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Fuchs, M. & Höpken, W. (2020). E-Tourism Curriculum. In: Phil Zheng Xiang; Matthias Fuchs; Ulrike Gretzel; Wolfram Höpken (Ed.), Handbook of e-Tourism: . Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Tourism Curriculum
2020 (English)In: Handbook of e-Tourism / [ed] Phil Zheng Xiang; Matthias Fuchs; Ulrike Gretzel; Wolfram Höpken, Springer, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this chapter is two-fold: Recent research work in the domain of e-Tourism curriculum design, development and adjustment is explored and critically discussed. More importantly, necessary elements constituting the ‘state of the art’ e-Tourism curriculum are presented. The book chapter is structured as follows: First, the often overlooked positions in the philosophy of education are outlined. After a short discussion of major tourism educational frameworks (Tribe 2002; 2015) and tourism curriculum models (Dredge et al. 2012), the Tourism Curriculum Framework proposed by Oktadiana and Chon (2016) is introduced. This framework serves in discussing prior research work on e-Tourism curriculum design and major e-Tourism curriculum initiatives. After emphasizing commonalities and omissions of analyzed studies, major elements constituting the IFITT (International Federation for IT and Travel & Tourism) e-Tourism curriculum are outlined. Finally, after illustrating research gaps, the conclusion section proposes an agenda for future research in the domain of e-Tourism curriculum design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
e-Tourism curriculum, e-Tourism curriculum design, literature review, e-Tourism curriculum initiatives, IFITT e-Tourism Curriculum, research agenda
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37887 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-05324-6_107-1 (DOI)978-3-030-05324-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2020-05-20Bibliographically approved
Höpken, W. & Fuchs, M. (2020). E-Tourism Curriculum. In: Phil Zheng Xiang, Matthias Fuchs, Ulrike Gretzel, Wolfram Höpken (Ed.), Handbook of e-Tourism: . Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Tourism Curriculum
2020 (English)In: Handbook of e-Tourism / [ed] Phil Zheng Xiang, Matthias Fuchs, Ulrike Gretzel, Wolfram Höpken, Springer Publishing Company, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Business Intelligence encompasses all activities dealing with collecting, storing/managing and analyzing business-relevant data with the objective of generating knowledge as input to decision support. Business Intelligence is often used as an umbrella term for data warehousing, reporting & OLAP (online analytical processing), MIS/DSS and data mining, respectively. If we encounter all topics listed above, it is obvious that business intelligence has a quite long history also in the tourism domain. As early examples in tourism, we can identify the DINAMO system introduced by American Airlines already in 1988 or TourMIS in 1998. The widespread use of ICT and, especially the uptake of the Internet and social media, led to an increase of available data on customers, competitors and the whole market in all major business domains, thus, in tourism, as well. More powerful hardware and sophisticated methods to store and analyze such data turned business intelligence into one of the fastest growing technologies and most challenging areas in the last decade. This chapter gives an overview on the topic of business intelligence and all technical components of a BI architecture (i.e. information extraction and transformation, data warehousing, and different mechanisms and tools to access and analyze data, like reporting or OLAP tools, dashboards, or data mining toolsets). Moreover, the chapter looks at the history of BI in tourism, presents and discusses typical application scenarios in tourism. Finally, we look at current trends and latest developments in the area of business intelligence and their expected implications for the tourism domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2020
Keywords
Business Intelligence, Data Warehousing, Data Analysis, Online Analytical Processing, Management Information Systems, Decision Support Systems
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37888 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-05324-6 (DOI)978-3-030-05324-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2020-06-01Bibliographically approved
Höpken, W., Müller, M., Fuchs, M. & Lexhagen, M. (2020). Flickr data for analysing tourists’ spatial behaviour and movement patterns: A comparison of clustering techniques. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 11(1), 69-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flickr data for analysing tourists’ spatial behaviour and movement patterns: A comparison of clustering techniques
2020 (English)In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, ISSN 1757-9880, E-ISSN 1757-9899, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to analyse the suitability of photo-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, to extract relevant knowledge on tourists’ spatial movement and point of interest (POI) visitation behaviour and compare the most prominent clustering approaches to identify POIs in various application scenarios.

Keywords
Big data, Photo sharing, Flickr, Spatial movement patterns, DBSCAN, k-means clustering, Association rules, FP-growth, GSP, Sequential pattern mining
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38604 (URN)10.1108/JHTT-08-2017-0059 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084918355 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Godtman Kling, K., Margaryan, L. & Fuchs, M. (2020). (In) equality in the outdoors: gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(2), 233-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>(In) equality in the outdoors: gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains
2020 (English)In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 233-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines gender differences in participation in various outdoor recreation and tourism activities in the Swedish mountain region, and how these activities are portrayed from a gender perspective on the websites of five major tourist destinations. Spending time in nature has been linked to better health and well-being, and this article contributes to research on the unequal opportunities women and men have in taking part of such advantages. Results show that there is a gender difference in both participation and in representation of outdoor recreation. The observed gender difference is not only in line with the traditional heteronormativity but also suggests that new trends in outdoor recreation are further favoring traditionally masculine modes of engagement with nature. This suggests the need for re-thinking not only gender norms but also human relationships with nature in general.

Keywords
Outdoor recreation participation, gender norms, tourism media, Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34143 (URN)10.1080/13683500.2018.1495698 (DOI)000505124700008 ()2-s2.0-85049568483 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Fuchs, M., Fossgard, K. & Chekalina, T. (2020). Innovation and creativityin nature-based tourism: A critical reflection and assessment. In: Peter Fredman and Jan Vidar Haukeland (Ed.), Nordic Perspectives on Nature-based Tourism: From place-based resources to value-added experiences. Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation and creativityin nature-based tourism: A critical reflection and assessment
2020 (English)In: Nordic Perspectives on Nature-based Tourism: From place-based resources to value-added experiences / [ed] Peter Fredman and Jan Vidar Haukeland, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020
Keywords
post-mechanist ecoomic science, innovation, benevolent creativity, lifestyle entrepreneur
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37885 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2020-04-14
Laven, D., Chekalina, T., Fuchs, M., Margaryan, L., Varley, P. & Taylor, S. (2019). Building the slow adventure brand in the northern periphery. In: Cecilia Cassinger, Andrea Lucarelli and Szilvia Gyimóthy (Ed.), The Nordic Wave in Place Branding: Poetics, Practices, Politics (pp. 76-90). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building the slow adventure brand in the northern periphery
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2019 (English)In: The Nordic Wave in Place Branding: Poetics, Practices, Politics / [ed] Cecilia Cassinger, Andrea Lucarelli and Szilvia Gyimóthy, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 76-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter introduces the SAINT project and the slow adventure concept. The core pillars of the ‘slow adventure’ brand include elements such as human-powered slow journeys, inspiring connectedness with nature, wildlife watching opportunities, nature interpretation, local, wild or slow food as well as the honing of outdoor skills. These core pillars (or themes) are highly relevant to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in the SAINT project and constitute the essence of ‘slow adventure’ as a product concept. Typical nature-based activities available across the project area include expeditions into nature, overnight stays combined with nature experiences, wildlife viewing, hiking, recreational kayaking, canoeing and rowing, outdoor photography, as well as slow cooking and foraging. Most importantly, the ‘slow adventure’ product concept shapes the marketing message of the transnational cluster and brand, which companies can use to develop their product and reach the market. The chapter concludes by discussing the implications of these marketing and cluster activities within the Nordic tourism context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38144 (URN)10.4337/9781788974325.00017 (DOI)978 1 78897 431 8 (ISBN)9781788974325 (ISBN)
Projects
Slow Adventure in Northern Territories (SAINT)
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Höpken, W., Eberle, T., Fuchs, M. & Lexhagen, M. (2019). Google Trends data for analysing tourists’ online search behaviour and improving demand forecasting: The case of Åre, Sweden. Information Technology & Tourism, 21(1), 45-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Google Trends data for analysing tourists’ online search behaviour and improving demand forecasting: The case of Åre, Sweden
2019 (English)In: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate forecasting of tourism demand is of utmost relevance for the success of

tourism businesses. This paper presents a novel approach that extends autoregressive

forecasting models by considering travellers’ web search behaviour as additional

input for predicting tourist arrivals. More precisely, the study presents a method

with the capacity to identify relevant search terms and time lags (i.e. time difference

between web search activities and tourist arrivals), and to aggregate these time

series into an overall web search index with maximal forecasting power on tourism

arrivals. The proposed approach enables a thorough analysis of temporal relationships

between search terms and tourist arrivals, thus, identifying patterns that reflect

online planning behaviour of travellers before visiting a destination. The study is

conducted at the leading Swedish mountain destination, Åre, using arrival data and

Google web search data for the period 2005–2012. Findings demonstrate the ability

of the proposed approach to outperform traditional autoregressive approaches, by

increasing the predictive power in forecasting tourism demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Google Trends data, Search word analysis, Online search pattern, Tourist arrival prediction, Autoregressive time series forecasting, Big data
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35036 (URN)10.1007/s40558-018-0129-4 (DOI)000467723600005 ()2-s2.0-85064535365 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Kronenberg, K., Fuchs, M. & Lexhagen, M. (2019). Socio-economic effects of tourism: An occupation-based modelling approach from Sweden. In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS: Critical tourism studies. Paper presented at 8th Critical Tourism Studies Conference, "Pride and Prejudice: Que(e)rying Tourism Hope", Ibiza, 24-28 June, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-economic effects of tourism: An occupation-based modelling approach from Sweden
2019 (English)In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS: Critical tourism studies, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Planners and developers in regions showing touristic activities are typically interested in measuring the economic impact of tourism (Dwyer et al. 2004; Klijs et al. 2012; Kim & Kim 2015). However, even ‘advanced’ economic impact models neglect major societal dimensions, such as income equality or the type and quality of occupations in the various tourism-related sectors (Mazumder et al. 2012; Kronenberg et al. 2018). While neo-classic economics is still representing the dominant paradigm (Dobusch & Kapeller 2009), economic impact models ‘fulfill’ their purpose in incorporating the assumptions of mainstream economics and in focusing on macro-level indicators related to economic growth (Elsner 2017). However, a growing body of literature starts criticizing mainstream economics’ modelling assumptions and its narrow view of ‘monetary reductionism’, thus hampering advanced approaches able to consider socio-economic effects (Söderbaum 2017). In their seminal paper on the Social Region, Moulaert & Nussbaumer (2005) argue that the focus of regional development theories should turn away from market competition towards concepts that effectively incorporate dimensions of a region’s social, political, cultural and community development. By doing so, the authors highlight various forms of inequality that typically impede the path towards the Social Region (ibid, 2005b).

Behind this background, the aim of this study is to propose a new approach that allows the measurement of tourism impact from a broader socio-economic perspective. In order to overcome the predominant growth focus, the study of tourism’s socio-economic impact comprises a macro as well as a meso level analysis and utilizes a mixed-method approach (Dopfer et al. 2004). More concretely, the macro level analysis of tourism’s socio-economic impact, first, includes the regionalization of the national Input-Output model to estimate primary and secondary employment and income effects for the Swedish region of Jämtland (Flegg & Tohmo 2011). In contrast to typical economic impact studies in tourism (Mazumder et al. 2012) and in order to estimate employment and income effects for various occupational domains individually and within various tourism-related sub-sectors, we extend the analysis by applying the occupation-based modelling (OBM) approach (Daniels et al. 2004). This approach allows estimating income inequalities and its variations over time (in our case from 2008 to 2015) for major tourism sectors, expressed by Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves, respectively (Lee & Kang 1998). Findings highlight that the incomes in the accommodation & food sector fall below the regional average - the lowest among all tourism-related industries. Interestingly, compared to others sectors (e.g. recreation & entertainment, retail), income inequality within this sector is relatively low (i.e. Gini coefficient = 0.15). However, growing coefficients are pointing at a negative trend over time: Between 2008 and 2013, the income of the top 15% earning occupations increased by 8%, while income of the bottom 15% earning occupations grew only by 1%. The latter occupations comprise seasonal workers, cleaning personal and kitchen assistants. We further analyze and critically discuss occupational developments and related income distributions (i.e. Gini coefficient trends) for major tourism-related sub-sectors of the Swedish region of Jämtland.

The second part of the analysis relates to the meso-level (Dopfer et al. 2004). A series of qualitative interviews with major regional industry and policy representatives (e.g. labor unions, hotel association, etc.) helped identifying potential reasons for variations in occupation and income developments in tourism. Findings show that large parts of low income workers stay in their job for only a short time, implying that newly employed workers are continuously hired at low (i.e. entry-level) wages. Furthermore, because of their expected short-term employment, tourism workers consider union memberships as unnecessary (Kjellberg 2017). Interestingly, the interviews helped identify also promising career opportunities showing steadily increasing income levels. These jobs, however, require higher educational profiles. Like in other branches, only higher education levels seem to overcome the low-income situation in tourism. To conclude, the interviewed industry-representatives perceived the proposed approach of occupation-based modelling and its related findings from measuring income inequalities particularly well. This gives reason for hope that in tourism regions new methods of socio-economic impact analysis will be implemented and institutionalized in the future. 

Keywords
Socio-economic impact, input-output modelling, occupation-based modelling, income inequality, Gini coefficients
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38137 (URN)
Conference
8th Critical Tourism Studies Conference, "Pride and Prejudice: Que(e)rying Tourism Hope", Ibiza, 24-28 June, 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Kronenberg, K., Fuchs, M. & Lexhagen, M. (2018). A multi-period perspective on tourism’s economic contribution : A regional input-output analysis for Sweden. Tourism Review, 73(1), 94-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multi-period perspective on tourism’s economic contribution : A regional input-output analysis for Sweden
2018 (English)In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 94-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Previous studies on tourism input-output (IO) primarily focus on a single year’s snapshot or utilize outdated IO coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the multi-period development of regional tourism capacities and its influence on the magnitude of the industry’s regional economic contribution. The paper highlights the importance of applying up-to-date IO coefficients to avoid estimation bias typically found in previous studies on tourism’s economic contribution.

Design/methodology/approach: For the period 2008-2014, national IO tables are regionalized to estimate direct and indirect economic effects for output, employment, income and other value-added effects. A comparison of Leontief inverse matrices is conducted to quantify estimation bias when using outdated models for analyzing tourism’s economic contribution.

Findings: On the one hand, economic linkages strengthened, especially for labour-intensive sectors. On the other hand, sectoral recessions in 2012 and 2014 led to an economy-wide decline of indirect effects, although tourists’ consumption was still increasing. Finally, estimation bias observed after applying an outdated IO model is quantified by approximately US$4.1m output, 986 jobs full-time equivalents, US$24.8m income and US$14.8m other value-added effects.

Research limitations/implications: Prevailing assumptions on IO modelling and regionalization techniques aim for more precise survey-based approaches and computable general equilibrium models to incorporate net changes in economic output. Results should be cross-validated by means of qualitative interviews with industry representatives.

Practical implications: Additional costs for generating IO tables on an annual base clearly pay off when considering the improved accuracy of estimates on tourism’s economic contribution.

Originality/value: This study shows that tourism IO studies should apply up-to-date IO models when estimating the industry’s economic contribution. It provides evidence that applying outdated models involve the risk of estimation biases, because annual changes of multipliers substantially influence the magnitude of effects.

Keywords
Tourism economic contribution, Estimation bias, Flegg location quotient, Multiplier analysis, Regional input-output model
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32480 (URN)10.1108/TR-03-2017-0044 (DOI)000425284000007 ()2-s2.0-85040555668 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Fuchs, M. & Baggio, R. (2018). Aesthetical, ethical and psychological dimensions of creativity: Implications for destination development and tourism entrepreneurship. In: Destination Dynamics 2018: Abstract book. Paper presented at ATLAS Annual Conference 2018, Destination Dynamics, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark, 26-29 September, 2018 (pp. 76-76).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetical, ethical and psychological dimensions of creativity: Implications for destination development and tourism entrepreneurship
2018 (English)In: Destination Dynamics 2018: Abstract book, 2018, p. 76-76Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35156 (URN)
Conference
ATLAS Annual Conference 2018, Destination Dynamics, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark, 26-29 September, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3964-2716

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