicating the distance to the ROI border that seeks to smooth the border effects between ROI and non-ROI. According to subjective tests the reduction of border effects increases the percieved quality, compared to using only one low pass filter. It also introduces a small improvement of the PSNR of the intensity component within the ROI after compression. With the compressed original sequence as a reference, the average PSNR was increased by 1.25 dB and 2.3 dB for 100 kbit/s and 150 kbit/s, respectively. Furthermore, in order to reduce computational complexity, a modified quality map is introduced using variance in intensity to exclude pixels, which are not visibly affected by the Gaussian filters. No change in quality is noticed when using less than 76% of the pixels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zagreb, Croatia: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Series
Proceedings Elmar - International Symposium Electronics in Marine, ISSN 1334-2630
Keywords
Region of interest, ROI, variable gaussian filters, variance
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-5795 (URN)000234256900016 ()2-s2.0-33745257601 (Scopus ID)3198 (Local ID)953-7044-04-1 (ISBN)3198 (Archive number)3198 (OAI)
Conference
Elmar 2005 - 47th International Symposium Electronics in Marine; Zadar; Croatia; 8 June 2005 through 10 June 2005
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
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