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Ainegren, Mats
Publications (10 of 29) Show all publications
Ainegren, M., Tuplin, S., Carlsson, P. & Render, P. (2019). Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 233(1), 86-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

Keywords
Aerodynamic drag, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, gravitational force, oxygen uptake, physiology, rain, rolling resistance, treadmill
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34649 (URN)10.1177/1754337118801729 (DOI)000460054400010 ()
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 163382
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Ainegren, M., Jensen, K. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). Breathing resistance in automated metabolic systems is high in comparison with the Douglas Bag method and previous recommendations. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 232(2), 122-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breathing resistance in automated metabolic systems is high in comparison with the Douglas Bag method and previous recommendations
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the resistance (RES) to breathing in metabolic systems used for the distribution and measurement of pulmonary gas exchange. A mechanical lung simulator was used to standardize selected air flow rates ( , L/s). The delta pressure (∆p, Pa) between ambient air and the air inside the equipment was measured in the breathing valve’s mouthpiece adapter for four metabolic systems and four types of breathing valves. RES for the inspiratory and expiratory sides was calculated as RES = ∆p / , Pa/L/s. The results for RES showed significant (p < 0.05) between-group variance among the tested metabolic systems, as well as the breathing valves and between most of the completed . The lowest RES among the metabolic systems was found for a Douglas Bag system, with approximately half of the RES compared to the automated metabolic systems. The automated systems were found to have higher RES already at low  in comparison to previous recommendations. For the hardware components, the highest RES was found for the breathing valves while the lowest RES was found for the hoses. Conclusion: The results showed that RES in metabolic systems can be minimized through conscious choices of system design and hardware components. 

Keywords
Breathing valve, delta pressure, flow meter, hose, mixing chamber, oxygen uptake
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29508 (URN)10.1177/1754337117715946 (DOI)000432622900006 ()2-s2.0-85047149312 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-12 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Ainegren, M. & Jonsson, P. (2018). Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques. In: Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at ISEA 2018, Brisbane, Australia. MDPI, 2, Article ID 313.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques
2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 313Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the air drag, frontal area and coefficient of drag of cross-country skiing classical and free style techniques. One highly skilled cross-country skier performed skiing-like classical and free style techniques on a force plate in a wind tunnel. The skier was also photographed from the front in order to analyze the projected frontal area, which was determined from digital images using Matlab. From the results of the air drag and the frontal area measurements, the drag coefficient was also calculated. The results can be used by researchers to calculate the theoretical effect of air drag on cross-country skiing performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
aerodynamic drag, cross-country skiing, force plate, wind tunnel
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34943 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060313 (DOI)
Conference
ISEA 2018, Brisbane, Australia
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 2016/6
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
Koptioug, A., Bäckström, M., Ainegren, M. & Nilsson, K. (2018). Studying Moisture Transport Trough "Active" Fabrics Using Humidity-Temperature Sensor Nodes. In: Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at 12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018 (pp. 230). , 2, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying Moisture Transport Trough "Active" Fabrics Using Humidity-Temperature Sensor Nodes
2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 230-, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Active fabrics providing better comfort of the garments and footwear rapidly become an essential part of our life. However, only limited information about the performance of such fabrics is commonly available for the garment and footwear designers, and tests are often done only with the final products. Thus development of the objective testing methods for the fabric assemblies containing microporous membranes and garments using them is one of the important topics. Garment tests in the climate chamber when exercising in windy and rainy conditions with a set of temperature and humidity sensors placed over the body allow comparing manufactured garments for thermal and humidity comfort. To allow for better material testing a new laboratory setup was developed for studying the dynamics of the humidity transport through different fabrics at realistic conditions in extension of the existing ISO test procedure. Present paper discusses the experimental procedures and first results acquired with new setup.

Keywords
active fabrics, garments comfort, microporous membranes, humidity transport, experimental setup
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32499 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060230 (DOI)
Conference
12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018
Projects
STII
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Koptyug, A., Ainegren, M., Bäckström, M., Schieber, E. & Persson, J. (2016). Possibility of modern humidity sensor application in the studies ofmoisture transport through the sports and outdoor garments. In: icSPORTS 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support: . Paper presented at 4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support, icSPORTS 2016; Porto; Portugal; 7 November 2016 through 9 November 2016 (pp. 51-58). Portugal: SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibility of modern humidity sensor application in the studies ofmoisture transport through the sports and outdoor garments
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2016 (English)In: icSPORTS 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support, Portugal: SciTePress, 2016, p. 51-58Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sensor nodes containing pairs of temperature and humidity sensors were assessed as a mean of garmentperformance and comfort studies. Modern sensors are small, low weight and produce minimal disturbancewhen placed under the garments and in the footwear. Four sensor nodes were used to provide dynamicinformation about heat and humidity transfer properties of garments during the tests in realistic conditions.Pilot studies were carried out for the few models of cross country skiing garments and waders. Main studieswere carried out in the wind tunnel at Mid Sweden University having pivoted treadmill, temperature controland rain capacity. Additional experiments with the waders were carried out in a large water tank. Studies ofthe temperature and humidity dynamics under the garments containing microporous membranes illustratethe importance of recognizing main features of such materials. In particular, such membranes can onlytransport moisture from the side where humidity is higher. It means that garments and footwear containingsuch membranes will potentially behave differently when ambient air humidity changes. In particular,modern garments with incorporated microporous membranes being superior at low ambient air humidity canbe dramatically less effective for moisture transfer from the body in the rain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Portugal: SciTePress, 2016
Series
Scitepress Digital Library
Keywords
Sports and outdoor garments, comfort, moisture transport, experimental studies, wind tunnel
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29481 (URN)10.5220/0006080400510058 (DOI)000391109600005 ()2-s2.0-85006483804 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-205-9 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support, icSPORTS 2016; Porto; Portugal; 7 November 2016 through 9 November 2016
Projects
STII
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2018-01-17Bibliographically approved
Andersson, F., Skoglund, P., Viktorsson, J. & Ainegren, M. (2015). A Portable Douglas Bag System. In: Hakkarainen Anni, Lindinger Stefan, Linnamo Vesa (Ed.), Congress Proceedings: ICSNS 2015. Paper presented at 3rd International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing, ICSNS 2015, Vuokatti, Finland (pp. 59).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Portable Douglas Bag System
2015 (English)In: Congress Proceedings: ICSNS 2015 / [ed] Hakkarainen Anni, Lindinger Stefan, Linnamo Vesa, 2015, p. 59-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
3D-printing, oxygen uptake, thoracic three-way valve
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26335 (URN)978-951-39-6216-6 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing, ICSNS 2015, Vuokatti, Finland
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2015-12-01Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, P., Ainegren, M., Tinnsten, M., Sundström, D., Esping, B., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Cross-Country Ski. In: Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E. (Ed.), The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports: (pp. 107-152). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Country Ski
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2015 (English)In: The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports / [ed] Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E., Springer, 2015, p. 107-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski orienteering are competitive sports with practitioners who are mostly from countries in the northern hemisphere. The competition season is during the time when the ground is covered with snow, which roughly extends from mid-November to late March. During the rest time of the year, which is a long preparatory period of training for the skiers before the competition season, the skiers use roller skis for dryland training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Furthermore, over the last few decades, fairly specific indoor testing methods for cross-country skiers have become possible due to the development of treadmills that allow roller skiing using classical and freestyle techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26337 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4939-3020-3_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-84955660951 (Scopus ID)978-1-4939-3019-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
Koptyug, A. & Ainegren, M. (2015). Experimental measurement of rifle dynamics during the range shooting of biathlon weapons. In: Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Pang T.Y. and Takla M. (Ed.), Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Tecnology on Sport VI. Paper presented at 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015 (pp. 349-354). Elsevier, 112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental measurement of rifle dynamics during the range shooting of biathlon weapons
2015 (English)In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Tecnology on Sport VI / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Pang T.Y. and Takla M., Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 112, p. 349-354Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Some of the shooting training that biathletes implements takes place indoors, even in hotel rooms or at home, through so-called "dry firing" training. It involves imitating shooting at a target with real rifle but without ammunition, when the result is evaluated by various electronic devices counting the number of virtual hits. But dry firing cannot adequately represent real shooting, as it does not produce any rifle recoil, which significantly limits its value for the training. To reach a higher realism of the dry firing training a system mimicking the weapon recoil is therefore needed. Present research aims to overcome an existing lack of dataon the dynamics ofsmall caliber rifles recoil dynamics. Present paper describes first measurement results acquired in the controlled environment of the shooting range. Two types of experiments were carried out with firing freely suspended rifle and when backed with the force measurement device (load cell). Average recoil peak force values were reaching 5 kg, rising from zero forabout 10-15 ms and keeping altogether for about 30-40 ms. Corresponding energy going into the recoil motion of the rifle is found to be about 390 J. The measured values provide an adequate input for designing the devices mimicking the biathlon weapon recoil in dry firing training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Biathlon, dry firing, gun recoil, athlete training
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26336 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.261 (DOI)000380503800059 ()2-s2.0-84945557467 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
Ainegren, M., Carlsson, P., Laaksonen, M. S. & Tinnsten, M. (2014). The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(2), 301-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μ S) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼14%), heart rate (∼7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μ S similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μ S. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μ S, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μ S.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
adjustable grip, center of pressure, normal and tangential forces, ratcheted wheel, skiing economy, static friction
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Mechanical Engineering Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16445 (URN)10.1111/sms.12006 (DOI)000332982700011 ()2-s2.0-84896404410 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online 28 sep 2012

Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Ainegren, M., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2013). A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system. In: Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM. (Ed.), The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering. Paper presented at 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Sports Technology, APCST 2013; Hong Kong; Hong Kong; 18 September 2013 through 20 September 2013; Code 101817 (pp. 79-83). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system
2013 (English)In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Portable device, roller skis, rolling resistance, 3D sensor
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20364 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2013.07.001 (DOI)000326266100014 ()2-s2.0-84891692268 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Sports Technology, APCST 2013; Hong Kong; Hong Kong; 18 September 2013 through 20 September 2013; Code 101817
Available from: 2013-11-28 Created: 2013-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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