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Hessling, V., Åsberg, M. & Roxenhall, T. (2018). Relationship commitment and value creation in sponsorship relationships. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 25(2), 137-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship commitment and value creation in sponsorship relationships
2018 (English)In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 137-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The sponsorship industry has evolved considerably in recent years due to the strategic business opportunities that it provides. Despite increased interest in sponsorship, analysis of the relationship between relationship commitment and value creation and of relationship commitment as comprising multiple types or components in the context of sponsorship relationships is lacking. To address these gaps, this paper analyzes relationship commitment (in terms of affective commitment and value-based commitment) as a significant mediating variable, and value creation in the context of sponsorship relationships.

Methodology/approach: A questionnaire was sent to Swedish Hockey League sponsors to collect data and to verify the study’s conceptual model and relationships. The response rate for the survey was 19.8%, that is, 122 completed questionnaires out of 616 sent. The respondents represented the most common industries in Sweden, but most of them belonged to the construction, repair, and electronics industries (18.0%), manufacturing and production industry (13.1%), and commerce industry (11.5%). Most sponsoring companies (30.3%) were categorized as medium-sized (50–249 employees). Most respondents (38.5%) had invested EUR 4300–15,000, whereas 11.5% had invested less than EUR 4300. Moreover, we found that most sponsors had been in their sponsorship relationships for more than 10 years (32.8%). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis.

Findings: This study demonstrates that relationship commitment is an important driver of value creation in sponsorship relationships. Furthermore, the various forms of affective commitment and value-based commitment should not be considered merely components or forms but distinct types. Certainly, there is interaction between the two types, but sequentially in such a way that affective commitment is a prerequisite for value-based commitment. This means that a sponsor must have an emotional relationship with the sponsee in order to understand, perceive, and calculate the sponsorship relationship’s future business value in terms of profits and other benefits. This study also finds that value-based commitment is the most significant type of commitment in sponsorship relationships.

Research implications: The study demonstrates that shared values, trust, and affective commitment are fundamental conditions for value-based commitment. If the parties agree on how they should behave in the relationship, the rules and objectives that apply lead to the emergence of mutual trust, which in turn makes the parties want to continue the relationship for emotional reasons. But this is not enough for value creation; they must also see that there are future business benefits from the relationship. Therefore, the parties more or less explicitly make calculations. If the calculations indicate that the long-term benefits of the relationship outweigh the short-term sacrifices, they are prepared to invest in the relationship, and this may lead to value creation. In other words, there is both interplay and tension between shared values, trust, and affective commitment, on one hand, and value-based commitment, on the other. Another theoretical contribution is that previous research has considered the links between relationship commitment and value but has ignored the different types of commitment that play key roles in the value-creation process; this study has addressed that oversight. The study demonstrates that affective commitment and value-based commitment have different roles and meanings. Affective commitment indirectly affects value creation, while value-based commitment directly affects value creation. Affective commitment has the role of partial mediator, while value-based commitment has the role of full mediator. Furthermore, they differ in their basic characteristics: affective commitment is an emotional aspect, while value-based commitment is a calculative aspect.

Originality/value/contribution: Previous studies have not analyzed the relationship between relationship commitment and value creation. However, this study demonstrates that relationship commitment is an important driver of value creation in sponsorship relationships. Furthermore, most previous research argues that relationship commitment consists of various components or forms that interact in parallel with each other. However, this study demonstrates that the various forms of affective commitment and value-based commitment should not be considered merely components or forms but distinct types. Certainly, there is interaction between the two types, but sequentially in such a way that affective commitment is a prerequisite for value-based commitment. Furthermore, previous studies have consistently noted that affective commitment is the most important component, form, or type of relationship commitment. However, this study finds that value-based commitment is the most significant type of commitment in sponsorship relationships.

Keywords
Relationship commitment, affective commitment, value-based commitment, value creation, structural equation modeling, path and mediation analysis
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33386 (URN)10.1080/1051712X.2018.1454646 (DOI)000430483600004 ()2-s2.0-85044454626 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-01 Created: 2018-04-01 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Yderfält, Å. & Roxenhall, T. (2017). Real estate business model innovation and the impact of ego network structure. Management Research Review, 40(6), 648-670
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real estate business model innovation and the impact of ego network structure
2017 (English)In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 648-670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - This paper aims to analyze how a real estate business model innovation developed in a real estate network, with a special focus on the relationship between ego network structure and the innovative development of the business model. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is a single case study of a Swedish real estate network of 38 actors. The data were collected at the individual actor level using multiple sources: 12 semi-structured indepth interviews, 94 min of meetings and 28 written contracts. The empirical findings resulted in four propositions. Findings - This study demonstrates that it was primarily the building user who was behind the innovative development of the real estate business model innovation, whereas the real estate company acted as a network hub and network resource coordinator. The ego network structures significantly affected the outcome. Practical implications - Real estate companies should act as hubs, coordinating all the network actor resources the building user needs in the value-creation process. To be effective hubs, the representatives of real estate companies must create extensive personal and open ego networks to acquire central network positions. Originality/value - Few studies examine business model innovation, particularly in the real estate context. Though large real estate businesses usually operate in the networks of various actors, analyses based on the network perspective are also lacking. This case study builds a valuable understanding of how network processes in real estate networks can be used as tools to foster real estate business model innovation, which in turn can lead to more competitive real estate companies and building users.

Keywords
Business model innovation, Real estate, Ego network structure, Network centrality, Network density, Network size
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31838 (URN)10.1108/MRR-11-2016-0253 (DOI)000406741900002 ()2-s2.0-85023620410 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Olsén Hammarfjord, M. & Roxenhall, T. (2017). The relationship between network commitment, antecedents, and innovation in strategic innovation networks. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(4), Article ID UNSP 1750037.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between network commitment, antecedents, and innovation in strategic innovation networks
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 21, no 4, article id UNSP 1750037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Strategic innovation networks, formed to stimulate innovation performance and eco- nomic growth for members and regions via collaborative activities, have recently be- come increasingly common. Numerous researchers have noted the effect of network structure on innovation performance and also discussed the mediating role of commit- ment. Many studies suggest that commitment strongly mediates firm and network out- come and performance. Studies of organisational behaviour, relationship marketing, and human resources demonstrate that commitment leads to better firm performance, inter- firm cooperation, network performance, market knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing, future intentions, retention, and enforcement mechanisms. Strangely, studies of the re- lationship between commitment and innovation from a network perspective are lacking. This study investigates the relationships between commitment, its antecedents, and in- novation performance in strategic innovation networks. The antecedents examined are expectation gap, shared values, ego network density, and ego network size. A ques- tionnaire was emailed to all members of three Swedish strategic innovation networks in different industries and regions to collect data; 150 completed questionnaires were re- ceived for a 27% response rate. Multiple regression, path, and mediation analyses demonstrate that commitment is an important mediating variable when firms in strategic networks jointly develop innovations. Expectation gap and shared values are strongly related to commitment, but ego network density and ego network size are not; however, the last two variables directly affect innovation. This means that relational influence is more important for commitment than the structural effects, while structural effects are more significant for innovation. 

Keywords
Network commitment, innovation, expectation gap, shared values, ego network density, ego network size, strategic innovation network
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30701 (URN)10.1142/S1363919617500372 (DOI)000400691900006 ()2-s2.0-85006304308 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Nordin, Å. & Roxenhall, T. (2015). Network Structure and Business Model Innovation in Real Estate Networks. A management perspective.. In: : . Paper presented at Real Estate in the Öresund Region, 4th Workshop, April 23th-24th 2015, Malmö, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Structure and Business Model Innovation in Real Estate Networks. A management perspective.
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the traditional real estate business today there’s a growing trend focusing on increased customer value at office workplaces. Facilitating innovation requires transfer of different kinds of knowledge, which means that the knowledge-bearing actors must meet and interact. The customer is therefore no longer passive but deemed as an important active actor in the development of new and changed business models. In a case study, this paper seeks to improve our understanding of how network structure affects innovation outcomes in real estate innovation networks by analyzing network structure in terms of network size, density and in terms of actor centrality or position. This study shows that it was primarily the customer who was behind the innovative development of the workplace while the real estate company had a more network coordinating role.

National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26583 (URN)
Conference
Real Estate in the Öresund Region, 4th Workshop, April 23th-24th 2015, Malmö, Sweden
Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2015-12-17Bibliographically approved
Andresen, E., Braunerhjelm, L. & Roxenhall, T. (2015). Nära ekonomiska nätverksrelationer. In: Öhman, P., Lundberg, H. (Ed.), Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer: (pp. 201-217). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nära ekonomiska nätverksrelationer
2015 (Swedish)In: Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer / [ed] Öhman, P., Lundberg, H., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 201-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26698 (URN)9789144106144 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2015-12-21Bibliographically approved
Roxenhall, T. (2013). Network Structure and Innovation in Strategic Innovation Networks. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(2), 1350002
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Structure and Innovation in Strategic Innovation Networks
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 1350002-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper seeks to improve our understanding of how network structure affects innovation outcomes in strategic innovation networks. The theoretical argument is illustrated by the case of a Swedish strategic innovation network. I conducted a social network analysis of the relationships between 58 network members. Roughly half of the network actors were involved in producing innovations; they had significantly larger, higher-density networks and occupied more central positions in their networks than did those not participating in the innovation or scientific work.

Keywords
Strategic network; network structure; innovation; social capital; network ties; density; structural holes; centrality; social network analysis.
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15504 (URN)10.1142/S1363919613500023 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877784546 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Strategiska nätverk
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Roxenhall, T. & Andrésen, E. (2012). Affective, Calculative and Normative Commitment: An Assesment of Relationship. World Review of Business Research, 2(5), 86-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective, Calculative and Normative Commitment: An Assesment of Relationship
2012 (English)In: World Review of Business Research, ISSN 1838-3955, E-ISSN 1839-1176, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commitment is a psychological state regarded in the literature of marketing as a key concept in business relationships (Fullerton, 2005, Morgan & Hunt, 1994). In marketing, literature commitment is often regarded as comprising affective, calculative and normative components. Rylander (1997) Anderson & Weitz (1992) and Martín (2008) suggest mutual interaction between these components, which means that a single actor may have elements of all these components at the time of a single commitment. This perspective on commitment implies that variations of commitment will influence the relationships in question in different ways. Recent research has focused on factors leading to and reinforcing commitment, but knowledge on the relationship between the three components identified is lacking. Further general studies of commitment are required but studies of how the three components also interact in particular, in order to gain an understanding of how commitment works in relationships and networks. This paper aims to develop a model that describes how the three components interact. The model is illustrated by an empirical case concerning two large Swedish companies and their sponsoring relationships with the local ice-hockey club. Data have been gathered through interviews and a survey that has been analysed qualitatively. We found the affective component, when present, to be a significant component in relationship commitment building, almost replacing the calculative and moral ones. The moral and calculative commitment components were. however, significant for initiation of interaction and relationship building between the parties at the start of the relationship. 

Keywords
Network, commitment, relationsship
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17190 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-12 Created: 2012-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Andrésen, E., Lundberg, H. & Roxenhall, T. (2012). Designing for commitment in regional strategic networks. Management Research Review, 35(6), 531-552
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for commitment in regional strategic networks
2012 (English)In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 531-552Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of structural factors and activities on commitment in a regional strategic network(RSN) context. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study examines two regional strategic networks acting in different business areas in mid Sweden. Findings: Competition-neutral, social, and personal goals were found to be powerful drivers promoting shared values andcommitment among competitors, whereas business-related goals worked well for complementary firms, providing a more stable basis for networkcommitment. In the RSN with a large number of members, sensitivity to absence was low, but it took longer for members to get to know one another, slowing commitment development. The RSN including members with complementary resources proved a more favorable setting than did the RSN including competitors, and frequent activities that favored social relationship development increased commitment. Research limitations/implications: This study identifies important factors influencing the development of commitment in network contexts, but is limited to two cases. The topic merits further research: other factors need consideration, and the factors discussed here should be evaluated in other contexts. Practical implications: The impact on network commitment of the factors discussed here needs to be considered by RSN initiators and hubs. Originality/value: Few studies treat commitment in RSN contexts. This paper addresses this deficit by identifying structural factors and activities that influence commitmentdevelopment. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Keywords
Business development; Goals; Member numbers and longevity; Network commitment; Regional strategic network; Resource composition; Social networks; Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12674 (URN)10.1108/01409171211238280 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860844529 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Strategiska nätverk
Available from: 2010-12-14 Created: 2010-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Nordin, Å. & Roxenhall, T. (2012). Network Structure and Innovation Outcomes in Real Estate Networks: Presenterad vid Forskningsseminarium i Fastighetsvetenskap för doktorander och nydisputerade, Malmö Högskola.. Paper presented at Forskningsseminarium i Fastighetsvetenskap för doktorander och nydisputerade, Malmö Högskola, 16-17 februari 2012..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Structure and Innovation Outcomes in Real Estate Networks: Presenterad vid Forskningsseminarium i Fastighetsvetenskap för doktorander och nydisputerade, Malmö Högskola.
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16269 (URN)
Conference
Forskningsseminarium i Fastighetsvetenskap för doktorander och nydisputerade, Malmö Högskola, 16-17 februari 2012.
Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2012-06-01Bibliographically approved
Andrésen, E., Roxenhall, T. & Lundberg, H. (2011). Competence Development for Process Leaders in Networks. In: Damianakos, D., Ventura, P., Zavrides, N. (Ed.), Minor Communities and Natural and Cultural Heritage: an Asset or a Liability?. Milano: McGraw-Hill
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competence Development for Process Leaders in Networks
2011 (English)In: Minor Communities and Natural and Cultural Heritage: an Asset or a Liability? / [ed] Damianakos, D., Ventura, P., Zavrides, N., Milano: McGraw-Hill, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milano: McGraw-Hill, 2011
Series
COST Action C27 Sustainable Development Policies for Minor Deprived Urban Communities
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15548 (URN)9788838672637 (ISBN)
Projects
Strategiska nätverk
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9441-2919

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