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Linnell, M. (2020). Governing (through) anticipation, architecture, affect.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing (through) anticipation, architecture, affect
2020 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-39043 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-18 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2020). Scenarios we live by: Theorizing anticipatory practices for societal security. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scenarios we live by: Theorizing anticipatory practices for societal security
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores and theorizes practices for generating knowledge and experience of possible futures in the present. Often, our unreflected everyday actions are clearly focused on the future. We plan future events into calendars, buy insurances, follow weather forecasts, and practice for performances of various kinds, all to reduce the uncertainties that the future brings. Various societal areas have developed specialized and systematic ways of generating knowledge in order for people to prepare for possible future events. A particular and extensive area is that involving societal security and preparedness for extraordinary events. The thesis explores various aspects of futures-making practices in the overall field of societal security, with a special focus on recent measures to strengthen the public's emergency preparedness. The overall aim is to deepen knowledge about the contemporary use of futures-making practices (such as imagination and enactment) and related techniques (such as scenario writing and simulations). Societal security and emergency preparedness have recently come to be recognized nationally and globally in ways that we have not experienced since the Cold War era. The empirical backdrop of the thesis tells about some major events that occurred during the first five years of the new millennium. During this period, a number of terrorist attacks and natural disasters occurred which greatly affected futures-making practices in areas related to societal security and preparedness. Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, many actors in the security business began to implement new, or revived, ways of relating to the future. From previously focusing mainly on plausible events, interest now turned to possible and unexpected events. Following the criticized management of hurricane Katrina in 2005, a visionary work was initiated with the aim of creating an inclusive and all-encompassing culture of preparedness, a culture that would involve all sectors and actors of society, including the public. The examples may by from a unilateral American context, however the events can also be perceived as part of a global trend with local variations. A trend that includes new ideas about public participation in societal preparedness, as well as new ways in which we create preliminary representations of possible futures in order to prepare for them. In order to clarify different ways in which we relate to the future, I apply cultural geographer Ben Anderson’s (2010) classification of anticipatory practices. Anderson highlights three principal practices: imagination, calculation, and performance. The thesis explores how futures are imagined and enacted through the techniques of scenario writing and simulation, in four separate studies (articles I-IV). Studies I and II examine how imaginations of future emergencies are articulated in interviews with local safety coordinators and volunteers in Sweden, as well as in institutional exercise scenarios in the US. The first study shows how collaboration between the public and professionals is perceived as an ideal for managing societal stress and, furthermore, how various forms for organizing the voluntary public may facilitate for or interfere with fruitful collaboration. The second study investigates how governmental authorities has popularized emergency preparedness through a campaign aiming to prepare people for a possible zombie invasion. The study shows how the campaign makes use of a dynamic interplay between reality and fiction, realism and irrealism, and affirmation and distancing. Studies III and IV examine the meanings of spatiality, materiality, and affect in large-scale disaster simulations for the public. The studies are based on documents and observations collected and conducted in Japan and Turkey in 2014 and 2015. With the third study, I wish to contribute to existing debates on experience design and affective atmospheres in disaster simulation, while in the fourth study I explore enactment-based exercises and experience design through a lens of Foucauldian governmentality and spatial rationality. The four articles are given a common theoretical framework consisting of sociological perspectives on time and temporality, which highlight how the conditions for futures-making practices has evolved through changes in people’s relation to the future. The overall results in the thesis indicate that possibilities for the public to participate in enactment-based exercises are currently limited. However, when made publicly available, exercises are most often designed as entertaining, sensory, and affective learning experiences. Present imaginaries and enactments of negative futures are thus enmeshed with considerations regarding what is possible and probable, real and unreal, near and distant. Furthermore, facilities for public exercises are part of a complex apparatus involving political, economic, and educational perspectives, as well as aspects of entertainment, urban planning, educational technology, and public space.

Abstract [sv]

I den här avhandlingen utforskas praktiker för att generera kunskap om och erfarenhet av möjliga framtider i samtiden. Många av våra ofta oreflekterade vardagshandlingar är tydligt inriktade mot framtiden. Vi planerar in kommande händelser i kalendrar, köper försäkringar, följer väderprognoser, och övar inför uppträdanden av olika slag, allt för att minska de osäkerheter som framtiden innebär. Inom olika samhälleliga verksamhetsområden har det utvecklats specialiserade och systematiska sätt att generera kunskap för att människor ska kunna förbereda sig på eventuella kommande händelser. Ett omfattande område är det som inbegriper samhällelig säkerhet och beredskap inför extraordinära händelser. Avhandlingen utforskar olika aspekter av framtidsskapande praktiker inom det övergripande området samhällssäkerhet, med ett särskilt fokus på åtgärder för att stärka allmänhetens krisberedskap. Det övergripande syftet är att fördjupa kunskapen om den samtida användningen av framtidsskapande praktiker (såsom föreställning, fantasi och iscensättning) och tillhörande tekniker (såsom scenarioskrivande och simuleringar). Samhällssäkerhet och krisberedskap har på senare tid kommit att uppmärksammas nationellt och globalt på sätt som vi inte sett någon motsvarighet till sedan kalla krigets dagar. Avhandlingen tar avstamp i några större händelser som inträffade under det nya millenniets första fem år. Under denna period inträffade ett antal terrorattentat och naturkatastrofer, vilka kom att påverka framtidsskapande praktiker inom verksamheter kopplade till samhällssäkerhet och beredskap. Till avhandlingens bakgrund hör även det faktum att man sedan det kalla krigets slut i början av 1990-talet på många håll i världen minskat uppmärksamheten på nationell säkerhet för att i stället fokusera på samhällssäkerhet, det vill säga att beredskapen inför yttre hot mot nationella gränser under en period prioriterats ned till förmån för beredskap inför hot som kommer inifrån samhällen själva. Som en följd av attentaten den 11 september 2001 började man inom olika säkerhetsområden implementera nya sätt att förhålla sig till framtiden. Från att ha fokuserat huvudsakligen på troliga händelser började man i allt högre grad ta hänsyn till möjliga och mer oväntade händelser och utvecklingslinjer. Som en följd av hanteringen av orkanen Katrina 2005 initierades ett visionsarbete med syfte att skapa en allomfattande beredskapskultur, en kultur som skulle involvera alla samhällets sektorer och aktörer, även den enskilda individen. Exemplen är visserligen hämtade från en amerikansk kontext, men händelserna går också att uppfatta som upprinnelser till, eller delar av, en övergripande global trend med lokala varianter. Med andra ord, en trend som innefattar nya idéer kring allmänhetens deltagande i den samhälleliga krisberedskapen, liksom nya sätt genom vilka vi skapar preliminära representationer av möjliga framtider i syfte att förbereda oss på dem. För att tydliggöra olika sätt på vilka vi förhåller oss till framtiden tillämpar jag i avhandlingen kulturgeografen Ben Andersons klassificering av anticipatoriska praktiker. Anderson lyfter fram tre huvudsakliga praktiker: föreställning (imagination), beräkning (calculation), och iscensättning (performance). I avhandlingen utforskas föreställning och iscensättning av möjliga framtider utifrån teknikerna scenarioskrivning och simulering genom fyra delstudier (artikel I-IV). Delstudierna I och II undersöker hur föreställningar om framtida kriser artikuleras i intervjuer med kommunala säkerhetssamordnare och volontärer i Sverige, liksom i övningsscenarion för institutionell beredskap i USA. Delstudie I visar hur samverkan mellan allmänheten och professionella framhålls som ett ideal för hanteringen av samhälleliga påfrestningar, samt hur olika former av frivilligorganisering kan underlätta eller försvåra för samverkan. Delstudie II undersöker hur myndigheter försökt popularisera krisberedskap genom en kampanj för beredskap inför en möjlig stundande zombie-invasion. Studien visar hur kampanjen använder sig av ett dynamiskt växelspel mellan verklighet och fiktion, realism och irrealism, bejakande och avståndstagande. Delstudierna III och IV undersöker betydelser av rumslighet, materialitet, och affekt i storskaliga katastrofsimuleringar för allmänheten. Delstudierna baseras på dokument och observationer, insamlade och genomförda i Japan och Turkiet 2014 och 2015. Med delstudie III vill jag bidra till pågående diskussioner om upplevelsedesign och affekt i storskalig realistisk simulering, medan jag i delstudie IV utforskar iscensättning och upplevelsedesign utifrån ett Foucauldianskt styrningsperspektiv. De fyra delstudierna inramas av teori utifrån ett tidssociologiskt perspektiv, som belyser hur förutsättningarna för framtidsskapande praktiker vuxit fram genom förändringar i människans förhållningssätt till framtiden. På ett övergripande plan visar avhandlingen att möjligheterna är begränsade för den oorganiserade allmänheten att delta i avancerade simuleringsövningar. Men när sådana möjligheter väl skapas, designas övningarna i huvudsak som underhållande, sensoriska och affektiva upplevelser. Samtida föreställningar och iscensättningar av negativa framtider förutsätter överväganden kring vad som kan betraktas som troligt eller möjligt, realistiskt eller orealistiskt, avlägset eller nära. Vidare, anläggningar för simuleringsövningar med allmänheten som målgrupp är del i en komplex apparat som involverar politiska, ekonomiska och utbildningsmässiga mål, och som ska balansera aspekter av underhållning, utbildning, stadsplanering, och tillgången till offentliga rum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2020. p. 83
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 322
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-39040 (URN)978-91-88947-52-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-06-12, F234, Kunskapens väg 8, Östersund, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Seminariet kommer att hållas på svenska och engelska.

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbete opublicerat: delarbete 4 inskickat

At the time of the doctoral defence the following paper was unpublished: paper 4 submitted

Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-17 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2019). Governing (through) anticipation, architecture, affect. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Conference of the European Sociological Association, Manchester, 20-23 August, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing (through) anticipation, architecture, affect
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The perceived increase in and transformation of societal insecurities necessitates novel approaches for governing societal responses tofuture disruption (e.g. O’Malley, 2008). One such novel approach is the establishing of public disaster simulation centres to ensure avigilant and prepared population. Societal insecurities do not necessarily mean trans-boundary or de-localized modern risks (in Beck’s,2009, sense), but may just as well imply threats to geographically delimited communities, societies, and regions, for example natureinduced(yet social) disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis, and insecurities originating from extreme weather conditions due to climatechange (e.g. hurricanes, heatwaves, landslides, flooding). This paper presents a case of public simulation centres understood as amanifestation of the Foucauldian notion of self-technology, emphasizing, as it does, the modification of individual conduct: Not only skillsbut also attitudes must be aligned towards the overarching goal of preparedness (Foucault, 1988:18). Based on a diverse assemblage ofempirical sources (e.g. individual’s accounts of their simulation experiences, notes from sensuous ethnographic field work, andgovernmental rationalizing of the need for public simulation centres), the paper puts forward an analysis of the mechanisms andtechnologies by which individuals become “resilient”. One overall tentative conclusion is that the sensuous-affective experiences conveyedby the simulation (like excitement, thrill, discomfort, stress) are intended to have an empowering effect on the participants.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37202 (URN)
Conference
14th Conference of the European Sociological Association, Manchester, 20-23 August, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-12 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2019). Governing (through) anticipation, vigilance, affect. In: : . Paper presented at The 4th Northern European Conference on Emergency and Disaster Studies, NEEDS 2019, Uppsala, June 10-12, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing (through) anticipation, vigilance, affect
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The perceived increase in and transformation of societal insecurities necessitates novelapproaches for governing societal responses to future disruption (e.g. O’Malley, 2008). Onesuch novel approach is the establishing of public disaster simulation centres to ensure avigilant and prepared population. Societal insecurities do not necessarily mean transboundaryor de-localized modern risks (in Beck’s, 2009, sense), but may just as well implythreats to geographically delimited communities, societies, and regions, for example natureinduced(yet social) disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis, and insecurities originating fromextreme weather conditions due to climate change (e.g. hurricanes, heatwaves, landslides,flooding). This paper presents a case of public simulation centres understood as amanifestation of the Foucauldian notion of self-technology, emphasizing, as it does, themodification of individual conduct: not only skills but also attitudes must be aligned towardsthe overarching goal of preparedness (Foucault, 1988:18). In other words, is the proliferationof public simulation centres to be understood as a concrete sign of ongoing processes ofresponsibilization? Alternatively, is it an expression of political and economic prestige: thefact that governments choose to spend huge resources on public preparedness? Based on adiverse assemblage of empirical sources (including individual’s accounts of their simulationexperiences, notes from sensuous ethnographic field work, governmental rationalizing of theneed for public simulation centres, and sketches of a giant simulation centre that was nevermaterialized), the paper puts forward an analysis of the mechanisms and technologies bywhich individuals and communities become “resilient”. One overall tentative conclusion isthat the sensuous-affective experiences conveyed by the simulation (like excitement, thrill,discomfort, stress) are intended to have an empowering effect on the participants.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36767 (URN)
Conference
The 4th Northern European Conference on Emergency and Disaster Studies, NEEDS 2019, Uppsala, June 10-12, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-02 Created: 2019-08-02 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2019). Resilience in Sweden: Governance, Networks, and Learning. In: : . Paper presented at Functional Cities Conference 2019: Resilient Regions Association, Media Evolution City, Malmö, March 28,.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in Sweden: Governance, Networks, and Learning
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35908 (URN)
Conference
Functional Cities Conference 2019: Resilient Regions Association, Media Evolution City, Malmö, March 28,
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2019). Resilient mottagande av flyktingar – ett europeiskt perspektiv.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilient mottagande av flyktingar – ett europeiskt perspektiv
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 37
Series
RCR Working Paper Series ; 2019:2
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36127 (URN)978-91-88947-08-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2019). The Haptic Space of Disaster. Space and Culture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Haptic Space of Disaster
2019 (English)In: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this article is to contribute to discussions on the spatialization of future eventsand, in particular, on enactment as the primary contemporary response to uncertain futures.Realistically simulated disasters is an emerging feature in contemporary public preparednessexercises. The purpose of such simulations is to foster public vigilance and initiative by way ofimmersive experiences of future disasters. This new mode of experiential learning calls for newanalytical concepts that take into account the dynamic relationship between the materialityof experience and the experiencing subject. Therefore, in this article, I propose an analyticalvocabulary derived from recent interjections in visual and cultural studies, human geography,and sociology. More specifically I make use of, and extend, the notions of “haptic space” and“haptic sense” as elaborated by Bruno (2014), Fisher (2012), and Marks (2015). I apply theseconcepts to make sense of my empirical encounter with public simulation centers in Japan andTurkey. Finally, I discuss some implications of the haptic perspective in this context.

Keywords
simulation, atmosphere, experience, materiality, affect
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35981 (URN)10.1177/1206331219840292 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064256367 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2018). Enhancing preparedness through the haptic sense. In: : . Paper presented at The Third Northern European Conference on Emergency and Disaster Studies, NEEDS 2018, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 21-23, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing preparedness through the haptic sense
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this paper is to contribute to discussions on enactment as the premier contemporary response to uncertain futures. Realistically simulated disasters is an emerging feature in contemporary public preparedness exercise programs. The purpose of such simulations is to foster public vigilance and initiative by way of immersive experiences of future disaster. This new mode of experiential learning calls for new analytical concepts that take into account the dynamic relationship between the materiality of experience and the experiencing subject. Therefore, in this paper I propose an analytical vocabulary derived from recent interjections in art theory, film studies, and human geography. More specifically, I make use of, and extend, the notions of “haptic space” and “haptic sense” as elaborated by Bruno (2014), Fisher (2003) and Marks (2015). I apply these concepts to make sense of my empirical encounter with public simulation centres in Japan and Turkey. Finally, I discuss some implications of the haptic perspective.

Keywords
Simulation, Haptic sense
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33385 (URN)
Conference
The Third Northern European Conference on Emergency and Disaster Studies, NEEDS 2018, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 21-23, 2018
Available from: 2018-03-31 Created: 2018-03-31 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2018). On the role of anticipation in risk theory. In: : . Paper presented at The 27th annual conference of the Society for Risk Analysis Europe, SRA-E: From Critical Thinking to Practical Impact, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, June 19, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the role of anticipation in risk theory
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On the role of anticipation in risk theory

Mikael Linnell, RCR

In this paper I discuss anticipation as a key concept in regard to the more established

notions of risk and uncertainty. I argue that anticipation, although closely associated

with the notion of risk, has for a long time remained undertheorized (e.g. Gasparini,

2004:340; Poli, 2014:23, 2017:3). The overall purpose of the paper is thus to illustrate

the fact that anticipation may function as a mediating phenomenon between our

understanding of risk and our concrete practices for coping with uncertain futures. As

have been argued by Adams et al. (2009:246), “one defining quality of our current

moment is its characteristic state of anticipation, of thinking and living toward the

future”. Moreover, Granjou et al. (2017:1), point to a number of recent scholarly

themes, “ranging from an enduring assessment of the ‘not yet’ to the contested

prefiguring of the ‘what if’”, which seems indicative of what might be a reinvigorated

‘futures turn’. This view is shared by Levitas (2013), Nowotny (2016) and Poli (2014),

among others, who note that anticipation is at the heart of urgent risk-related debates,

from climate change to economic crisis. Accordingly, there is obviously reason for

some trans-disciplinary attention to and development of risk theory. In particular, we

need to understand better how to engage with the complexity of anticipation and

explore the knowledge practices associated with future-oriented approaches (e.g.

Adam, 2011; Brown et al., 2000; Mallard and Lakoff, 2011). According to Szerszynski

(2015), what is lacking is a systematic approach to ‘anticipatory regimes’ that enables

us to study how anticipation is understood and practiced in different social formations.

This paper is an attempt in this direction. Although a plethora of recent studies on risk

and risk management focus on the ways in which various actors imagine future

problems and seek to render them governable, the typical “governmental” study of

risk appears to have more or less moved on (O’Malley, 2016:110). Perhaps the

governmentality perspective, as we have come to know it, has now become

normalized and appears as “the ghost in the machinery of a good deal of

contemporary risk analysis – still present, but increasingly invisible” (O’Malley,

2016:110).

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35907 (URN)
Conference
The 27th annual conference of the Society for Risk Analysis Europe, SRA-E: From Critical Thinking to Practical Impact, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, June 19, 2018
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Linnell, M. (2015). Att iscensätta apokalypsen: Zombiemetaforer i den samtida katastrofberedskapen. Sociologisk forskning, 52(2), 155-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att iscensätta apokalypsen: Zombiemetaforer i den samtida katastrofberedskapen
2015 (Swedish)In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 155-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the turn of the millennium, enactment of possible emergencies and catastrophes has become

a most common way of producing knowledge about events yet to occur. Preparedness exercises

are frequently performed by public authorities at local and regional levels. Collaborative

approaches among relevant actors are enhanced and evaluated through simulated accidents and

acts of terror as well as school shootings and epidemic outbreaks. Due to the incalculability of

many modern threats, enactment is employed as a method for rendering potential future events

available as empirical phenomena. However, sometimes these potential futures are represented

in ways that correspond only to imagined and fictional worlds. The aim of this article is to explore

the enactment of unreal possibilities in contemporary preparedness exercises. The empirical

material employed for this purpose consists of crisis plans and exercise guides used in public

and official institutions in the United States as well as qualitative interviews with municipal

safety coordinators in Sweden.

Keywords
Enactment, Irrealis, Metaphors, Preparedness, Uncertainty, Zombies
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25264 (URN)000358107800004 ()2-s2.0-84982243209 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-06-25 Created: 2015-06-25 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4011-8954

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