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Norlin, Börje
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Rahman, H., An, S., Norlin, B., Fröjdh, C., Persson, E. & Engstrand, P. (2019). Maximized wood chip impregnation efficiency validated by new miniaturized X-ray fluorescence techniques. In: : . Paper presented at 11th Fundamental Mechanical Pulp Research Seminar, Norrköping, Sweden, April 2-4, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximized wood chip impregnation efficiency validated by new miniaturized X-ray fluorescence techniques
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Manufacturing of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is increasing due to increased demand for packaging materials such as cardboard as well as tissue and other hygiene products. Today high yield pulp (HYP) is produced from different wood species. It is well-known that chip-refining is normally responsible for more than 60% of the electric energy consumption in most high yield pulping process. There are opportunities to improve energy efficiency and quality stability in defibration processes by means of optimizing impregnation. Impregnation is a key unit operation in CTMP production as well as in all chemical pulping and biorefinery systems. The efficiency of the impregnation is known to be crucial (Ferritsius et al. 1985; Gorski et al. 2010). Early research showed difficulties to achieve even distribution of sulphite and sodium ions in wood chips resulting in inhomogeneous fibre properties (Bengtsson et al. 1988). Increased and homogenous sulphonation leads to reduced shive content, which is a key factor in all end product applications. To address this issue developing a new type miniaturized X-ray based technique (XRF) to measure local concentration of sulphur and sodium across wood chips and in individual fibres could become a key tool.

 

The presence of elements as sulphur and sodium can be detected by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) or spectral absorption. At the XRF, images the surface of the sample using specific energies from K-shell or L-shell fluorescence. This method is investigated at the X-ray laboratory in Mid Sweden University research centre STC (Sensitive Things that Communicate) (Norlin et al. 2018). At the spectral absorption, images specific K-shell absorption energies in transmission X-ray images of the sample, a method widely used in medical diagnosis. This transmission method might also be further investigated for this application in the future (Frojdh et al. 2013; Reza et al. 2013). Both methods can be validated by using monoenergetic radiation from synchrotron facilities.

 

An XRF imaging system uses a collimated X-ray source and a spectroscopic detector. The sample is scanned to make an image of the content of the substances of interest. A specific challenge in this case is that the low energy fluorescence photons from sulphur (S) and sodium (Na) are easily absorbed in air, which makes imaging in a different atmosphere necessary.

 

The measurement setup has been simulated using MCNP (C. J. Werner, 2017) to validate the system setup and to select the correct, geometry, shielding, filtering and atmosphere for the measurement. The solution was to use a titanium box flooded with helium to minimise the absorption of fluorescence photons and to shield from scattered photons that might disturb the measurement, fig 1. A filter has been added to the X-ray source to make it nearly monoenergetic and to avoid emission of photons with energies close to the expected fluorescence. The system has been used to estimate sodium and sulphur content in low grammage handsheet (CTMP) or single wood chip samples. It is possible to build a laboratory instrument similar to the prototype setup to obtain the distribution of sodium and sulphur in XRF imaging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Photograph of XRF measurement setup with of moveable Helium atmosphere Ti box

However, the technique we are developing can become useful in mills to improve and control process efficiency, product properties and to find solutions to process problems in future. In addition, a more even distribution of the sulphonation can reduce specific energy demand in chip refining at certain shive content.

 

References

 

1.      Bengtsson, G., Simonson, R., Heitner, C., Beatson, R., and Ferguson, C. (1988): Chemimechanical pulping of birch wood chips, Part 2: Studies on impregnation of wood blocks using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 3 (3), 132-138.

2.      C. J. Werner, (2017): MCNP User's manual, Code Version 6.2, Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA-UR-17-29981.

3.      Ferritsius, O., and Moldenius, S. (1985): The effect of impregnation method on CTMP properties. In International Mechanical Pulping Conference Proceedings, SPCI, Stockholm (p. 91).

4.      Frojdh, C., Norlin, B. and Frojdh, E. (2013): Spectral X-ray imaging with single photon processing detectors, Journal of Instrumentaion, Volume 8, Article number C02010.  

5.      Gorski, D., Hill, J., Engstrand, P., and Johansson, L. (2010): Reduction of energy consumption in TMP refining through mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J, 25(2), 156-161.

6.      Norlin, B., Reza, S., Fröjdh, C. and Nordin, T. (2018): Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence, Journal of Instrumentation, Volume: 13, Article number C01021.

7.      Reza, S., Norlin, B. and Thim, J. (2013): Non-destructive method to resolve the core and the coating on paperboard by spectroscopic x-ray imaging, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 28 (3), 439-442.

 

Keywords
High Yield Pulp, XRF, CTMP
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36216 (URN)978-91-88527-95-0 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Fundamental Mechanical Pulp Research Seminar, Norrköping, Sweden, April 2-4, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Norlin, B., Reza, S., Fröjdh, C. & Nordin, T. (2018). Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence. Paper presented at 19th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2017), Krakow, Poland, 2-6 July, 2017. Journal of Instrumentation, 13(1), Article ID C01021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence
2018 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, no 1, article id C01021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paperboard is typically made up of a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5] and a coating layer of [CaCO3]. The uniformity of these layers is a critical parameter for the printing quality. Current quality control methods include chemistry based visual inspection methods as well as X-ray based methods to measure the coating thickness. In this work we combine the X-ray fluorescence signals from the Ca atoms (3.7 keV) in the coating and from a Cu target (8.0 keV) placed behind the paper to simultaneously measure both the coating and the fibers. Cu was selected as the target material since its fluorescence signal is well separated from the Ca signal while its fluorescence's still are absorbed sufficiently in the paper. A laboratory scale setup is built using stepper motors, a silicon drift detector based spectrometer and a collimated X-ray beam. The spectroscopic image is retrieved by scanning the paperboard surface and registering the fluorescence signals from Ca and Cu. The exposure time for this type of setups can be significantly improved by implementing spectroscopic imaging sensors. The material contents in the layers can then be retrieved from the absolute and relative intensities of these two signals.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32724 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01021 (DOI)000422899200004 ()2-s2.0-85041817589 (Scopus ID)
Conference
19th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2017), Krakow, Poland, 2-6 July, 2017
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Norlin, B., Reza, S. & Fröjdh, C. (2017). X-ray fluorescence measurements of toxic metal content in ash from municipal solid waste incineration. In: 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD): . Paper presented at 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), Strasbourg, France, 29 Oct.-6 Nov. 2016. IEEE, 2017-January, Article ID 8069695.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray fluorescence measurements of toxic metal content in ash from municipal solid waste incineration
2017 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), IEEE, 2017, Vol. 2017-January, article id 8069695Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The vision of this paper is development of an online X-ray fluorescence method for monitoring of metal content in ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. With such measurements directly on site it is possible to optimize an ash washing process in incineration plants, allowing the fly ash to be stored in a landfill for non-hazardous waste. The presented X-ray fluorescence measurement assures that the measurement accuracy is sufficient for metal content monitoring. The actual measurement process is also fast enough to be possible to implement as an online measurement method. The optimal measurement setup is different for different metals. Several different metals might need environmental monitoring, which metals might vary over time due to systematic variations in waist content. Detection of a wide range of metals will require an X-ray source with variable voltage and multiple detectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31947 (URN)10.1109/NSSMIC.2016.8069695 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041723656 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), Strasbourg, France, 29 Oct.-6 Nov. 2016
Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Reza, S., Chang, H., Norlin, B., Fröjdh, C. & Thungström, G. (2015). Detecting Cr Contamination In Water Using X-Ray Fluorescence. In: 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference: . Paper presented at 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015; San Diego; United States; 31 October 2015 through 7 November 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 7581750.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting Cr Contamination In Water Using X-Ray Fluorescence
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, article id 7581750Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the rapid growth in population and the overwhelming demand of industrial consumer products around the world, the amount of generated wastes is also increasing. Therefore, the optimal utilization of wastes and the waste management policies are very important in order to protect the environment[1]. The most common way of waste management is to dispose them into city dumps and landfills. These disposal sites may produce toxic and green house gases and also a substantial amount of leachate, which can affect the environment[2]. Leachate is liquid, which, while percolating through wastes in a landfill, extracts soluble and suspended solids. Leachate contains toxic and harmful substances, such as Chromium (Cr), Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Benzene, Chloroform and Methylene Chloride, and can contaminate surface water and aquifers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
National Category
Engineering and Technology Health Sciences Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26295 (URN)10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7581750 (DOI)2-s2.0-84994225825 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015; San Diego; United States; 31 October 2015 through 7 November 2015
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
Norlin, B., Reza, S., Krapohl, D., Fröjdh, E. & Thungström, G. (2015). Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system. Paper presented at 16th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2014). Journal of Instrumentation, 10, Article ID C05025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, article id C05025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

Keywords
Charge transport and multiplication in solid media; Hybrid detectors; X-ray detec- tors; Imaging spectroscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24977 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/10/05/C05025 (DOI)000357993300025 ()2-s2.0-84930958451 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
16th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2014)
Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Thim, J., Reza, S., O'Nils, M. & Norlin, B. (2015). X-ray imaging of high velocity moving objects by scanning summation using a single photon processing system. Paper presented at 16th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2014. Journal of Instrumentation, Article ID C04023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray imaging of high velocity moving objects by scanning summation using a single photon processing system
2015 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, article id C04023Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

X-ray imaging has been used extensively in the manufacturing industry. In the paper and paperboard industry X-ray imaging has been used for measuring parameters such as coat weight, using mean values of X-ray absorption inline in the manufacturing machines. Recently, an interest has surfaced to image paperboard coating with pixel resolved images showing material distribution in the coating on the paperboard, and to do this inline in the paper machine. Naturally, imaging with pixel resolution in an application where the paperboard web travels with velocities in the order on 10 m/s sets harsh demands on the X-ray source and the detector system to be used. This paper presents a scanning imaging method for single photon imaging systems that lower the demands on the source flux by hundreds of times, enabling a system to be developed for high velocity industrial measurement applications. The paper presents the imaging method, a discussion of system limitations, simulations and real measurements in a laboratory environment with a moving test object of low velocity, all to verify the potential and limits of the proposed method.

Keywords
Pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics, Inspection with x-rays, Electronic detector readout concepts (solid-state), Detector control systems (detector and experiment monitoring and slow-control systems, architecture, hardware, algorithms, databases)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24734 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/10/04/C04023 (DOI)000357961700023 ()STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
16th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2014
Available from: 2015-03-26 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Reza, S., Pelzer, G., Weber, T., Fröjdh, C., Bayer, F., Anton, G., . . . Norlin, B. (2014). Investigation on the directional dark-field signals from paperboards using a grating interferometer. Journal of Instrumentation, 9, Art. no. C04032
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on the directional dark-field signals from paperboards using a grating interferometer
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, p. Art. no. C04032-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent advancements in the grating interferometer based Phase Contrast X-ray Imag- ing (PCXI) technique enables high quality dark-field images to be obtained using conventional X-ray tubes. The dark-field images map the scattering inhomogeneities inside objects. Since, the dark-field image is constructed by considering only those photons which are scattered while pass- ing through the objects, it can reveal useful information about the object inner structures, such as, the fibre structures inside paperboards.

The end-use performance of paperboards, such as the printing quality and the stiffness de-pends on the uniformity in the thickness and the structures of the coating layer of the paperboards. The uniformity in the coating layer is determined by the coating techniques, the coating materials and the topography of the base sheet. In this article, the dark-field signals from four paperboard samples with different quality indices are analysed. The isotropic and the anisotropic scattering coefficients for all of the samples have been calculated. Based on the correlation between the isotropic coefficients and the quality indices of the paperboards, a new method for paperboard quality measurement has been suggested.

Keywords
Data processing methods, Inspection with x-rays, Interferometry, X-ray detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21822 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/9/04/C04032 (DOI)000336123800032 ()2-s2.0-84899557220 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-04-24 Created: 2014-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Thungström, G., Harrnsdorf, L., Norlin, B., Reza, S., Krapohl, D., Mattsson, S. & Gunnarsson, M. (2013). Measurement of the sensitive profile in a solid state silicon detector, irradiated by X-rays. Paper presented at 14th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors; 1-5 July 2012; Figueira da Foz, PORTUGAL. Journal of Instrumentation, 8(4), Art. no. C04004
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of the sensitive profile in a solid state silicon detector, irradiated by X-rays
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, no 4, p. Art. no. C04004-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A newly constructed solid state silicon dose profile detector is characterized concerning its sensitive profile. The use of the MEDIPIX2 sensor system displays an excellent method to align an image of an X-ray slit to a sample under test. The scanning from front to reverse side of the detector, show a decrease in sensitivity of 20%, which indicates a minority charge carrier lifetime of 0.18 ms and a diffusion length of 460 μm. The influence of diced edges results in a volumetric efficiency of 59%, an active volume of 1.2 mm 2 of total 2.1 mm2.

Keywords
Computerized Tomography (CT) and Computed Radiography (CR); Dosimetry concepts and apparatus; Solid state detectors; X-ray detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18741 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/8/04/C04004 (DOI)000317462400004 ()2-s2.0-84877780840 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
14th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors; 1-5 July 2012; Figueira da Foz, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Reza, S., Norlin, B., Thim, J. & Fröjdh, C. (2013). Non-Destructive Method to Resolve the Core and the Coating on Paperboard by Spectroscopic X-ray Imaging. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 28(3), 439-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Destructive Method to Resolve the Core and the Coating on Paperboard by Spectroscopic X-ray Imaging
2013 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 439-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quality control is an important issue in the paperboard industry. A typical sheet of paperboard contains a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5], coated on one or both sides with layers of calcium carbonate [CaCO3] or Kaolin [Al2Si2O5(OH)4]. One of the major properties of a good quality paperboard is the consistency of the expected ratio between the thickness of the core and the coating layers. A measurement system to obtain this ratio could assist the paperboard industry to monitor the quality of their products in an automatic manner. In this work, the thicknesses of the core and the coating layers on a paperboard with coating layer on only one side were measured using an X-ray imaging technique. However, the limited spectral and spatial resolution offered by the measurement system being used led to the measured thicknesses of the layers being lower than their actual thicknesses in the paperboard sample. Suggestions have been made in relation to overcoming these limitations and to enhance the performance of the method. A Monte Carlo N-particle code simulation has been used in order to verify the suggested method.

Keywords
Spectroscopic X-ray imaging, Thickness measurement of layers in paperboard, Paperboard quality
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18400 (URN)000325145900014 ()2-s2.0-84883036103 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2013-01-31 Created: 2013-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Fröjdh, E., Fröjdh, C., Gimenez, E. N., Krapohl, D., Maneuski, D., Norlin, B., . . . Zain, R. M. (2013). Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60(4), 2864-2869
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam
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2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 2864-2869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 mu m and 110 mu m) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-thresholdmode. The time-over-thresholdmode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects, indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out on the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

Keywords
CdTe, CdTe characterization, CdTe detectors, charge collection, charge sharing, charge trapping, defect characterization, defects, detectors, photon counting, radiation detectors, X-ray detectors, X-rays
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19922 (URN)10.1109/TNS.2013.2257851 (DOI)000323451800006 ()2-s2.0-84882896824 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2013-10-10 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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