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Große, C., Olausson, P. M. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2019). Blackout Ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of Critical Infrastructure Protection. In: Michael Beer and Enrico Zio (Ed.), Proceedings of the 29th European Safety and Reliability Conference(ESREL): . Paper presented at ESREL 2019, 22 – 26 September 2019, Hannover, Germany (pp. 1715-1723). Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, Article ID 304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blackout Ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of Critical Infrastructure Protection
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 29th European Safety and Reliability Conference(ESREL) / [ed] Michael Beer and Enrico Zio, Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, 2019, p. 1715-1723, article id 304Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights difficulties in studying the Swedish crisis management system with a specific focus on the planning process STYREL. This process seeks to identify and prioritize vital objects in the category of critical infrastructure (CI) in order to elaborate an emergency response plan for the case of a power shortage. The concerns in this paper originate from a research project on how actors assess CI and cooperate during the process as well as which consequences the prioritization of CI pose for society and its citizens. The project employed material from document studies in addition to interviews with security officers at municipalities, coordinators at CountyAdministrative Boards (CABs), and representatives from power grid operators (PGOs). Furthermore, a survey was conducted among all CABs and the ten PGOs that are responsible for effectuating the plan within the initial phaseof a power shortage. The results reveal problems regarding the availability of relevant planning material, gaps in knowledge due to deficient continuity, difficulties in tracing particular objects during the process, and a lack of feedback that hampers evaluation and development. Thus, Swedish critical infrastructure protection (CIP) suffers from not only a shift in responsibility to regional and local actors but also a severe lack of systemic governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: European Safety and Reliability Association, 2019
Keywords
Critical Infrastructure Protection, Information Security, Knowledge Management, Swedish Crisis Management, Complex System Governance, Research Methodology
National Category
Social Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37397 (URN)10.3850/978-981-11-2724-3_ 0304-cd (DOI)978-981-11-2724-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ESREL 2019, 22 – 26 September 2019, Hannover, Germany
Projects
From agencies to citizens and back - A study of collaboration and communication in the context of Styrel
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Große, C. & Olausson, P. M. (2019). Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection. Safety Science, 118, 424-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection
2019 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 424-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Failures in the power supply threaten the safety of developed countries, as they are increasingly dependent on electricity to maintain important societal functions through critical infrastructure. To protect electricity-dependent critical infrastructure, Sweden has implemented a multi-level planning, called Styrel, which involves national-, regional- and local-level actors. This study focuses on interactions among key actors and their roles in the planning as well as the Swedish crisis management system. With evidence from interviews and a survey among the actors, analyses indicate blind spots in the current proceeding, such as the reliance of the outcome of the process on the actors’ commitment to achieve a common understanding of the importance of infrastructure assets and participate in collaborations. This paper reveals that actors lack awareness, knowledge, capability and resources to fulfil their roles in the national planning for critical infrastructure protection. By highlighting interrelations, this study contributes to the international discussion of identification, prioritisation and protection of critical infrastructure to mitigate consequences of power failures for a depending society.

Keywords
National safety, Governance networks, Complex system governance, Multi-level planning, Interaction, Critical infrastructure protection
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36248 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.049 (DOI)000475999000042 ()2-s2.0-85066299123 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inom ramen för Styrel
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40307-1
Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Petridou, E., Olausson, P. M. & Ioannides, D. (2019). Nascent island tourism policy development in Greenland: A network perspective. Island Studies Journal, 14(2), 227-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nascent island tourism policy development in Greenland: A network perspective
2019 (English)In: Island Studies Journal, ISSN 1715-2593, E-ISSN 1715-2593, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 227-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following its achievement of Self-Rule status in 2009 Greenland embarked on a series of measures to diversify its economy with an eye towards eventually gaining full independence from Denmark. Tourism was underlined as a key sector for reaching this goal and, consequently, over the last few years there has been a concerted effort to develop the island as an important polar destination. Significantly, the Greenlandic government created the tourism development policy for 2016-2020, which it views as a key instrument for shaping the sector’s future. In this paper, we adopted a policy network approach to determine the relational architecture among various stakeholders from the public and private sectors who are seen as relevant to tourism’s development. Inter alia, we examined how these actors were linked to each other while examining what kind of tourism networks existed in Greenland and what obstacles might hinder or foster their formation. A thematic analysis of qualitative data on Atlas.ti reveals that though there exist networks in the Greenlandic tourism sector, they are not policy networks and that the Greenlandic government’s approach to developing this tourism policy has been top-down, reflecting a ‘government’ rather than a ‘governance’ approach. Barriers to the formation of policy networks included lack of a shared image for the future; lack of trust among actors; lack of time and spatial fragmentation hindering iterative interactions, and lack of institutional enabling of information and knowledge sharing. 

Keywords
governance, Greenland, islands, networks, policy development, tourism
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36885 (URN)10.24043/isj.94 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Olausson, P. M. (2019). Planning for resilience in the case of power shortage: The Swedish STYREL policy. Central European Journal of Public Policy, 13(1), 12-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning for resilience in the case of power shortage: The Swedish STYREL policy
2019 (English)In: Central European Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1802-4866, E-ISSN 1802-4866, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern society has developed a growing dependence on electricity in order to carry out important societal functions. This implies the risk of cascading failures to society in the case of power shortage. The creation of a resilient and sustainable power energy system is therefore crucial. Equal crucial is the preparedness for the event of power shortage. As a part of the Swedish crisis management system, the Swedish Energy Agency (EM) has developed a planning system, Styrel, to identify social important objects in order to ensure important social functions in the case of power shortage. This article examines Styrel as a policy network and as a planning system to ensure a sustainable and resilient power supply. The study focus on the design of the system, the implementation of the system based on the results from the two rounds completed in 2010 and 2014. Using interviews with coordinators at the local and regional level in three counties and a survey including all 21 coordinators at the regional level, it indicates that the design of the planning system reviles opportunities for improvements of the planning system. The study also indicates that the coordinators at the local level lack trust in the planning system depending on both the lack of resource and the lack of feedback. This in turn indicates challenges for the system from a resilient and sustainability point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warsaw: De Gruyter Open, 2019
Keywords
Critical infrastructure, crisis management, policy network, energy policy
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35615 (URN)10.2478/cejpp-2019-0004 (DOI)
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inom ramen för Styrel
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40307-1
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-09-02
Große, C., Hahne, M., Olausson, P. M. & Svensson, B. (2019). Regionala flygplatser: En förstudie kring betydelsen av regionala flygplatser för samhället.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regionala flygplatser: En förstudie kring betydelsen av regionala flygplatser för samhället
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 104
Series
RCR Serie
Keywords
Samhällsviktig verksamhet, transportsystem, ekonomi, turism, krisberedskap
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36891 (URN)978-91-88947-16-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Regionala flygplatser
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Olausson, P. M. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2018). Blackout ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of National Crisis Management. In: : . Paper presented at Society of Risk Analysis - Nordic Chapter, Stavanger, 8-9 November, 2018. Stavanger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blackout ahead: Methodological Concerns in Studies of National Crisis Management
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights the difficulties in the studies of the crisis management system. Our focus is on the Swedish planning process in the case of power shortage, called Styrel. Our paper depart from a research project entitled From Authorities to Citizens and Back. The aim of the project is to increase the knowledge on the decision-making processes within Styrel with a focus on how the actors co-operate within the planning process, and what consequences the priorities of socially important objects have for society and its citizens. Methodologically, the project is based on document studies, interview with security officers in forty-seven municipalities, three coordinators at the County administrative board (CAB), and representatives for local power grid companies. Furthermore, a survey has been conducted with all coordinators at the CAB. The intended objective has also been to take part of the planning documents in order to investigate if there are any differences between how the objects were prioritized by the municipalities and how they were finally prioritized. Our experience from the study reviles problems with availability of relevant planning material, lack of knowledge due to deficient continuity at the local level regarding those responsible for Styrel, and finally difficulties in following individual objects during the planning process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stavanger: , 2018
Keywords
Energy policy; critical infrastructure, public policy, methods
National Category
Public Administration Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35618 (URN)
Conference
Society of Risk Analysis - Nordic Chapter, Stavanger, 8-9 November, 2018
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Olausson, P. M., Björkqvist, O., Danielsson, E., Große, C., Larsson, A., Nyhlén, J. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2018). Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inomramen för STYREL. Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inomramen för STYREL
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
From authority to citizens and back: A study of the interaction and communication in the context ofSTYREL
Abstract [sv]

STYREL är en planeringsprocess som syftar till att säkra elförsörjningen vid ensituation av elbrist. Att STYREL är en viktig planeringsprocess med stor betydelseför att trygga elförsörjningen till samhällsviktiga elanvändare är en uppfattningsamtliga intervjuade uttrycker. Samtidigt råder det också konsensus kring attprocessen är i behov av utveckling och förändring för att uppnå de syften somligger bakom processen.Empirin för undersökningen har utgjorts av centrala dokument och utredningar,65 intervjuer, deltagande observation samt deltagande vid möten ochnätverksträffar inom ramen för planeringsprocessen. Den kritiska granskningen avprocessen visar att det finns flera förbättringsområden som bör beaktas i syfte atthöja kvaliteten och minska risken för att viktiga samhällsfunktioner blir utan elvid en situation av elbrist. De områden som särskilt lyfts fram i studien handlarom nödvändigheten av att integrera löpande feedback i planeringssystemet, attskapa nätverk på både lokal och regional nivå för att tillförsäkra att intesamhällsviktiga privata aktörer eller aktörer inom det civila samhället faller bort iplaneringen samt att ytterligare tydliggöra de olika stegen och de olika rollerna iplaneringssystemet. I detta arbete går det att finna lösningar som redan beprövatsdels i jämförelse med internationella processer kring kritisk infrastruktur, dels inationella processer inom krishanteringssystemet.

Abstract [en]

STYREL is a planning process aiming at ensuring electricity supply to sociallyimportant objects during a situation of power shortage. The fact that STYREL is animportant planning process with great importance for securing the electricitysupply to important users of electricity is an opinion all the interviewees express.At the same time, there is also a consensus that the process is in need ofdevelopment and change in order to achieve the aims behind the process.The empirical study included documents, investigations, 65 interviews,participatory observation and participation in meetings and network meetingswithin the framework of the planning process. The critical review shows that thereare several areas of improvement to consider that could increase the quality andreduce the risk of important social functions becoming without electricity during aperiod of power shortage. The areas that are particularly highlighted in the studyconcern the necessity of integrating recurring feedback into the planning system,creating networks at both local and regional level to ensure that private-sector orimportant civil society actors is excluded and finally, further clarify the varioussteps and the different roles in the planning system. This can be achievedcomparing with international planning systems on critical infrastructure and withnational planning systems within the crisis management systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten, 2018. p. 32
Keywords
Flernivåstyrning, planeringsprocess, krisberedskap, trygg elförsörjning, kritisk infrastruktur, komplex systemstyrning, nätverk-styrning
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35904 (URN)
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inom ramen för STYREL
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40307-1
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-08-06
Olausson, P. M. & Große, C. (2018). Multi-Level Planning Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection:: Planning for Power Shortage in Germany, Sweden and USA. In: : . Paper presented at Mid-Western Political Science Association 76th annual conference, Chicago, April 5–8, 2018. Chicago
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Level Planning Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection:: Planning for Power Shortage in Germany, Sweden and USA
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electricity is a key resource for the majority of societal functions and constitutes an important sector in the critical infrastructure of modern societies. Disturbances in power supply can have cascading effects on interdependent public sectors and ordinary citizens (Rinaldi et al., 2001; Cohen, 2010; Ghanem et al., 2016). However, it seems nearly impossible to prevent the occurrence of power shortages. This has been evident in the aftermath of the hurricane Lee and the hurricane Maria in 2017. Because of the changing climate, an increase of hurricanes, flooding, and high river flows, are expected. The need of a national energy policy have been addressed (see e.g. Hoffman, 2015), including policy for manual power cut in the case of power shortage. The Swedish Energy Agency has developed a national policy for handling national power shortage. The policy, called STYREL is part of Swedish Crisis Management System. This paper focus on the Swedish power shortage policy, STYREL in relation to national policies in Germany and the USA. The aim is to compare the three countries policies in the event of power shortage. The focus is on the organization of the planning process, which actors are part of the process, and how the societal important users are identified and ranked. Policy networks, including actors from both public and private sector are of special interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago: , 2018
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35616 (URN)
Conference
Mid-Western Political Science Association 76th annual conference, Chicago, April 5–8, 2018
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Olausson, P. M., Danielsson, E. & Nyhlén, J. (2018). Strategic planning for power outages: “With reservation inaccuracies”. In: : . Paper presented at NEEDS 2018, Amsterdam, march 21-23, 2018. Amsterdam
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic planning for power outages: “With reservation inaccuracies”
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Crises are often characterized as low-probability/high-consequence events (Weick1988), as they typically strike suddenly, are unexpected prior to their occurrence andare difficult to prepare for (Brown and Eriksson 2008). Compared to emergencies, crisesrequire a great deal of effort to cope with (Kendra and Wachtendorf 2003) and thereforewe develop crisis plans.Power supply is vital for the society to function, even more today with our reliance ontechnical inventions in almost all parts of our life. Disturbance in the power supply willmost probably have devastating effects in all areas in society (Rinaldi et al., 2001). Eventhough the power grid is rigid and redundant, it is vulnerable to various impacts, such aswhether conditions, aging of components, demolition, and cyber-attacks. Even if it isunlikely that power outages will occur, there is a need to plan for consequences ofpower shortage.STYREL is the Swedish planning process to manage early consequences of power outages.It is part of the emergency planning to build up preparedness in advance (MSB, 2011). Itintends to locate key consumers for functions of national importance. The processincludes all levels in the society, municipalities, county administrative board, expertorganizations such as Svenska kraftnät and Energimyndigheten, and the Government. Itis top down governed; however, information about what establishments that needs tobe protected comes from the municipality. In this paper, we focus on how STYREL cansupport decision making at the local level in case of power shortage. Since STYREL is atop-down process, we are primarily interested in the planning process at the local level.We focus on the integration of “STYREL” in the municipal emergency planning. How isSTYREL involved in the emergency planning process? How does the STYREL process,defined at higher-level authorities, affect the municipalities in their planning process?and How well do the STYREL process cover the municipality’s needs of support in case ofpower shortage?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: , 2018
Keywords
Crisis management, energy policy, critical infrastructure, public policy, policy network
National Category
Public Administration Studies Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35617 (URN)
Conference
NEEDS 2018, Amsterdam, march 21-23, 2018
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka:
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
Große, C. & Olausson, P. M. (2018). Swedish Multi-Level Planning System for Critical Infrastructure Protection: The Regional Core. In: Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem (Ed.), Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik & J.-E. Vinnem (Ed.), Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World. Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, Trondheim, Norway, 17–21 June 2018 (pp. 1893-1901). Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish Multi-Level Planning System for Critical Infrastructure Protection: The Regional Core
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik & J.-E. Vinnem, Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018, p. 1893-1901Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With its growing dependence on electricity, modern society faces the risk of cascading failureof interconnected societal functions. To protect societal functions during an event of power shortage,Sweden has implemented a multi-level planning process called STYREL, which involves national-, regional—and local-level actors. As part of the Swedish crisis management system, the regional body operatesas a co-ordinator that organises co-operation and interaction between private and public actors. Thisstudy examines the role of the regional hub in STYREL and the collaboration and co-operation betweenplanning levels. It focuses on the co-ordinator’s perspective and presents evidence from interviews and asurvey among planners at County Administrative Boards, entrusted with the supervision and executionof STYREL within their regional area of responsibility. This paper indicates that the regional co-ordinatorlacks the awareness, knowledge and resources to fulfil its core function in the national planning for criticalinfrastructure protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Governance networks, Complex system governance, Multi-level planningInteraction, Critical infrastructure protection
National Category
Information Systems Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35086 (URN)10.1201/9781351174664 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058083439 (Scopus ID)978-1-351-17466-4 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, Trondheim, Norway, 17–21 June 2018
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3345-1831

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