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Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
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Hiswåls, A.-S. (2017). Employment Status and Inequalities in Health Outcomes: Population-based Studies from Gävleborg County. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment Status and Inequalities in Health Outcomes: Population-based Studies from Gävleborg County
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background and objectives: From a public health perspective, it is important not only to improve and maintain health, but also to promote equality in health. Epidemiological research has showed the importance of work and unemployment in the development of socio-economic health inequalities, and peoples life chances are suggested to be conditioned by participation or exclusion from the labour market. The most recent economic recession has brought further changes to the labour market that might have aggravated the already multifaceted image of inequalities in health. Gävleborg County was one of the hardest hit counties in Sweden, which experienced a myriad of changes in the labour market that went beyond those of the Swedish national average, in terms of increase in flexible forms of employment, factory closures, and lay-offs. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between employment status and health-related inequalities in Gävleborg County, Sweden. In addition, the Specific objectives for the thesis were to: assess the relationship between employment status and self-reported health in Gävleborg (Study I); to estimate the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation during the economic recession in Gävleborg (Study II); to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among economically active people living in the Municipality of Gävle (Study III) and to assess experiences and perceptions of well-being after involuntary job loss in Gävle (Study IV).

Methods: Study I and II in this thesis used data from the 2010 Health in Equal Terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in Gävleborg County in Sweden. A total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. Study III was performed in Wave 1 (baseline survey) of the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes survey (GHOLDH), a panel survey with household as the follow-up unit. A total of 241 persons completed a self-administered postal questionnaire which collected information on the employment status and psychological health (anxiety and depression) among persons aged 18–65 years. The thesis used descriptive analyses and logistic regression models to describe and explore the relationship between employment status, self-reported health and suicidal ideation in Gävleborg County (Studies I and II). Descriptive analysis of means and a multiple regression analysis for adjusted means of HADS, were used in order to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among economically active persons residing in the Gävle Municipality (Study III). Study IV used a qualitative approach to gain a deeper understanding of how involuntarily unemployed persons in Gävlexperceive their well-being. Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28–62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts in Study IV were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: In Study I, the prevalence of poor self-reported health (SRH) was twice as high in the group of people who were not employed (42%) compared to the employed group (21.6%). Individuals outside the labour market had odds of poor health of 2.64 (Cl 2.28–3.05) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates reduced the risk slightly to 2.10 (1.69–2.60), but remained statistically significant. Moreover, other variables such as long-standing illness, age, income and lack of social support were associated with self-reported poor health. In Study II, among those not employed, 11.2% had been in a situation where they had seriously considered taking their life (at some time during the past 12 months). The corresponding figure for those employed was 2.9%. Unadjusted results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that people who were not employed had about a four times higher risk of suicidal ideation, with an OR of 4.21 (CI: 3.14–5.64) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates, reduced the risk from 4.21(CI 3.14–5.64) in model I, to 1.73 (CI 1.16–2.57) in model IV, but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with suicidal ideation. In Study III, the prevalence and risk of anxiety and depression were high among people who were out of work. In the multiple regression analysis, compared to employed people, those who were not employed had a risk of anxiety of 7.76 (5.97–9.75) and 4.67 (3.60–5.74) for depression. Study IV revealed six different themes from the interviews: Work was perceived as the basis for belonging; loss of work affected people’s social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. Feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness were reported, affecting the respondents’ physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents’ negative emotions. Activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts were reported as part of their strategy for coping with poor mental health.

Conclusion: This thesis found a statistically significant relationship between being outside the labour market and poor SRH, a high risk of suicidal ideation, anxiety, and depression during the recent economic recession. The relationship between employment status and SRH was partially explained by socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle variables. In addition, the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation was, for the most part, explained by demographic, socio-economic and self-reported psychological variables. Atxithe municipal level, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was higher among those who were out of the labour market as compared to those who were employed and the odds of anxiety and depression were higher among people out of the labour market, but this was less prominent for depression than for anxiety. Job loss created feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. The participants experienced feelings of worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having activities other than work gave structure and meaning to everyday life. The results of this thesis indicate a need for early detection and potential treatment of people out of the labour force and for being aware of the increased risk of poor health symptoms and disorders among unemployed individuals. The findings also indicate a need for primary prevention strategies, implying that policy-makers must pay attention to the health status of those who are out of work, especially during times of combined economic hardship and labour market fluctuations. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to shed further light on the mechanisms through which employment status and conditions impact physical and psychological health outcomes.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund och Syfte: I ett folkhälsoperspektiv är det viktigt att inte bara förbättra och bibehålla hälsan utan också främja jämlikhet i hälsa. Epidemiologisk forskning har visat vilken betydelse arbete och arbetslöshet har i utvecklingen av socioekonomiska hälsorisker, där människors möjligheter i livet föreslås vara beroende av deltagande i eller uteslutning från arbetsmarknaden. Den senaste ekonomiska lågkonjunkturen har medfört ytterligare förändringar på arbetsmarknaden som kan ha förvärrat den redan mångfacetterade bilden av ojämlikheter i hälsa. Gävleborgs län var ett av de hårdast drabbade länen i Sverige, som upplevde en myriad av förändringar på arbetsmarknaden som gick utöver det svenska nationella genomsnittet när det gäller ökning av flexibla anställningsformer, fabriksnedläggningar och uppsägningar. Det övergripande syftet för denna avhandling var att undersöka förhållandet mellan anställningsstatus och hälsorelaterade ojämlikheter i Gävleborgs län. Dessutom var de specifika syftena för avhandlingen, att bedöma sambandet mellan anställningsstatus och självrapporterad hälsa i Gävleborgs län (studie I); att bedöma relationen mellan anställningsstatus och självmordstankar under ekonomisk recession i Gävleborgs län (Studie II); att uppskatta förekomsten av ångest och depression bland ekonomiskt aktiva personer bosatta i Gävle kommun (Studie III) och att bedöma erfarenheter och uppfattningar om välbefinnande efter ofrivillig arbetsförlust i Gävle kommun (Studie IV).

Metoder: Studie I och II i den här avhandlingen använde data från hälsa på lika villkor-undersökningen 2010, en tvärsnittsundersökning utförd i Gävleborgs län i Sverige. Totalt 4 445 individer, i åldrarna 16-65 år, ingick i analyserna. Studie III utfördes inom baslinjeundersökningen av Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes survey (GHOLDH), en panelundersökning med hushåll som uppföljningsenhet. Totalt 241 personer besvarade ett frågeformulär som samlade information om anställningsstatus och psykisk hälsa (ångest och depression) bland personer i åldrarna 18-65 år. Avhandlingen använde beskrivande analyser och logistiska regressionsmodeller för att beskriva och undersöka förhållandet mellan anställningsstatus, självrapporterad hälsa (SRH) och självmordstankar i Gävleborgs län (studie I och II). Beskrivande analys av medelvärden för HADS och en multipel regressionsanalys för justerade medelvärden för HADS användes för att uppskatta förekomsten av ångest och depression bland ekonomiskt aktiva personer bosatta i Gävle kommun (studie III). Studie IV använde ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt för att få en djupare förståelse förxivhur ofrivilligt arbetslösa personer i Gävle uppfattar sitt välbefinnande, här definierat som övergripande fysiskt och psykiskt välbefinnande inklusive livskvalitet. Sexton arbetslösa män och kvinnor i åldrarna 28-62 år intervjuades ansikte mot ansikte. En målstyrd urvalsstrategi användes för att passa forskningsfrågan och för att öka variationen mellan informanter. Intervjutexterna i studie IV analyserades med hjälp av tematisk analys.

Resultat: I studie I var förekomsten av dålig SRH dubbelt så hög i gruppen av personer som inte var anställda (42%) jämfört med den anställda gruppen (21,6%). Personer utanför arbetsmarknaden hade odds för dålig självrapporterad hälsa på 2,64 (Cl 2,28-3,05) jämfört med deras anställda motsvarigheter. Efter kontroll för andra möjliga påverkande faktorer minskade risken något till 2,10 (1,69-2,60), men förblev statistiskt signifikant. Vidare visade sig andra faktorer såsom långvarig sjukdom, ålder, inkomst och brist på socialt stöd vara förknippade med dålig självrapporterad hälsa. I studie II, hade 11,2% bland de som inte var anställda, varit i en situation där de allvarligt hade övervägt att ta sitt liv (någon gång under de senaste tolv månaderna). Motsvarande siffra för de anställda var 2,9%. Ojusterade resultat av den logistiska regressionsanalysen visade att personer som inte var anställda hade fyra gånger högre risk för självmordstankar, med odds på 4,11 (CI: 3,14-5,64) jämfört med deras anställda motsvarigheter. När andra kontrollvariabler adderades till analysen, reducerades risken från 4.21 (CI 3.14-5.64) i modell I till 1,73 (CI 1,16-2,57) i modell IV, men förblev statistiskt signifikant. Andra variabler visade sig också vara associerade med självmordstankar. I studie III var prevalensen och risken för ångest och depression hög bland personer som var utanför arbetsmarknaden. I regressionsanalysen, hade de som inte var anställda en risk för ångest på 7,76 (5,97-9,75) och för depression på 4,67 (3,60-5,74), jämfört med sina anställda motsvarigheter. Studie IV avslöjade sex olika teman från intervjuerna: Arbetet uppfattades som grunden för tillhörighet, arbetsförlust påverkade respondenternas sociala liv och konsumtionsmönster på grund av förändringar i deras ekonomiska situation. Känslor av isolering, förlust av självkänsla och känslor av hopplöshet rapporterades, vilket påverkade respondenternas fysiska välbefinnande. Längre tid i arbetslöshet ökade respondenternas negativa känslor. Aktiviteter, struktur och tillhörighet i andra sammanhang rapporterades som en del av deras strategier för att motverka dåligt psykiskt välbefinnande.

Konklusion: Denna avhandling hittade ett statistiskt signifikant förhållande mellan att vara utanför arbetsmarknaden och dålig SRH, hög risk för självmordstankar samt ångest och depression under den senaste ekonomiska lågkonjunkturen. Förhållandetxvmellan anställningsstatus och SRH förklarades delvis av socioekonomiska, demografiska och livsstilsfaktorer. Vidare, så förklarades förhållandet mellan anställningsstatus och självmordstankar till största delen av demografiska, socioekonomiska och självrapporterade psykologiska variabler. På kommunal nivå var prevalensen av ångest och depression högre bland de som var utanför arbetsmarknaden jämfört med de med anställning, och oddsen för ångest och depression var högre bland människor utanför arbetsmarknaden, men detta var mindre framträdande för depression än för ångest. Att förlora jobbet skapade känslor av förlust av värdighet och tillhörighet som en människa. Deltagarna upplevde känslor av oro, osäkerhet och stress på grund av deras förändrade ekonomiska situation, vilket i sin tur ledde till isolering och förlust av självkänsla. Socialt stöd och andra aktiviteter än arbete gav struktur och betydelse för vardagen. Resultaten av denna avhandling tyder på ett behov av tidig upptäckt och potentiell behandling av människor som befinner sig utanför arbetsmarknaden och att vara medveten om den ökade risken för dåliga hälsosymtom och störningar bland arbetslösa individer. Resultaten visar också på behovet av primära förebyggande strategier och innebär att de politiska beslutsfattarna måste uppmärksamma dem som inte är i arbetet, särskilt i tider med kombinerade ekonomiska svårigheter och arbetsmarknadsfluktuationer. Långtidsstudier är dock nödvändiga för att ytterligare belysa de mekanismer genom vilka anställningsstatus och anställningsvillkor påverkar fysiska och psykologiska hälsoproblem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 52
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 272
Keywords
Employment status, self-reported health, health inequalities, suicidal ideation, anxiety, depression, out of work, perceived well-being, qualitative approach, recession time, Gävle, Anställningsstatus, självrapporterad hälsa, ojämlikhet i hälsa, självmordstankar, ångest, depression, utanför arbetsmarknaden, upplevt välbefinnande, kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt, lågkonjunktur, Gävle
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32007 (URN)978-91-88527-31-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-08, C326, Sundsvall, 10:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 4 accepterat.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 4 accepted.

Available from: 2017-11-03 Created: 2017-11-03 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Walander, A., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2017). Employment Status, Anxiety and Depression in a Municipal Context. Research in Health Science, 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment Status, Anxiety and Depression in a Municipal Context
2017 (English)In: Research in Health Science, ISSN 2470-6213, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This  study  aimed  to  investigate  the  prevalence  of  anxiety  and  depression  by  employment status among a sample of the working age population residing in Gävle Municipality in Sweden.

Methods:  A  total  of  241  persons  completed  a  self-administered  postal  questionnaire  in  the  baseline survey  of  the  Gävle  Household,  Labour  Market  and  Health  Outcomes  (GHOLDH)  survey,  which collected  information  on  the  employment  status  and  psychological  health  (anxiety  and  depression) among persons aged 18-65 years. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed.

Results:  The  prevalence  and  risk  of  anxiety  and  depression  were  high  among  people  who  were  out  of work. In the multiple regression analysis, compared to employed people, those who were not employed had a risk of anxiety of 7.76 (5.97-9.75) and 4.67 (3.60-5.74) for depression.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was higher among those who were out of labour marketas compared to those employed. Furthermore, people who were out of work had a higher risk of anxiety and depression. The odds were slightly higher for anxiety than for depression.

Keywords
Gävle, employment status, anxiety, depression
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30394 (URN)10.22158/rhs.v2n1p12 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Bergström, H., Malstam, E., Hiswåls, A.-S., Soares, J., Ahmadi, N. & Marttila, A. (2017). Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in east central Sweden. Health Science Journal, 11(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in east central Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1108-7366, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the past decade, temporary employment arrangements, including fixed-term and sub-contracted jobs, as well as project work, on-call work and work via temporary-help agencies have increased in developed countries, including Sweden. The objective of this study was to explore precariously employed individuals’experiences and perceptions of employment strain and its effect on their psychological well-being in Gävleborg County, Sweden.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 respondents residing in Gävleborg County about their experiences of precarious employment and their perceptions of the relationship between their precarious employment and psychological well-being. Thematic analysis was conducted to relate the results to the employment strain framework.

Results: The main theme to emerge in the data was managing stress. Respondent’s perceived significant stress related to keeping employment as well as having future work. In addition, they had difficulties in coping with everyday life because of economic strain, lack of work opportunities and isolation.

Conclusions: The results of this study highlight how precariously employed individuals are unable to cope with the stress related to uncertainty in maintaining their current work or having control of their working hours. In addition, the results indicate that precariously employed workers experience economic strain related to income uncertainty, which affects their ability to cope with dailylife.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30643 (URN)10.21767/1791-809X.1000491 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Marttila, A., Mälstam, E. & Macassa, G. (2017). Experiences of unemployment and well-being after jobb loss during economic recession: results of a qualitative study in East Central Sweden. Journal of Public Health Research, 6(3), 135-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of unemployment and well-being after jobb loss during economic recession: results of a qualitative study in East Central Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Six different themes emerged from the accounts: The respondents perceived work as the basis for belonging, and loss of work affected their social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. They also expressed feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness, which affected their physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents’ negative emotions. The respondents reported activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts as part of their coping strategy against poor mental health. Conclusions: After job loss, the respondents experienced feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. They also felt worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having other activities gave the respondents structure and meaning.

Keywords
Out of work, perceived wellbeing, qualitative approach, recession time
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32006 (URN)10.4081/jphr.2017.995 (DOI)000440723600002 ()2-s2.0-85038114572 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-03 Created: 2017-11-03 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2015). Employment status and suicidal ideation during economic recession. Health Science Journal, 9(1), 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment status and suicidal ideation during economic recession
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2015 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Suicide is a public health problem and an important indicator of severe mental ill-health. Thus, identifying risk factors for suicidal ideation is a public health priority. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation in Gävleborg County. Method: The study used data from the 2010 Health in Equal Terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in Gävleborg County in Sweden. A total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation. Results: Individuals outside the labour market had odds of suicidal ideation of 4.21 (CI 3.14-5.64) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates, reduced the risk from 4.21(CI 3.14-5.64) in model I, to 1.73 (CI 1.16- 2.57) in model IV, but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between being out of work and suicidal ideation. The association was explained partly by demographic, socio-economic and self-reported psychological variables. Results of the study suggest the need for primary prevention strategies among those out of the labour market, especially during times of economic hardship.

Keywords
Employment status, Health inequalities, Suicidal ideation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24277 (URN)2-s2.0-84926348708 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-03 Created: 2015-02-03 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Ahmadi, N., Hiswåls, A.-S., Alfredsson, J., Soares, J. & Stankunas, M. (2014). Differences in health care-seeking behavior during economic recession. Paper presented at 7th European Public Health Association Conference (EUPHA) 19-22 November 2014. European Journal of Public Health, 24(supl 2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in health care-seeking behavior during economic recession
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no supl 2Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23747 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku161.085 (DOI)
Conference
7th European Public Health Association Conference (EUPHA) 19-22 November 2014
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Hiswåls, A.-S., Ahmadi, N., Alfredsson, J., Soares, J. & Stankunas, M. (2014). Employment status and health care utilization in a context of economic recession: Results of a population based survey in East Central Sweden. Science Journal of Public Health, 2(6), 610-616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment status and health care utilization in a context of economic recession: Results of a population based survey in East Central Sweden
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2014 (English)In: Science Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2328-7942, E-ISSN 2328-7950, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 610-616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The most recent economic recession left many people outside the labour market world-wide, causing widespread poverty and social exclusion. Gävleborg County in East Central Sweden experienced massive layoffs caused by closure of various industries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate differences in health-care use according to employment status at the pick of the recent economic recession. Methods: The study used data from a cross-sectional survey "Health in Equal Terms" carried out in Gävleborg County in 2010. The sample included 4245 persons aged 16-65 years. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to assess differences in health-care seeking behaviour by employment status. Results: Employment status was statistically significantly associated with health-care use in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis people who were not employed had odds ratio of 1.62 (CI 1.18-1.72) for health care use as compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other variables in Model II to IV removed the statistical significance and reduced the odds to 0.44(CI 0.20-1.00). Conclusions: This study found that at the pick of the most recent economic recession, people who were out of work used more often health services as compared with their employed counterparts. The observed differences in health-care use were explained by demographic, socio-economic and health-related variables. Further studies are needed to analyze trends of healthcare utilization according to employment nationally, particularly at the county level.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23480 (URN)10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.28 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-11-24 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Walander, A., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. J. F. & Macassa, G. (2014). Employment Status and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, 11(4), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment Status and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health
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2014 (English)In: Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, ISSN 2282-2305, E-ISSN 2282-0930, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of employment status on self-reported health in gävleborg county.Methods: The study used data from the 2010 health in equal terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in gävleborg county in sweden. a total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between employment status and self-reported healthResults: Individuals outside the labour market had odds of poor health of 2.64 (cl 2.28–3.05) compared to their employed counterparts. controlling for other covariates reduced the risk slightly to 2.10 (1.69-2.60), but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with self-reported poor health.Conclusions: This study found a statistically significant association between being outside the labour market and poor self-reported health. The relation was explained partially by socio-economic and demographic variables. More studies, in particular longitudinal, are needed to further investigate the observed relationships. Policy-makers within the gävleborg county need to pay attention to the health status of those out of work, especially during times of combined economic and labour market fluctuations.Results of the study suggest the need to pay attention to the health status of those outside the labour market, especially during times of economic hardship.

Keywords
Employment status, Health inequalities, Self-reported health
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22770 (URN)10.2427/10006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84919763977 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-07 Created: 2014-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2014). Inequalities and Suicide Ideation during Recession Times. Paper presented at the 7th European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow November 19-22 2014. European Journal of Public Health, 24(S2), 361
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequalities and Suicide Ideation during Recession Times
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no S2, p. 361-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23399 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku166.155 (DOI)
Conference
the 7th European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow November 19-22 2014
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2017-06-28Bibliographically approved
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