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Salman, Khalik
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Kronenberg, K., Fuchs, M., Salman, K., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W. (2016). Economic effects of advertising expenditures – a Swedish destination study of international tourists. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(4), 352-374
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic effects of advertising expenditures – a Swedish destination study of international tourists
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 352-374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study estimates the effects of advertising on internationaltourism demand for the leading Swedish mountain destination Åre. In contrast to previous studies, which primarily focus ontourism demand at a national or sectorial level, this research isconducted at the destination level. The study considers pricelevels at tourism destinations and tourists’ income asdeterminants for tourism demand. However, following advertisingtheories and previous research, the dominance of the marketpower function (i.e. product differentiation) and the informationfunction (i.e. market transparency) are identified as major codeterminantsfor international tourism demand. Demand elasticitycoefficients are empirically estimated for the origin countriesNorway, Finland, the Russian Federation, Denmark and the UK.Findings show that advertising is a significant driver of tourismdemand from Norway, the UK and Russia. Interestingly, incomeand tourism price levels are less significant drivers of demand inall analysed origin markets.

Keywords
Advertising effects, destination advertising, tourism demand, advertising theory, price elasticity
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26431 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2015.1101013 (DOI)000381428000002 ()2-s2.0-84949794725 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Engineering the Knowledge Destination
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Salman, A. K., Fuchs, M. & Zampatti, D. (2015). Assessing Risk Factors Of Business Failure In The Manufacturing Sector: A Count Data Approach From Sweden. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, III(9), 42-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Risk Factors Of Business Failure In The Manufacturing Sector: A Count Data Approach From Sweden
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, ISSN 2348-0386, Vol. III, no 9, p. 42-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

The paper investigates risk factors of business failure of small-sized manufacturing firms in Sweden. Traditionally, linear models are applied to estimate the influence of risk factors on business failure by using continuous data. By contrast, in this study a count data approach is employed to deduce consistent Poisson, Quasi-Poisson, and Negative-Binomial estimators by using bankruptcy count data of small-sized Swedish manufacturing firms. Findings confirm that interest and exchange rates are significant determinants of business failure. Moreover, we found that openness is a determinant of business success. Our main finding highlights the role of business productivity, which turned out to be the main risk factor of business failure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom, 2015
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25871 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
Salman, A. K. & Shukur, G. (2015). Purchasing Power Parity Theory Determinants –A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists: A Count Data Approach. American International Journal of Social Science, 4(2), 294-316, Article ID AIJSS.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Purchasing Power Parity Theory Determinants –A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists: A Count Data Approach
2015 (English)In: American International Journal of Social Science, ISSN 2325-4149, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 294-316, article id AIJSSArticle in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

 

This paper employs the time-series negative binomial regression model (TNBM) to test the hypothesis effects of purchasing power parity (PPP) theory on the counts data of visitors to the north-west of  Sweden (SW6 region).  We consider a sample of monthly time-series count data from 1993:01 to 2008:12 taken from five countries: Denmark, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan and the United States. For each visiting country, we specify separate equations by including the relative available information. We then estimate these equations using the time - series negative binomial model (TNBM). The benefit of this model is that it is much more flexible and therefore likely to fit better (if the data is not Poisson distributed) and hence is more efficient than single-equation estimation methods such as least squares. We found that the number of visitors to Sweden is negatively related to the absolute PPP and relative PPP. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory and the PPP theory. The results also show that some lagged dependent variables, and several monthly dummies (representing seasonal effects), have a significant impact on the number of visitors to north-west Sweden. We also find that, in at least some cases, absolute PPP, relative PPP and relative price have significant effects on international tourism demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United States of America: Center for promoting ideas, 2015
Keywords
Tourism Demand, PPP Theory Approach, Time-Series Negative Binomial Model
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24915 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2015-05-08Bibliographically approved
Salman, A. K. & Shukur, G. (2014). Investigating Causal Relations between the GDP Cycle and Unemployment: Data from Finland. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(4), 118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating Causal Relations between the GDP Cycle and Unemployment: Data from Finland
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 118-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the causal relationship between two macroeconomic variables, the gross domestic product (GDP) cycle and unemployment, in Finland. This has been done using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model for the period Q1 1995 to Q2 2011. The goal of this study is to gather further evidence for the relationship between the GDP cycle and total, male and female unemployment individually, with special reference to Finland which is a member state of the EU, and has been part of European monetary union, since 1995. The relationship has been investigated using the Granger-causality test in accordance with Okun's (1962) formula. The empirical facts mostly indicate the existence of a uni-directional causal relationship from the GDP cycle to unemployment. This pattern is not found to be significant when using the model for unemployment in women however. The coefficients of unemployment, total, male and female, are abstracted from the Okun's coefficient and found to be around -4 per cent total, male and female unemployment individually, -5 per cent and -1 per cent respectively. These results also have important implications for determining macroeconomic and labor-market policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: , 2014
Keywords
Granger-causality, GDP cycle, unemployment, VAR model
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21638 (URN)10.5539/ijef.v6n4p118 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-03-28 Created: 2014-03-28 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Kronenberg, K., Fuchs, M. & Salman, K. (2013). Economic Effects of Advertising: A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists. In: : . Paper presented at Advanced Research Workshop in Tourism Economics, 6-7 June 2013, Coimbra, Portugal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Effects of Advertising: A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21819 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Conference
Advanced Research Workshop in Tourism Economics, 6-7 June 2013, Coimbra, Portugal
Available from: 2014-04-24 Created: 2014-04-24 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
Yazdanfar, D., Salman, A. K. & Arnesson, L. (2013). Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms. World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 9(3), 340-351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms
2013 (English)In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year (2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

Keywords
Profitability, life cycle, micro firms, MANOVA, development stages.
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17523 (URN)10.1504/WREMSD.2013.054738 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879641204 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Salman, A. K., Zampatti, D. & Shukur, G. (2013). Macroeconomic Determinants, Innovation and the Birth of New Firms: Negative Binomial Regression Approach: Negative Binomial Regression Approach. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 5(11), 72-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macroeconomic Determinants, Innovation and the Birth of New Firms: Negative Binomial Regression Approach: Negative Binomial Regression Approach
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 Abstract

This paper employs the random-effects negative binomial regression model (RENBM) to test the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the birth of new firms. The test is across countries and uses count data. We consider a sample of 135 panel-data observations, taken from 27 countries in the European Union (EU) during the period 2004 to 2008. We found that the birth of new firms is positively related to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and openness, and is negatively related to unemployment. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory. The results also show that expenditure on research and development (R&D) has a significant positive effect on the number of new firms. This result further supports the hypothesis of new economic growth theory. Moreover, the empirical evidence shows a positive correlation between the number of new businesses and ethnic heterogeneity. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: , 2013
Keywords
birth of new firms, macroeconomic factors, innovation, ethnic heterogeneity, negative binomial regression model
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20182 (URN)10.5539/ijef.v5n11p72 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-11-11 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Yazdanfar, D. & Salman, K. (2012). Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level: Swedish micro firm data. International journal of economics and finance, 4(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level: Swedish micro firm data
2012 (English)In: International journal of economics and finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses job-creation determinants at the firm level for a panel of Swedish micro firms across four industry sectors, using the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) system to analyse a database consisting of 12532 Swedish micro firms during 2007. It was found that the firms’ size and age, the importance of debt financing and increased availability of liquidity are positively related to job creation as well as industry affiliation. Finally, the results suggest that a resource-based approach is at work in explaining job creation in micro firms. Unlike the majority of previous studies, this study is characterized by being based on a large and cross-sectoral firm-level dataset, testing a number of hypotheses driven from the resource-based approach. The present study contributes to the literature on the determinants of employment at the firm level as it investigates the importance of liquidity and financial leverage to firm labour demand dynamics in Sweden.

Keywords
Job-creation determinants, micro firms, GMM system model, Liquidity, financial leverage
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17467 (URN)10.5539/ijef.v4n12p105 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2013-01-24Bibliographically approved
Yazdanfar, D., Salman, K. & Arnesson, L. (2012). Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level Swedish Micro Firm Data. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(12), 105-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level Swedish Micro Firm Data
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year 2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

Keywords
Profitability, life cycle, micro firms, MANOVA, development stages
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17513 (URN)10.5539/ijef.v4n12p105 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Salman, A. K. & Yazdanfar, D. (2012). Profitability in Swedish Micro-Firms: a quantile regression approach. International Business Research, 5(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Profitability in Swedish Micro-Firms: a quantile regression approach
2012 (English)In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the profitability of Swedish micro firms in the sectors of health, transport, trade and metal. In order to understand how micro firms relate to key variables, such as firm size, growth of sales, productivities, lagged profits, asset turnover and firm’s age, OLS (Ordinary Least Squares), and the more robust quantile regression techniques, are used to estimate micro-firm profitability. Data from 2007 is used for this purpose. The results show that growth (competitive condition) and total factor productivity (comparative advantage) have a significant positive effect on micro-firm profitability, and that size (diminishing returns states) is found to have a rather significant negative effect on micro-firm profitability. The results also indicate a strong relationship between microeconomic theory suggestions and micro-firm profitability for the all micro firms except those in the metal sector. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding, regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect profitability, and provided more interesting results than OLS normally do.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: , 2012
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17493 (URN)10.5539/ibr.v5n8p94 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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