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Dodoo, Ambrose
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2012). Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. Applied Energy, 92(1), 462-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

Keywords
Buildings; Concrete; Wood; Thermal mass; Dynamic modeling; Life cycle primary energy
National Category
Civil Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14944 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.017 (DOI)000300463800052 ()2-s2.0-83455260407 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-11-28 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Mahapatra, K., Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Nair, G. (2012). System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings. Paper presented at Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, August 1-4, 2012, Boulder, Colorado.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16408 (URN)
Conference
Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, August 1-4, 2012, Boulder, Colorado
Available from: 2012-06-11 Created: 2012-06-11 Last updated: 2012-09-03Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2011). Building energy-efficiency standards in a life cycle primary energy perspective. Energy and Buildings, 43(7), 1589-1597
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building energy-efficiency standards in a life cycle primary energy perspective
2011 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1589-1597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we analyze the life cycle primary energy use of a wood-frame apartment building designed to meet the current Swedish building code, the Swedish building code of 1994 or the passive house standard, and heated with district heat or electric resistance heating. The analysis includes the primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. We find that an electric heated building built to the current building code has greater life cycle primary energy use relative to a district heated building, although the standard for electric heating is more stringent. Also, the primary energy use for an electric heated building constructed to meet the passive house standard is substantially higher than for a district heated building built to the Swedish building code of 1994. The primary energy for material production constitutes 5% of the primary energy for production and space heating and ventilation of an electric heated building built to meet the 1994 code. The share of production energy increases as the energy-efficiency standard of the building improves and when efficient energy supply is used, and reaches 30% for a district heated passive house. This study shows the significance of a life cycle primary energy perspective and the choice of heating system in reducing energy use in the built environment.

Keywords
Building code; District heating; Electric heating; Life cycle primary energy; Passive house
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13352 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.002 (DOI)000292231600011 ()2-s2.0-79956371037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L., Truong, N. L., Dodoo, A. & Sathre, R. (2011). Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures. In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11. Paper presented at World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures
2011 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Construction Management Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13282 (URN)
Conference
World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2011-11-27Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L., Dodoo, A. & Sathre, R. (2011). Impact of ventilation heat recovery on primary energy use of apartment buildings built to conventional and passive house standard. In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11. Paper presented at World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of ventilation heat recovery on primary energy use of apartment buildings built to conventional and passive house standard
2011 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13281 (URN)
Conference
World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2011-11-27Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2011). Impacts of end-use energy efficiency measures on life cycle primary energy use in an existing Swedish multi-story apartment building. In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 . Paper presented at World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of end-use energy efficiency measures on life cycle primary energy use in an existing Swedish multi-story apartment building
2011 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 , 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13280 (URN)
Conference
World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2011-04-06Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2011). Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings. In: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011. Paper presented at SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings
2011 (English)In: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Building Technologies Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14951 (URN)
Conference
SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011
Available from: 2011-11-28 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2011-12-22Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A. (2011). Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings. (Doctoral dissertation). Östersund: Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mittuniversitetet, 2011. p. 165
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 115
National Category
Civil Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14942 (URN)978-91-86694-57-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-08, Q221, Campus Östersund, Östersund, 12:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-28 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2012-07-30Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L., Dodoo, A., Truong, N. L. & Danielski, I. (2011). Primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings. Energy and Buildings, 43(1), 38-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings
2011 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we explore the effects of end-use energy efficiency measures on different district heat production systems with combined heat and power (CHP) plants for base load production and heat-only boilers for peak and medium load productions. We model four minimum cost district heat production systems based on four environmental taxation scenarios, plus a reference district heat system used in Östersund, Sweden. We analyze the primary energy use and the cost of district heat production for each system. We then analyze the primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures applied to a case-study apartment building, taking into account the reduced district heat demand, reduced cogenerated electricity and increased electricity use due to ventilation heat recovery. We find that district heat production cost in optimally-designed production systems is not sensitive to environmental taxation. The primary energy savings of end-use energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the district heat production system and the type of end-use energy efficiency measures. Energy efficiency measures that reduce more of peak load than base load production give higher primary energy savings, because the primary energy efficiency is higher for CHP plants than for boilers. This study shows the importance of analyzing both the demand and supply sides as well as their interaction in order to minimize the primary energy use of district heated buildings.

Keywords
CHP plant; District heat production; Energy efficiency; Environmental taxations; Primary energy; Buildings
National Category
Construction Management Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11899 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.07.029 (DOI)000284682700005 ()2-s2.0-78049480263 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-08-06 Created: 2010-08-06 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Sathre, R. (2011). Primary energy implications of ventilation heat recovery in residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 43(7), 1566-1572
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy implications of ventilation heat recovery in residential buildings
2011 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1566-1572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we analyze the impact of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) on the operation primary energy use in residential buildings. We calculate the operation primary energy use of a case-study apartment building built to conventional and passive house standard, both with and without VHR, and using different end-use heating systems including electric resistance heating, bedrock heat pump and district heating based on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR increases the electrical energy used for ventilation and reduces the heat energy used for space heating. Significantly greater primary energy savings is achieved when VHR is used in resistance heated buildings than in district heated buildings. For district heated buildings the primary energy savings are small. VHR systems can give substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit depends strongly on the type of heat supply system, and also on the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings. This study shows the importance of considering the interactions between heat supply systems and VHR systems to reduce primary energy use in buildings.

Keywords
Mechanical ventilation; Heat recovery; Heat supply systems; Electric resistance heating; Heat pump; District heating; CHP plant; Primary energy
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13330 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.02.019 (DOI)000292231600008 ()2-s2.0-79956354126 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-03-01 Created: 2011-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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