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Zillinger, M. & Zakrisson, I. (2017). Does method matter?: Understanding experience data collected through different mobile techniques. E-review of Tourism Research, 14(3/4), 149-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does method matter?: Understanding experience data collected through different mobile techniques
2017 (English)In: E-review of Tourism Research, ISSN 1941-5842, E-ISSN 1941-5842, Vol. 14, no 3/4, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge on the influence of methods on research outcomes is scarce within experience studies. In this study, GPS devices were compared to smartphones to collect experience data in theme parks. Departing from the relevance of epistemology, it was assumed that the choice of method influences the results. We show that data collection modalities themselves influence empirical results when it comes to the number of reported experiences and their level of conveyed detail. The reported categories however are similar among the methods. We can also show that, and in which way, method choice influences the outcome of studies related to experiences.

Keywords
epistemology, experience, GPS, method, smartphone application
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26436 (URN)2-s2.0-85048010007 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Löfstrand, P. & Zakrisson, I. (2017). "What about the child issue?" Group negotiations of gender and parenthood contracts in recruitment situations. SOCIETY HEALTH & VULNERABILITY, 8(Sup 1), 1-12, Article ID UNSP 1317566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"What about the child issue?" Group negotiations of gender and parenthood contracts in recruitment situations
2017 (English)In: SOCIETY HEALTH & VULNERABILITY, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no Sup 1, p. 1-12, article id UNSP 1317566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Men and women becoming parents are supposed to have equal opportunities in working life. However, inequality and discrimination are not easily avoided. The aim of this study was to investigate how argumentation related to parenthood and careers takes form in group discussions of a fictional recruitment situation, and how stereotypes such as competence and warmth are manifested in such discussions. Thirty-five ad-hoc groups of university students were asked to make a choice between three candidates for a consultancy position. The first two candidates were a man and a woman, while the third alternately was described either as a man or a woman described as having a newborn child. Parenthood was sometimes seen as reducing competence, but it was more often viewed as adding to competence. Parenthood was also considered to add warmth to the organization. Interestingly, all groups avoided relating the parenthood issue to gender. Three conversation patterns were found, differing in the amount of elaboration of the topic of parenthood and work. It was concluded that the most elaborated kind seems to foster a situation where implicit norms are made visible more easily.

Keywords
Parenthood, group decision making, competence, warmth, recruitment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31345 (URN)10.1080/20021518.2017.1317566 (DOI)000424909600002 ()
Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Löfstrand, P. & Zakrisson, I. (2014). Competitive Versus Non-Competitive Goals in Group Decision-Making. Small Group Research, 45(4), 451-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitive Versus Non-Competitive Goals in Group Decision-Making
2014 (English)In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, ISSN 1046-4964, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 451-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents results from a group decision task in which groups were assigned either a competitive or a non-competitive goal. A total of 20 groups were tasked with putting together a relay team either with the goal to maximize the chance to win or with the goal to maximize the sense of community. Interaction process analysis revealed that there were more positive reactions in groups with the non-competitive goal. Analysis of the content of the conversations showed all groups to go beyond information given about the target persons. Attributes associated with the stereotype dimensions of competence and warmth were used to characterize the persons who were to be included or excluded on the relay teams. Groups with a competitive goal applied both positive and negative attributes, whereas groups with a non-competitive goal applied only positive attributes. The results suggest that stereotypes are applied to legitimize decisions about inclusion and exclusion.

Keywords
decision-making, stereotyping, competition, cooperation
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22259 (URN)10.1177/1046496414532954 (DOI)000342633200006 ()2-s2.0-84907086433 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Decision making in groups
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 90203101
Note

Publiced online on may 9th.

Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-24 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I., Anderzén, M., Lenell, F. & Sandelin, H. (2012). Ambivalent sexism: A tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(1), 64-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambivalent sexism: A tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations
2012 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here ‘‘within-culturally’’, between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed.

Keywords
ambivalent sexism, benevolent sexism, hostile sexism, gender differences, gender gap
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14986 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2011.00900.x (DOI)000298949400009 ()2-s2.0-84855803265 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I. & Zillinger, M. (2012). Emotions in motion: Tourists' experiences in time and space. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(6), 505-523
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotions in motion: Tourists' experiences in time and space
2012 (English)In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 505-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology enables the study of tourists’ activities and movement patterns in real time. But what does this information tell us about tourists’ subjective experiences? The present paper accounts for the results from four case studies: two event studies and two destination studies. Two of these took place in the wintertime, and two in the summertime. Visitors carried a GPS device for one day, after which they answered a brief questionnaire. A total of 241 visitors participated in the study. Based on cluster analyses of distance measures calculated from the GPS data, several movement patterns were revealed. Three of these, labelled Main attraction visitors, Wanderers, and Specialists, emerged in all four cases. The reported experiences differed between the clusters, especially concerning negative experiences. In the destination studies, the clusters differed with regard to what was considered a negative experience, while in the event studies, the clusters differed with regard to how the tourists responded emotionally to their experiences. The authors conclude that GPS technology is a promising tool for tourism research but that, if one is to gain a full understanding of tourists’ experiences and mobility, it ought to be combined with other methods.

Keywords
destination, emotions, event, GPS, mobility pattern, tourist experience
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14987 (URN)10.1080/13683500.2011.615391 (DOI)000306607200001 ()2-s2.0-84864103188 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
peak experiences
Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Svensson, B., Pettersson, R. & Zakrisson, I. (2011). Tracking tourists: Mobility, experiences and the supply-demand gap in a Swedish mountain resort. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 3(2), 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking tourists: Mobility, experiences and the supply-demand gap in a Swedish mountain resort
2011 (English)In: Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, ISSN 1757-031X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on method development in the areas of visitor and experience tracking. It is about understanding experiences in a time-spatial framework made up by visits to a particular destination. These issues were identified as central for destination stakeholders in their attempts at meeting or exceeding visitor expectations at their destination. Development of methods here thus aims at supporting producers in generating such knowledge. The approach that emerged was to track and measure tourism experiences with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, follow-up surveys and in-depth interviews. The empirical findings are from a case study of the Swedish mountain resort Åre during the summer of 2008. Results in general partly confirmed what key destination stakeholders intuitively thought of different aspects of the destination, but also brought out new knowledge which seems to have implications for the preparations for coming seasons. These include the realization of the destination‟s unique qualities for "the comfort-seeking nature based tourist" and insights about visitor movements in time and space. On the basis of the latter, three new tourist typologies emerged as potential target groups; the excursion, activity, and village families.

Keywords
Visitor tracking, Experience tracking, Global Positioning System (GPS), mountain resort, Åre.
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15015 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Peak Experiences
Available from: 2011-12-11 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2013-02-08Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I. (2010). Big Five Inventory (BFI): Utprövning för svenska förhållanden. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Big Five Inventory (BFI): Utprövning för svenska förhållanden
2010 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Big Five Inventory (BFI) är ett test bestående av 44 påståenden avsett att mäta de fem grundläggande personlighetsdimensionerna Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism och Openness (John & Srivastava, 1999). Testet har utformats främst för forskningsändamål men någon systematisk utprövning för svenska förhållanden har inte gjorts. Enkäter distribuerades till fem olika undersökningsgrupper med varierande bakgrund (n=431, 45% män och 55% kvinnor), i ålder varierande från 18 till 80 år. Testet analyserades i relation till demografiska variabler, samt arbetslivsrelaterade faktorer såsom arbetsmotiv, intressen, yrkes- och utbildningsval, samt attityder och fördomar. Resultaten visade på en god reliabilitet (Cronbach’s alpha-koefficienter varierande mellan .73 och .84), en tydlig faktorstruktur samt låga till måttliga korrelationer mellan dimensionerna. De fem personlighetsdimensionernas samband med de arbetslivsrelaterade faktorerna var i allmänhet i förväntad riktning. Särskilt tydligt var detta för dimensionen Openness. Inte i något fall visade resultaten samband som gick i motsatt riktning mot vad som förväntades. Slutsatsen är att BFI är ett tillförlitligt test som fungerar väl att användas främst i forsknings- och utbildningssyfte.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2010. p. 28
Series
Social Science Reports from Mid Sweden University ; 3
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11973 (URN)978-91-86073-99-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-09-16 Created: 2010-09-16 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I. & Löfstrand, P. (2010). Vem får vara med och vem bestämmer?: Om exklusion och inklusion i idrottsföreningars beslutsfattande. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning (2), 40-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vem får vara med och vem bestämmer?: Om exklusion och inklusion i idrottsföreningars beslutsfattande
2010 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Tanken är att idrott ska vara till för alla, av alla. Idrotten fyller också andra funktioner än enbart bollsparkande och skidåkande, särskilt utanför städerna. Vi kommer i denna artikel att presentera resultat från två olika studier. I den första behandlas frågan om hur styrelserna i några mindre idrottsföreningar hanterar dilemman mellan olika intressen. Är det så att alla får vara med eller finns intressen och grupper som exkluderas? Den andra studien handlar om hur dessa dilemman hanteras i beslutande organ om förutsättningarna systematiskt varieras, i fråga om hur målet för verksamheten definieras och ifråga om hur könssammansättning ser ut. Studierna har finansierats med medel från CIF och EU:s strukturfonder (Mål 1).

Keywords
beslutsfattande, idrottsföreningar, demokrati, jämställdhet
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12845 (URN)
Available from: 2010-12-15 Created: 2010-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I. (2008). Gender differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender invariance may be situation invariance. Sex Roles, 59(3-4), 254-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender invariance may be situation invariance
2008 (English)In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 59, no 3-4, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most studies of gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) have investigated settings more or less hierarchy-enhancing. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in SDO (1) within social structures varying in equality-enhancement, i.e., communities differing in political equality between men and women, and (2) settings where equality was maximized and held constant, i.e., democratic, voluntary associations, but varying in gender composition, using survey data from a random sample of 831 Swedish adults (median age = 47 years). There was a significant interaction effect between gender and membership in voluntary associations dominated by women, with men and women displaying equally low levels of SDO. In all other instances the main effect of gender remained statistically significant.

Keywords
SDO, gender differences, invariance hypothesis, voluntary associations
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7115 (URN)10.1007/s11199-008-9445-z (DOI)000258251200010 ()2-s2.0-49249139652 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2008-11-30 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Zakrisson, I., Skoglund, W., Jonsson, G. & Löfstrand, P. (2008). Idrottens roll i lokal samhällsutveckling: bortom Real Madrid och storstädernas mångfald. Östersund: JiLU
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idrottens roll i lokal samhällsutveckling: bortom Real Madrid och storstädernas mångfald
2008 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: JiLU, 2008. p. 28
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7187 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-18 Created: 2008-11-26 Last updated: 2012-02-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8754-4657

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