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Carlman, Inga
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Grönlund, E., Brandén Klang, A., Vikman, P.-Å. & Carlman, I. (2018). Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya. Östersund: Mid Sweden University.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emergy methodology questions were raised during a case study where a Sugar factory effluent were treated in a pond system in the Lake Victoria watershed, and evaluated from a performance, cost and resource use perspective. This paper focus on the methodological questions, which were the following: (1) how should the emergy systems diagram be drawn when dealing with a system that is in the recycle loop? Is the wastewater on top in the energy hierarchy (highest transformity) or should the treatment system be located somewhere between the sugar factory on the energy hierarchy top and the dispersed nutrients low down in the energy hierarchy? (2) Rain emergy dominated the local renewable inputs. But how do rain contribute to the wastewater treatment in a pond system, other than as minor dilution? And is evapotranspiration a relevant measure of rain emergy in an aquatic system? (3) Since the case study had a microeconomic focus, is the historical ecosystem work behind lime a relevant item to include from the company's perspective? (4) the wastewater can be considered as a treatment problem, but also as a nutrient and water resource for e.g. irrigation. How does emergy accounting deal with the dualism of a get-rid-of-view and a get-use-of-view? (5) Is the, among some people, controversial maximum empower theory needed for the evaluation of the system, or is the less controversial energy hierarchy theory sufficient for the interpretation? (6) Does the emergy evaluation add any information regarding the sustainability of the pond system?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2018
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-1a
Keyword
emergy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32695 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nielsen, S. N., Ståhl, F., Jonsson, A., Grönlund, E., Carlman, I. & Fröling, M. (2015). A strategic tool to find out regional sustainability methodologies helpingindividuals to make long term decisions. In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, November 1-4, 2015: . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, Novmenber 1-4, 2015. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategic tool to find out regional sustainability methodologies helpingindividuals to make long term decisions
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, November 1-4, 2015, 2015Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a variety of definitions of the concept ‘sustainable’ to be found, and many interestingideas how to measure and evaluate what can be regarded as ‘sustainability’. Meanwhile,whatever the definition is used it must have a strong physical background. There is also acontinuous flow of information and a general awareness about the necessity of taking action,thereby reducing the negative anthropocentric contribution to global warming and ecologicalsystems depletion. A number of visions about (for example) future emission values typically 15-30 years from today are often presented. At the same time there is a continuous political debateabout the balance between individual freedom vs political regulations. The typical individual -standing in the intersection of all this - still seldom gets practical guidelines on how to act in thedaily life to meet future visions. This paper argues that it is necessary to simplify the indicatorsused to evaluate sustainability and at the same time ensure clear instructions of action therebyincreasing the communicability. This is believed to be possible through the application of aholistic approach based upon a detailed mapping, thus making it possible to find out an over-allstrategy and then transform it into specific guidelines for the individual to apply, taking anentrance point in a realistic description of individual everyday life. The regional level is chosenas the most suitable level to work with to keep in touch with the individual level without losingthe strategic possibilities and over-all view when attacking the problem. Without a deep andcommon understanding of the ‘daily life’ in the region, visions and guidelines might show to becounterproductive.For the Swedish region Jämtland, a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydropower, and one major city (Östersund with about 60.000 inhabitants), some industries and skiresorts (the largest being Åre), the method developed by Nielsen and Jørgensen for the minorisland named Samsø in Denmark has been chosen. By building a model for evaluating thecarbon balance and the work energy balances we are able to focus the strategies and make aguideline for individuals. It seems necessary to accept some usage of fossil fuels also in thefuture but we need to see how this usage can be steered to applications where non-fossilalternatives are less realistic. By working with sectors, built together, we are able to work withsub-models without having to compromise on either lower or higher level of societal activities.Compared to the Samsø case, Jämtland is more complex and also much larger (127.000inhabitants compared to Samsø’s 4.000 and with an area about 20% larger than theNetherlands). The sectors chosen are Industry (Businesses other than those covered in othersectors), Agriculture, Forestry, Tourism, Nature, Public, Private (households), Reindeerherding, Wastes and Energy. The budget of each sector is mapped in terms of carbon and workenergy balances as a sub-model of an over-all model of Jämtland. By finding out the limits(constrains) from simulations carried out on the region it is possible to set for example carbonand energy budgets as basis for personal guidelines for the citizens of the region.The major idea is that most citizens of the region will understand and adapt to such guidelinesto an extent that may induce a change of individual behavioral patterns thus turning the regiontowards sustainability. Jämtland has a specific “culture” which can be used to create proudnessand interest for the sustainability aims. It is important to arrange a platform that serves to shapea fruitful dialogue between all stakeholders – from individual to groups – that will make itpossible to create a common plan for measurements to be implemented, i.e. a concertedgovernance which ensure and guarantee a future of optimal existence for ecosystems as wellas human beings.

Keyword
Sustainability evaluation, Carbon balance, Work energy, Societal transition
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26231 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, Novmenber 1-4, 2015
Available from: 2015-11-08 Created: 2015-11-08 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
Longueville, A., Whitten, P. & Carlman, I. (2015). Can We Get “Alternatives Analysis Redux” Please?. In: IAIA15 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at Impact Assessment in the Digital Era, 35th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can We Get “Alternatives Analysis Redux” Please?
2015 (English)In: IAIA15 Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keyword
environmental impact assessment; alternatives
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25537 (URN)
Conference
Impact Assessment in the Digital Era, 35th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment
Available from: 2015-07-14 Created: 2015-07-14 Last updated: 2015-09-04Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Fröling, M. & Carlman, I. (2015). Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services. Ecological Modelling, 306, 101-105.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Donor values in emergy assessment of ecosystem services
2015 (English)In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are currently many definitions of ecosystem services in use. Common for them is an aim to visualize contributions, assets and costs not traditionally covered by market valuations, thus often giving the ecosystems much lower value than their importance to economy. Emergy accounting, with its approach of donor values in contrast to receiver or market values, is one approach to assess contributions from the ecosystems and increase our understanding of the values of ecosystem services.

Other authors have connected the donor-side approach with a user side approach for ecological services. In this paper, we investigate the donor-side more in depth, and put up an emergy model with two possible main paths to assess the values for the ecosystem services: (1) the emergy values of the natural driving forces (DrivEES), such as sun, rain, wind and land cycle and (2) the emergy values delivered directly to the human society and economy (FuncESS, ecosystem function ecosystem services). The first approach can be assessed with the common calculation procedure of emergy accounting; the second includes more challenging feedback flows of different types. The implications of these different feedback flows are discussed in this paper. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology of supporting, providing, regulating and cultural ecosystem services relate primarily to the emergy FuncESS flows.

Keyword
Receiver valuation, Donor valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, TEEB
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23414 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.011 (DOI)000355708000012 ()2-s2.0-84929158531 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Fröling, M., Grönlund, E. & Carlman, I. (2015). From environmental problems to sustainable development and towards resilience: Development over time of a university program inenvironmental science aiming for action competences. In: : . Paper presented at 8th World Environmental Education Congress – WEEC 2015 Planet and People - how can they develop togehter?, Göteborg, Sweden, Juni 29 - Juli 2 2015. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From environmental problems to sustainable development and towards resilience: Development over time of a university program inenvironmental science aiming for action competences
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction:During the latest decades society has developed from an environmental awareness, with reactive thinking, of the “preBrundtland age” into having sustainability as the goal for human development after the Rio declaration. Lately, within the environmentalscientific sphere, the concept of resilience is increasingly superimposed on the sustainability paradigm. It is seen as important both forunderstanding of the present situation as well as a necessity for societies to survive in times of rapid change. During this period from “preBrundtland” until today when resilience is in focus, the environmental science program of Ecotechnology started, developed and changed inresponse to changes in society. A goal, from the very beginning of the educational program, has been to empower students to take action.The types of action and how action competence has been perceived, has changed over the three decades the program has been running.

Objectives: Environmental science and sustainability is often difficult to teach since it demands an interdisciplinary approach stretching overthe traditional faculty division of natural, social, and engineering sciences. At Mid Sweden University these three branches have beenintegrated in Ecotechnology education for 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interdisciplinary teaching with special focuson the development of the student’s action competence for sustainable development, in the light of how the environmental issues havedeveloped.

Methods: The paper has a descriptive approach exploring the experiences from the 30 years of interdisciplinary teaching.

Results: Different teaching methods and strategies have been employed over time, partly in sync with changing overarching societal goals.

Conclusion: Some observations are 1) a key element to develop action competence is to push students to a self-propelled learning behaviorrather than traditional teaching of facts, 2) to not too easily provide the students with answers will develop problem solving skills, 3) “doingbefore-reading” teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge.

Keyword
descriptive approach exploring experiences from 30 years of interdisciplinary teaching
National Category
Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25542 (URN)
Conference
8th World Environmental Education Congress – WEEC 2015 Planet and People - how can they develop togehter?, Göteborg, Sweden, Juni 29 - Juli 2 2015
Available from: 2015-07-15 Created: 2015-07-15 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
Mikaelsson, L.-Å., Carlman, I., Fröling, M., Jonsson, A., Danielski, I., Grönlund, E., . . . Nilsson, N. (2015). Hållbara utvecklingsprocesser. Projektrapport 2015-03-31. Mittuniversitetet/Tillväxtverket.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbara utvecklingsprocesser. Projektrapport 2015-03-31
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mittuniversitetet/Tillväxtverket, 2015. p. 56
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26283 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-06-27Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nielsen, S. N., Grönlund, E., Ståhl, F., Jonsson, A., Carlman, I. & Fröling, M. (2015). Interdisciplinary Cooperation And System Modelling As Means To Govern The Anthropocene. In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences: . Paper presented at 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences; Scandic Berlin Potsdamer PlatzBerlin; Germany; 2 August 2015 through 7 August 2015; Code 121844. international society for the systems sciences (ISSS).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interdisciplinary Cooperation And System Modelling As Means To Govern The Anthropocene
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, international society for the systems sciences (ISSS) , 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global development has now come to a critical state where humanity act as a new geological force and it is obvious that there are numerous of environmental problems which arise from the present geosphere-biosphere-anthroposphere interactions which urgently need to be addressed. This paper argues that systems analysis and modelling of environmental systems is one necessary part in successful governing of societies towards sustainability. In the 1960th many observations and data made it evident that the environment in most countries was in a bad state. To get a holistic view of the complex problems and to clarify the relationships of structure and function, systems thinking was applied e.g. modelling, cybernetics, systems analysis, life cycle assessment and energy and material flow analysis. Such tools used collectively, conceptualized as ‘integrated assessment’, can help to communicate fundamental knowledge, and to support decision-making when identifying, developing and implementing precautionary measures and solutions. There are good examples demonstrating the strength of such approaches; Solutions to the ozone depletion by replacing CFC’s with more chemically reactive compounds that are degraded within the troposphere. Acidification of European low buffer soils and lakes, sensitive to acid rain, has decreased due to concerted action on Sulphur emission control in large parts of Europe. The handling and recycling of solid waste has resulted in a considerable reduction of deposits in large parts of the world. This basically natural scientific knowledge has also influenced the development within e.g. economy and jurisprudence and today ecological economy and environmental law assume ecological systems as fundamental.

The complexity of ecosystems and environmental issues can only be understood by use of advanced scientific tools such as modelling as a base for establishing interdisciplinary co-operation. Each component of such models will of course be an approximation, but validation and verification of the models will serve to make them useful. An ongoing research project at Mid Sweden University aims at building a complete carbon and energy balance model of an entire Swedish region, based on the Danish Samsø-model. Such models will make it possible to refer to a robust scientific base, thereby making it easier to argue for appropriate measures and actions. At the same time it will be clear what data these actions rest upon thereby making it easier to identify possible errors or limitations.

Systems analysis and subsequent modes are constructs. According to systems theory and model development they are strategies as the best representations of nature, we can make. At the same time it must be assured, that a continuous adaptation and improvement in a studied area is possible - i.e. that model outcomes are matched with phenomenological observations and that empirical work also is carried out. Model development can therefore be characterized as a dynamic and iterative process.

Governance in the Anthropocene must be based on an understanding of the problem picture at hand, and learning how to appropriately address increasingly complex issues. For identifying potential solutions and consequences of policy implementation, systems modelling on relevant levels will be one necessary tool. The current project developing an environmental regional model, illustrates how modelling can provide decision support for the county of Jämtland regarding management of energy resources and planning of future infrastructure, as well as serving regional and national information purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
international society for the systems sciences (ISSS), 2015
Keyword
Integrated Assessment, Regional sustainability, Governing Anthropocene, Ecological modelling, Interdisciplinary cooperation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25797 (URN)2-s2.0-84976466711 (Scopus ID)978-151082337-2 (ISBN)
Conference
59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences; Scandic Berlin Potsdamer PlatzBerlin; Germany; 2 August 2015 through 7 August 2015; Code 121844
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2016-07-21Bibliographically approved
Carlman, I., Grönlund, E. & Longueville, A. (2015). Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation. Ecological Modelling, 306, 95-100.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation
2015 (English)In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

Keyword
Ecological modelling, EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), Governing states, Interdisciplinarity, Legal operationalisation, Societal steering systems, Systems thinking
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23415 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.010 (DOI)000355708000011 ()2-s2.0-84929221631 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. & Carlman, I. (2014). A systems ecology view on sustainable wastewater treatment. In: Kazala F., Lundström J., Rosenlund J., Hogland W. (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2014, Kalmar, Sweden, November 24-26, 2014. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems ecology view on sustainable wastewater treatment
2014 (English)In: / [ed] Kazala F., Lundström J., Rosenlund J., Hogland W., 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, were connected in a systems ecology model with focus on wastewater treatment. Life Cycle Assessment and similar approaches are the most common systems analysis models in the wastewater treatment context. These models are beneficial, but are not the only possible approach to systems analysis. The model in this paper showed that the social and economic dimensions were inseparable intertwined, and both of them dependent on the environmental dimension for ecosystem services in the form of natural resources and regenerating capacity. The holistic view, as applied by a systems ecology approach, put focus on how sustainable wastewater treatment are limited to deliver something that can be assimilated by the environmental systems, and in the best applications,  produce something that is again useful to the society.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23522 (URN)
Conference
Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2014, Kalmar, Sweden, November 24-26, 2014
Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2014-12-10Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Fröling, M. & Carlman, I. (2014). Ecotechnology at Mid Sweden University – 30 years of Education in Environmental Consciousness and Entrepreneurship. In: : . Paper presented at NIES X / ECOHUM Research Symposium, Rethinking Environmental Consciousness, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, 5–8 December 2014, 2014. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecotechnology at Mid Sweden University – 30 years of Education in Environmental Consciousness and Entrepreneurship
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

1983 was the starting year for an interdisciplinary and sustainability oriented education at Mid Sweden University. In this paper–30 years later–the different versions of the educational program over the years is examined with a focus on developing the students’ environmental consciousness. In 1983 the “slogan” for the education was: “Ecology, economy and technology in cooperation for sustainable development”. In the first decade after the millennia shift the education took a more international focus attracting students from countries all over the world.  A Master’s level was added and the first graduate students received their Ph.D. during this period. The latest development is to split the Bachelor’s program into three “sister” programs complementing the “old” Ecotechnology students with Ecoengineers, given a slightly more traditional engineer focus (but still interdisciplinary), and Ecoentrepreneurs with more social entrepreneur focus. Is a next interesting step to increase the interdiciplinarity even more over the faculties, towards the humanities?

Keyword
sustainability education, problem based learning
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24021 (URN)
Conference
NIES X / ECOHUM Research Symposium, Rethinking Environmental Consciousness, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, 5–8 December 2014, 2014
Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2014-12-30Bibliographically approved
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