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Pettersson, Robert
Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
Wallstam, M., Ioannides, D. & Pettersson, R. (2018). Evaluating the social impacts of events: in search of unified indicators for effective policymaking. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the social impacts of events: in search of unified indicators for effective policymaking
2018 (English)In: Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, ISSN 1940-7963, E-ISSN 1940-7971Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Policymakers in destinations regularly struggle to identify effective ways to evaluate the impacts of planned events. Especially problematic is the relative lack of knowledge about the social impacts that planned events incur. This challenge is largely attributable to the historic focus on economic impacts. However, this trend is shifting along with the realization that events often fail to deliver on promised economic trickle-down effects. This paper addresses the absence of a unified view on social impacts, and how this impedes destinations that aspire to work strategically with planned events. Policymakers at the destination level currently lack the common language needed to effectively measure these impacts. We use a Delphi approach to pinpoint social impact indicators that are of use in policy settings. The results show six indicators that meet the study criteria, thereby contributing towards a unified set of indicators for dealing with strategic event management at the destination level.

Keywords
Delphi, destination management, event portfolio, Events, social impacts
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34608 (URN)10.1080/19407963.2018.1515214 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Brown, S., Getz, D., Pettersson, R. & Wallstam, M. (2015). Event evaluation: Definitions, concepts and a state of the art review. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 6(2), 135-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Event evaluation: Definitions, concepts and a state of the art review
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Event and Festival Management, ISSN 1785-2954, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 135-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define event evaluation, develop a conceptual model of its process and elements, review pertinent literature, and draw conclusions pertaining both to the discourse on evaluation and its praxis. Design/methodology/approach – General review of literature and development of a conceptual model of the evaluation process. Findings – The review suggests that impact assessments have dominated, but are only one type of evaluation; research and papers on evaluating the worth of events has been minimal, while those on the evaluation of various management and marketing functions is fragmented. Research limitations/implications – It is concluded that little has been written about evaluation paradigms and systems, although the discourse on sustainability and triple bottom line accountability has led to a greater emphasis on non-economic considerations. Originality/value – The conceptual model of the evaluation process and its components offers a systematic approach to shaping evaluation discourse and methods. Conclusions are drawn on how to advance evaluation research and methods applied to events. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Keywords
Evaluation worth, Impact assessment, Measures, Methods, Value, Worth
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25805 (URN)10.1108/IJEFM-03-2015-0014 (DOI)2-s2.0-84936992275 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Note

Export Date: 28 August 2015

Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Nordvall, A., Pettersson, R., Svensson, B. & Brown, S. (2014). Designing events for social interaction. Event Management, 18(2), 127-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing events for social interaction
2014 (English)In: Event Management, ISSN 1525-9951, E-ISSN 1943-4308, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socialization motivates people to visit events and social interactions between event visitors influence their experience of the event. Consumer-to-consumer interactions in service settings and leisure activities have received increased attention in research; however, very few studies have focused on and analyzed the impact of other visitors on an individual’s event experience. The purpose of this study is to explore how interaction between event visitors influences the individual’s total event experience and how events can be designed in respect to such social interactions. The conclusions are based on a literature review and empirical data collected at a Swedish music festival. The research found that social interactions between event visitors are an important part of the event experience and the level of satisfaction for the individual attending an event. Social interactions consist of three main types: known-group socialization; external socialization; audience socialization. Every part of the event (theme and program, setting, consumables, service) can be designed to facilitate positive experiences and to constrain negative experiences related to such interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2014
Keywords
Event experience; Social interaction; Consumer-to-consumer interaction (CCI); Event design; Music festival
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22420 (URN)10.3727/152599514X13947236947383 (DOI)2-s2.0-84941641357 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2014-07-04 Created: 2014-07-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Getz, D., Svensson, B., Pettersson, R. & Gunnervall, A. (2012). Hallmark events: Definition, goals and planning process. International Journal of Event Management Research, 7(1/2), 47-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hallmark events: Definition, goals and planning process
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Event Management Research, ISSN 1838-0681, Vol. 7, no 1/2, p. 47-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper defines and conceptualizes hallmark events, as there is neither clarity in the literature about what the term means nor the exact roles they should play within a community and tourism context. This generates a model for use by communities and other event-tourism developers. Our model is structured around three main outcome goals (attraction, image and branding, and the community) and three major process goals (sustainability, marketing, and organization and ownership). This paper is the first attempt to define and conceptualize a critical concept in both the event tourism and event management literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IJER, 2012
Keywords
hallmark events, ontology, planning process, model
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21008 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Hallmark Event Innovation
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Laven, D., Saltzman, K., Wetterberg, O., Fredman, P., Lagerqvist, B., Pettersson, R. & Svensson, B. (2011). Exploring the Landscape Tourism: Nexus in Protected Areas in Sweden. Paper presented at ATLAS annual conference 2011. Landscape and tourism: The dualistic relationship. Valmiera, Latvia September 21-23, 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Landscape Tourism: Nexus in Protected Areas in Sweden
Show others...
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18593 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Conference
ATLAS annual conference 2011. Landscape and tourism: The dualistic relationship. Valmiera, Latvia September 21-23, 2011
Available from: 2013-03-14 Created: 2013-03-14 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, R. & Zillinger, M. (2011). Time and space in event behaviour: Tracking visitors by GPS. Tourism Geographies, 13(1), 1-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time and space in event behaviour: Tracking visitors by GPS
2011 (English)In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on tourist mobility in combination with the tourists' experiences has been rare to date. Previous studies focusing on the activities of tourists in time and space have most often used the method of time-space diaries. However, an important flaw in this method is that these recordings depend on the respondents' personal observations and notes. This disadvantage is avoided by using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices, which record their carriers' movements directly, thus replacing personal notes. This new method was used to study the time-space movements of visitors during the Biathlon World Championships 2008 in Östersund, Sweden. In addition to the GPS devices, questionnaires were used to study the tourists' movements and experiences. In trying to combine methods to support the event analysis, the aim of the study is to evaluate the practicability of GPS devices during an out-door sports event. Movements and experiences in time and space are studied. In order to answer questions regarding the visitors' movements on a macro-level, these methods were combined with bird's-eye view photographs taken of the race arena every minute. The overall results of this study thereby contribute to our understanding of time space movements. The questionnaires offer comprehensive background information about the participants and their experiences, although some modifications will have to be made in future studies. The information provided by the photographs substantially complements the itineraries collected by means of GPS. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords
Biathlon world championships, Event tourism, Experiences, Global positioning systems (GPS), Space, Sweden, Time, Visitor flows, GPS, mobility, tourism development, tourist behavior, tracking, Aves, Tourism research, Biathlon world championships, Event tourism, Experiences, Global positioning systems (GPS), Space, Sweden, Time, Visitor flows, GPS, mobility, tourism development, tourist behavior, tracking, Aves, Tourism research, Turism, Turismforskning
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14218 (URN)10.1080/14616688.2010.529932 (DOI)000288279700001 ()2-s2.0-79952503759 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2011-07-19 Created: 2011-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Svensson, B., Pettersson, R. & Zakrisson, I. (2011). Tracking tourists: Mobility, experiences and the supply-demand gap in a Swedish mountain resort. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 3(2), 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking tourists: Mobility, experiences and the supply-demand gap in a Swedish mountain resort
2011 (English)In: Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, ISSN 1757-031X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on method development in the areas of visitor and experience tracking. It is about understanding experiences in a time-spatial framework made up by visits to a particular destination. These issues were identified as central for destination stakeholders in their attempts at meeting or exceeding visitor expectations at their destination. Development of methods here thus aims at supporting producers in generating such knowledge. The approach that emerged was to track and measure tourism experiences with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, follow-up surveys and in-depth interviews. The empirical findings are from a case study of the Swedish mountain resort Åre during the summer of 2008. Results in general partly confirmed what key destination stakeholders intuitively thought of different aspects of the destination, but also brought out new knowledge which seems to have implications for the preparations for coming seasons. These include the realization of the destination‟s unique qualities for "the comfort-seeking nature based tourist" and insights about visitor movements in time and space. On the basis of the latter, three new tourist typologies emerged as potential target groups; the excursion, activity, and village families.

Keywords
Visitor tracking, Experience tracking, Global Positioning System (GPS), mountain resort, Åre.
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15015 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Peak Experiences
Available from: 2011-12-11 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2013-02-08Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, R. (2009). Developing indigenous tourism: Visiting the Sami people of Northern Sweden. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing indigenous tourism: Visiting the Sami people of Northern Sweden
2009 (English)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Revised version of PhD-thesis: Sami tourism in Northern Sweden: supply, demand and interaction, by R. Pettersson (2004). Etour Scientific Book Series V 2004:14. ISBN: 91-974657-2-0.

Indigenous tourism is an expansive sector in the growing tourism industry. The Sami people living in Sápmi in northern Europe have started to engage in tourism, particularly in view of the rationalised and modernised methods of reindeer herding. Sami tourism offers job opportunities and enables the spreading of information. On the other hand, Sami tourism may jeopardise the indigenous culture and harm the sensitive environment in which the Sami live. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the supply and demand of Sami tourism in northern Sweden. This is presented in four articles, preceded by an introductory section describing the purpose, method, theory, background, empirical evidence, and with a discussion and summaries in English and Swedish.

The first two articles describe Sami tourism from a producer (article I) and a consumer perspective (article II), respectively. The question is to what extent the supply of tourist attractions related to the Swedish Sami corresponds to the demand of the tourists.

The first article analyses the potential of the emerging Sami tourism in Sweden, with special emphasis on the access to Sami tourism products. The analysis is conducted by using the four Hs: habitat, heritage, history and handicrafts, as outlined by V.L. Smith. It is assumed that the potential for tourism development is also dependent on the spatial distribution of the tourist attractions, and therefore a geographical dimension has been added to the four Hs. The study shows that there is a growing supply of tourism activities related to the Swedish Sami. The development of tourism is, however, restricted by factors such as the peripheral location and the lack of traditions of entrepreneurship.

The purpose of the second article is to analyse which factors influence tourists when they make their decisions about Sami tourism. In the article the respondents are requested to answer a number of hypothetical questions, ranking their preferences regarding supply, price and access. The method used for this is the Stated Preference method. The study indicates that tourism related to the Sami and Sami culture has a considerable future potential, but also that there is, in some respects, a gap between supply and demand.

In the two following articles the interaction between the supply and demand of Sami tourism is studied at one of the largest Sami tourism attractions: the 400-year-old annual winter festival in Jokkmokk. The festival is studied in the light of its development over time (article III), and with regard to the Sami representation at the festival (article IV).

In the third article the development of the festival is analysed in a study based on interviews, and a study of the application forms submitted by the tradesmen and festival leaflets from the past decades. The development of tourism at the Sami winter festival in Jokkmokk is compared with tourism development models, e.g. the life cycle model as outlined by Butler. The analysis shows that the festival in Jokkmokk, thanks to continuously added attractions, has been able to retain a rather high level of popularity, despite its peripheral location.

Finally, the fourth article analyses to what extent the winter festival in Jokkmokk is a genuinely indigenous event, and to what extent it is staged. This is done by examining the Sami representation at the festival, with regard to its content and its spatial location, but also regarding Sami representation in media. Using primarily qualitative methods, three festival areas are identified: a commercial trading area, an activity-oriented area and finally a cultural area. It is argued that the indigenous culture presented at the festival and in media is highly staged, although backstage experiences are available for the Sami and for the tourists who show a special interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, 2009. p. 151
Keywords
Indigenous tourism, supply-demand gap, events
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10450 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)978-3-639-16938-6 (ISBN)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2009-12-01 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2011-12-20Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, R. & Getz, D. (2009). Event experiences in time and space: a study of the visitors to the 2007 world alpine ski championships in Åre, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 9(2-3), 308-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Event experiences in time and space: a study of the visitors to the 2007 world alpine ski championships in Åre, Sweden
2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 9, no 2-3, p. 308-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The spatial and temporal nature of event experiences was studied through interviews, participant observation and photography at a major sporting event. Results contribute to better understanding of how visitors interact with the event setting and with each other, and help build theory on experiences, their design and management. Event tourists were observed spatially and temporally while enjoying various elements of the host village and four event arenas, while photographs and notes made by participant observers enabled a more focused evaluation of positive and negative experiences. Results identified the importance of social factors, as visitors wanted to be where the others were, revealed that surprise created positive experiences, and identified the existence of experiential “hot spots” defined in both time and space. It is concluded that positive experiences are more important than negative ones in terms of overall satisfaction. Implications are drawn regarding the nature of event experiences, their design and management, and on related methodological development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2009
Keywords
Event experiences, management, temporal/spatial patterns, tourism, Turism, turismforskning
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10448 (URN)10.1080/15022250903119504 (DOI)000272089300011 ()2-s2.0-70450162786 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2009-12-01 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, R. (2009). The Sami winter festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden. In: CM. Hall, D Müller & J Saarinen (Ed.), Nordic Tourism: Issues and cases (pp. 216-219). Bristol: Channel View Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sami winter festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden
2009 (English)In: Nordic Tourism: Issues and cases / [ed] CM. Hall, D Müller & J Saarinen, Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2009, p. 216-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2009
Series
Aspects of Tourism
Keywords
Indigineous tourism, festival, culture event, Turism, Turismforskning
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10449 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)978-1-84541-093-3 (ISBN)978-1-84541-093-0 (ISBN)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2009-12-01 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2011-12-21Bibliographically approved
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