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Engholm, M., Hammarling, K., Andersson, H., Sandberg, M. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2019). A Bio-Compatible Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on a Thin Core Interferometric Technique. Photonics, 6(1), Article ID 11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bio-Compatible Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on a Thin Core Interferometric Technique
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2019 (English)In: Photonics, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an increasing demand for compact, reliable and versatile sensor concepts for pH-level monitoring within several industrial, chemical as well as bio-medical applications. Many pHsensors concepts have been proposed, however, there is still a need for improved sensor solutionswith respect to reliability, durability and miniaturization but also for multiparameter sensing. Here wepresent a conceptual verification, which includes theoretical simulations as well as experimentalevaluation of a fiber optic pH-sensor based on a bio-compatible pH sensitive material not previouslyused in this context. The fiber optic sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric technique,where the pH sensitive material is coated on a short, typically 20-25 mm thin core fiber splicedbetween two standard single mode fibers. The working principle of the sensor is simulated by usingCOMSOL Multiphysics. The simulations are used as a guideline for the construction of the sensorsthat have been experimentally evaluated in different liquids with pH ranging from 1.95 to 11.89. The results are promising, showing the potential for the development of bio-compatible fiber optic pH sensor with short response time, high sensitivity and broad measurement range. The developedsensor concept can find future use in many medical- or bio-chemical applications as well as inenvironmental monitoring of large areas. Challenges encountered during the sensor developmentdue to variation in the design parameters are discussed.

Keywords
interferometric, Mach-Zehnder, pH, sensor, hydrogel, simulation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35646 (URN)10.3390/photonics6010011 (DOI)000464341200003 ()2-s2.0-85063143389 (Scopus ID)
Note

MDPI Photonics Special Issue "Advanced Optical Materials and Devices"

Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K. (2019). Hydrogel-based pH-sensors: Development and characterisation of optical and electrical pH sensors based on stimuli-responsive hydrogels. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogel-based pH-sensors: Development and characterisation of optical and electrical pH sensors based on stimuli-responsive hydrogels
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ability to measure the chemical parameter pH is of high importance in many areas. With new government regulations and evolving markets, there is a strong motivation for improving such measurements and conducting research on new types of pH sensors and sensor materials. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels (a group of polymers) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades, due to their ability to be customized to suit many applications. One specific area where they have attracted attention is pH sensor technology.

Two stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used in this thesis. One is a non-toxic hydrogel, 1,4-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,4-AOBAE). Although it was previously used in drug- and DNA- delivery systems, it has not (to my knowledge) been used in a sensor configuration, and thus it is interesting to study. The second hydrogel, 1,3-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,3-AOBAE), is an improved variant of the first one. This improved hydrogel was synthesized because the original hydrogel crystallizes at room temperature, which meant that it was not optimal for various coating techniques. This hydrogel was characterized and verified for pH responsivity in two sensor configurations: electrical and optical. Designing a hydrogel for a specific application can be a complex procedure due to the many synthesizing parameters. For example, increasing a hydrogel's mechanical strength by introducing a higher degree of cross linking, leads to a smaller mesh size, which in turn leads to a lower diffusion rate and less solution absorption. The two hydrogels examined in this thesis respond to pH changes by absorbing or desorbing water; this change in the hydrogel's water content also changes its effective refractive index and permittivity. These changes can be measured using optical or electrical sensor systems. Three types of sensor systems were used in this thesis to verify the hydrogel's pH response and to ensure that they are suitable for use in thin-film techniques on various substrates (e.g. glass and plastic). The experimental results prove that these hydrogels are suitable for use in both electrical and optical sensor configurations. For electrical systems, a pH range of approximately 3-12 was achieved, and for optical, the range was approximately 2-12. These ranges can likely be improved, as the sensor film delaminated from the substrate at low pHs due to adhesion problems and as measurements above 12 were not conducted.

The findings of this thesis could, after more research, have strong implications for the development of improved pH-sensor configurations, especially for medical and healthcare applications and in environmental monitoring.

Abstract [sv]

Möjligheten att mäta den kemiska parametern pH är av stor betydelse inom många områden. Nya regler från myndigheter och tillväxtmarknader gör att det finns det en stark motivation för förbättring av och forskning om nya typer av pH-sensorer och sensormaterial. Stimuli-responsiva hydrogeler (en grupp polymerer) är ett material som under de senaste årtiondena uppmärksammats på grund av deras förmåga att skräddarsys för att passa många olika applikationer. Ett specifikt område där de har uppmärksammats är i pH-sensorteknik.

I arbetet presenterat i denna avhandling har två stimuli-responsiva hydrogeler använts. Dessa båda icke-toxiska hydrogeler har tidigare använts i olika läkemedel samt till DNA leverans system, men däremot inte till pH sensorer, vilket har gjorts i detta arbete. Hydrogelerna har använts för att konstruera och tillverka optiska pH sensorer baserade på fiberoptik samt elektriska sensorer med kapacitiv utläsning. Att syntetisera en hydrogel för en specifik applikation kan vara komplicerat, vilket beror på de många syntetiseringsparametrar som är inblandade vid tillverkning. Till exempel, leder införande av en högre tvärbindningsgrad till ökad mekaniska styrka hos hydrogelen, men också till en mindre maskstorlek, vilket i sin tur leder till en minskning av diffusions-hastigheten och absorption av lösningen. De två hydrogeler som undersöks i denna avhandling reagerar på pH-förändringar genom att absorbera eller desorbera vatten. Förändring av vattenhalt i hydrogelen ändrar också dess effektiva brytningsindex och permittivitet. Dessa ändringar av brytningsindex eller permittivitet kan med fördel mätas med optiska eller elektriska sensorsystem. Tre olika typer av sensorsystem har använts för att verifiera hydrogelens pH-respons och och dess lämplighet att användas i tunnfilms-teknik på olika substrat (glas och plast). Experimentella undersökningar har visat att de undersökta hydrogelerna är lämpliga att användas i både elektriska och optiska sensor konfigurationer. Det elektriska systemet visade sig känsligt för pH förändringar mellan ~3-12, och optiska system mellan ~2-12. Det observerades att låga pH värden ger en så stor volymsförändring av polymeren att denna då släpper ifrån underlaget. Det är därför troligt att  mätintervallet kan utökas om vidhäftningen mellan polymer och underlag kan förbättras.

Resultaten från denna avhandling kan med ytterligare forskning ha en stark inverkan på utvecklingen av förbättrade pH-sensor konfigurationer, särskilt inom medicinska- och hälsovårds-applikationer samt miljöövervakning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2019. p. 61
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 295
Keywords
Hydrogel, fiber optics, printed electronics, pH, sensor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35647 (URN)978-91-88527-93-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-19, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Engholm, M., Andersson, H., Sandberg, M. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2018). Broad-Range Hydrogel-Based pH Sensor with Capacitive Readout Manufactured on a Flexible Substrate. Chemosensors, 6(3), Article ID 30.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broad-Range Hydrogel-Based pH Sensor with Capacitive Readout Manufactured on a Flexible Substrate
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2018 (English)In: Chemosensors, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 15article id 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental monitoring of land, water and air, is an area receiving greater attention because of human health and safety concerns. Monitoring the type of pollution and concentration levels is vital, so that appropriate contingency plans can be determined. To effectively monitor the environment, there is a need for new sensors and sensor systems that suits these type of measurements. However, the diversity of sensors suitable for low, battery powered- and large area sensor systems are limited. We have manufactured and characterized a flexible pH sensor using laser processing and blade coating techniques that is able to measure pH between 2.94 and 11.80. The sensor consists of an interdigital capacitance with a pH sensitive hydrogel coating. Thin sensors can reach 95% of their final value value within 3 min, and are stable after 4 min. Good repeatability was achieved in regard to cycling of the sensor with different pH and multiple measurements from dry state. We have also studied the relation between an interdigital capacitance penetration depth and hydrogels expansion. We believe that our passive sensor is suitable to be used in low power and large area sensor networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2018. p. 15
Keywords
interdigital, hydrogel, penetration depth, pH, sensor, coating, thin film, laser ablation, oligo (β-amino esters)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34203 (URN)10.3390/chemosensors6030030 (DOI)000448395400006 ()2-s2.0-85052627188 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Muri, H. I., Hammarling, K., Wahl, M., Engholm, M. & Hjelme, D. R. (2018). Combining interferometric sensors for dual parameter fiber optic chemical sensing. In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers: . Paper presented at 26th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland, 24 September 2018 through 28 September 2018. OSA - The Optical Society, Article ID WF80.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining interferometric sensors for dual parameter fiber optic chemical sensing
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2018 (English)In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018, article id WF80Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Long and short path length differences interferometric sensing modalities have been combined based on immobilizing hydrogel on thin-core optical fiber end face. Dual parameter sensing of hydrogel swelling and refractive index was demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OSA - The Optical Society, 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35437 (URN)10.1364/OFS.2018.WF80 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059485004 (Scopus ID)9781557528209 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland, 24 September 2018 through 28 September 2018
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Sandberg, M., Engholm, M., Andersson, H. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2018). Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(beta-Amino Esters). CHEMOSENSORS, 6(1), Article ID 10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(beta-Amino Esters)
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2018 (English)In: CHEMOSENSORS, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (AOBAE) to be coated on fibers and printed electronics without solvents and to be cross-linked to a pH-responsive coatings, makes AOBAE-based coatings a potential type of pH-sensor coating. However, there are currently no reports of AOBAEs used as a pH-responsive coating material in sensor applications. Here we present an investigation of the synthesis, curing behavior and swell tests of AOBAEs. AOBAEs were synthesized from reacting an excess of asymmetric diacrylates with piperazine without the use of any solvents. They were then cross-linked to an insoluble network by UV-curing. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the AOBAEs. NMR was used to clarify the irregular structure of the AOBAE. FTIR was used to monitor the effects of UV-curing dose and air exposure on monomer conversion during curing. An interferometric technique was used to monitor the swelling behavior of the coating in response to pH variations. Swell experiments showed that the AOBAE also responded to pH variations after polymerization. Therefore, AOBAE is an interesting class of material with potential use as a pH responsive coating in optical-and printed electronics pH-sensors applications.

Keywords
oligo(beta-amino esters), acryl-terminated, 1, 3-butanediol diacrylate, piperazine, pH, sensor, coating, thin film
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33576 (URN)10.3390/chemosensors6010010 (DOI)000428506700009 ()2-s2.0-85045393278 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Engholm, M., Muri, H. I., Wahl, M. S. & Hjelme, D. R. (2017). Dual parameter fiber optic sensor combining a Fabry-Perot and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors: . Paper presented at 16th IEEE SENSORS Conference, ICSENS 2017; Scottish Event Campus (SEC) Glasgow; United Kingdom; 30 October 2017 through 1 November 2017 (pp. 1440-1442). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual parameter fiber optic sensor combining a Fabry-Perot and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE, 2017, p. 1440-1442Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A new concept for dual parameter fiber optic sensorhas been developed and characterized, both in a two-fiber andsingle-fiber configuration. The liquid sensor measures ethanolconcentration with a stimuli responsive hydrogel whichconstitutes a low finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, and refractive indexwith a Mach-Zehnder type fiber optic interferometer. The two-fiber configuration utilize a fiber optic 1310/1550 nm wavelengthdivision multiplexer to separate the two parameters, while aversatile filtering algorithm extracts and separates the twoparameters in the single-fiber configuration. No cross talk wereobserved for the measured parameters of free spectral range andrefractive index for the two-fiber configurations, while for thesingle fiber configuration cross-talk were observed. The twoconfigurations prove to be versatile dual parametric fiber opticsensor concepts for accurate detection of specific parameters,based on stimuli responsive hydrogels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32547 (URN)000427677500483 ()2-s2.0-85044283695 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1012-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE SENSORS Conference, ICSENS 2017; Scottish Event Campus (SEC) Glasgow; United Kingdom; 30 October 2017 through 1 November 2017
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Hilborn, J., Nilsson, H.-E. & Manuilskiy, A. (2014). Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change. In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE: . Paper presented at Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XIV, 1 February 2014 through 2 February 2014, San Francisco, CA (pp. Art. no. 89381F).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change
2014 (English)In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 2014, p. Art. no. 89381F-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (β-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR. © 2014 SPIE.

Keywords
Absorption, Blood, Evanescent wave, Hydrogel, Optical fiber, PH, Sensor
National Category
Medical Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22047 (URN)10.1117/12.2040077 (DOI)000334100600034 ()2-s2.0-84897465448 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)9780819498519 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XIV, 1 February 2014 through 2 February 2014, San Francisco, CA
Note

Sponsors: The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Available from: 2014-05-30 Created: 2014-05-30 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Zhang, R., Manuilskiy, A. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2014). Fiber Bragg Grating filter using Evaporated Induced Self Assembly of silica nano particles. In: Michel J. F. Digonnet; Shibin Jiang (Ed.), Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Optical Components and Materials XI, 8982. Paper presented at Optical Components and Materials XI; San Francisco, CA; United States; 3 February 2014 through 5 February 2014; Code 105139 (pp. Art. no. 898225).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber Bragg Grating filter using Evaporated Induced Self Assembly of silica nano particles
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: Optical Components and Materials XI, 8982 / [ed] Michel J. F. Digonnet; Shibin Jiang, 2014, p. Art. no. 898225-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the present work we conduct a study of ber lters produced by evaporation of silica particles upon aMM-ber core. A band lter was designed and theoretically veried using a 2D Comsol simulation model ofa 3D problem, and calculated in the frequency domain in respect to refractive index. The ber lters werefabricated by stripping and chemically etching the middle part of an MM-ber until the core was exposed. Amono layer of silica nano particles were evaporated on the core using an Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly(EISA) method. The experimental results indicated a broader bandwidth than indicated by the simulationswhich can be explained by the mismatch in the particle size distributions, uneven particle packing and nallyby eects from multiple mode angles. Thus, there are several closely connected Bragg wavelengths that buildup the broader bandwidth. The experimental part shows that it is possible by narrowing the particle sizedistributing and better control of the particle packing, the lter eectiveness can be greatly improved.

Keywords
nano particles, silica, optical ber, FBG, lter, self-assembly, EISA
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22553 (URN)10.1117/12.2040125 (DOI)000336036800062 ()2-s2.0-84900993246 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Optical Components and Materials XI; San Francisco, CA; United States; 3 February 2014 through 5 February 2014; Code 105139
Available from: 2014-08-11 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-05-04Bibliographically approved
Engholm, M., Rydberg, S. & Hammarling, K. (2013). Strong excited state absorption (ESA) in Yb-doped fiber lasers. In: FIBER LASERS X: TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS, AND APPLICATIONS: . Paper presented at Fiber Lasers X: Technology, Systems, and Applications; San Francisco, CA; United States; 4 February 2013 through 7 February 2013; Code 97120 (pp. Art. no. 86010P). SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong excited state absorption (ESA) in Yb-doped fiber lasers
2013 (English)In: FIBER LASERS X: TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS, AND APPLICATIONS, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86010P-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Excited state absorption (ESA) measurements performed on Yb-doped silica bers show the onset of a strong absorption band in the visible range. In this work, we perform experiments to investigate the possibility for ESA to be part of the induced optical losses (photodarkening) observed in Yb-doped ber lasers. Our results indicate that an ESA process, from the 2F5/2 excited state manifold in the Yb3+ ion to the charge-transfer state with absorption bands in the UV range, may constitute a transfer route for pump- and laser photons in the near-infrared range. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 8601
Keywords
charge transfer, color center, excited state absorption, fiber laser, photodarkening, Ytterbium
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19363 (URN)10.1117/12.2002957 (DOI)000325162800015 ()2-s2.0-84878168453 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-0-8194-9370-5 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Fiber Lasers X: Technology, Systems, and Applications; San Francisco, CA; United States; 4 February 2013 through 7 February 2013; Code 97120
Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-06-19 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Hammarling, K., Sidén, J., Manuilskiy, A., Öhlund, T. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2012). Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform. MDPI Electronics, 1(2), 32-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform
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2012 (English)In: MDPI Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 32-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, a modified design of an RF Radio Frequency Electronic ArticleSurveillance (EAS) tag, used as a sensor platform, is manufactured and characterized. EAStags are passive devices consisting of a capacitor and coil, tuned to a resonance frequencyreadable by the detector equipment, in this case 8.2 MHz. They were originally used todetect whether merchandise was being moved through the detection gates at shop exits, inwhich case an alarm was triggered. If the capacitance is divided in two and a resistivesensor device inserted in between, the resonant Inductor-Capacitor (LC) circuit becomes anInductor-Capacitor-Capacitor-Resistor LCCR circuit and can be used as a sensor tag. Ahigh sensor resistance means that one capacitor is decoupled, leading to one resonancefrequency, while a low resistance will couple both capacitances into the circuit, resulting ina lower resonance frequency. Different types of resistive sensors exist that are able todetect properties such as pressure, moisture, light and temperature. The tag is manufacturedin Aluminum foil on a polyetylentereftalat (PET) substrate, resulting in a cost effectiveRF-platform for various resistive sensors. Two types of tags are designed andmanufactured, one with parallel plate capacitors and the other with interdigital capacitors.To test the tags, a resistive tilt sensor is mounted and the tags are characterized using anetwork analyzer. It is shown that for high resistance, the tags have a resonance frequencyof more than 10 MHz while for low values the frequency approaches 8.2 MHz.

Keywords
EAS tag, sensor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17444 (URN)10.3390/electronics1020032 (DOI)2-s2.0-84930001475 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1967-4016

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