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Patrician, Alexander
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Sjöström, R., Söderström, L., Klockmo, C., Patrician, A., Sandström, T., Björklund, G., . . . Stenfors, N. (2019). Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 78(1), Article ID 1583528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1583528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to cold air is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is difficult to study the effects of whole-body exposure to cold air under controlled conditions in real life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to (1) explore and describe the experience of symptoms in humans during experimental and controlled exposures to cold air, by using controlled environmental chamber exposures and qualitative methodology, and to (2) categorise the symptoms. Method: The study used a randomised, double blind design, in which 34 subjects undertook rest and moderate-intensity exercise in an environmental chamber set to two or three different temperatures (0, −10, and −17°C) on separate occasions. During the chamber exposures, subjects were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was selected as the method of analysis. Findings: Subjects reported 50 distinct symptoms during the exposures. The symptoms were grouped into ten sub-categories and two major categories; airway versus whole-body symptoms. Conclusion: We have identified a broad range of symptoms in humans undertaking rest and moderate-intensity exercise at sub-zero temperatures. The symptoms and their categories may well be used to more extensively and quantitatively map cold-induced morbidity.

Keywords
Cold temperature, environmental chamber, healthy, physical activity, qualitative analysis, respiratory disease
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35730 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2019.1583528 (DOI)000459975500001 ()30821652 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062417054 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Patrician, A., Engan, H. K., Lundsten, D., Grote, L., Vigetun-Haughey, H. & Schagatay, E. (2018). The Effect of Dietary Nitrate on Nocturnal Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Arterial Oxygen Desaturation at High Altitude. High Altitude Medicine & Biology, 19(1), 21-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Dietary Nitrate on Nocturnal Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Arterial Oxygen Desaturation at High Altitude
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2018 (English)In: High Altitude Medicine & Biology, ISSN 1527-0297, E-ISSN 1557-8682, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patrician, Alexander, Harald Engan, David Lundsten, Ludger Grote, Helena Vigetun-Haughey, and Erika Schagatay. The effect of dietary nitrate on nocturnal sleep-disordered breathing and arterial oxygen desaturation at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.Sleep-disordered breathing and fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) are common during sleep among lowlanders ascending to high altitude. Dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation has been shown to lower the O-2 consumption in various conditions. Our objective was to investigate whether dietary NO3- could reduce sleep-disordered breathing and SaO(2) desaturation during sleep at altitude. Cardiorespiratory responses during sleep were measured in 10 healthy lowlanders at 330m and then again in the Himalayas at 3700-4900m. Each subject received two 70mL shots of either beetroot juice (BR; approximate to 5.0mmol NO3- per shot) or placebo (PL: approximate to 0.003mmol NO3- per shot) in a single-blinded, weighted order over two consecutive nights at altitude. At 2.5-4.5 hours into sleep at altitude, BR increased the SaO(2) desaturation drop (4.2 [0.1]% with PL vs. 5.3 [0.4]% with BR; p=0.024) and decreased the SaO(2) desaturation duration (14.1 [0.9] seconds with PL to 11.1 [0.9] seconds with BR; p=0.0.041). There was a reduction in breaths with flow limitation (p=0.025), but no changes in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), mean and minimum SaO(2). The study suggests BR supplementation does not improve AHI or oxygenation, but may increase fluctuations in arterial O-2 saturation during sleep at altitude in native lowlanders.

Keywords
arterial oxygen desaturation, dietary nitrate, hypobaric hypoxia, pulmonary vasculature, sleep at high altitude
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32569 (URN)10.1089/ham.2017.0039 (DOI)000417305600001 ()2-s2.0-85044988132 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Patrician, A. & Schagatay, E. (2017). Dietary nitrate enhances arterial oxygen saturation after dynamic apnea. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(6), 622-626
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary nitrate enhances arterial oxygen saturation after dynamic apnea
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 622-626Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Breath-hold divers train to minimize their oxygen consumption to improve their apneic performance. Dietary nitrate has been shown to reduce the oxygen cost in a variety of situations, and our aim was to study its effect on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) after dynamic apnea (DYN) performance. Fourteen healthy male apnea divers (aged 33 ± 11 years) received either 70 mL of concentrated nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) or placebo (PL) on different days. At 2.5 h after ingesting the juice, they were asked to perform 2 × 75 m DYN dives in a pool with 4.5-min recovery between dives. Each dive started after 2-min countdown and without any warm-up apneas, hyperventilation, or lung packing. SaO2 and heart rate were measured via pulse oximetry for 90 s before and after each dive. Mean SaO2 nadir values after the dives were 83.4 ± 10.8% with BR and 78.3 ± 11.0% with PL (P < 0.05). At 20-s post-dive, mean SaO2 was 86.3 ± 10.6% with BR and 79.4 ± 10.2% with PL (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BR juice was found to elevate SaO2 after 75-m DYN. These results suggest an oxygen conserving effect of dietary nitrate supplementation, which likely has a positive effect on maximal apnea performance.

Keywords
Anaerobic exercise, Apneic diving, Arterial desaturation, Breath-hold, Hypoxia, Immersion, Nitrate, Sport performance
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29605 (URN)10.1111/sms.12684 (DOI)000400610600005 ()27037996 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84963617381 (Scopus ID)
Note

First published: 31 March 2016

Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Schagatay, E., Patrician, A., Engan, H. & Lodin-Sundström, A. (2017). Spleen Contraction and Hb Increase after Nitrate Ingestion may Explain Enhanced Apneic Diving Performance. Paper presented at Scandinavian Physiological Society Meeting in Oslo, Norway, 26-28 August 2016. Acta Physiologica, 219(S710), 32-32, Article ID P-42.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spleen Contraction and Hb Increase after Nitrate Ingestion may Explain Enhanced Apneic Diving Performance
2017 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 219, no S710, p. 32-32, article id P-42Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Ingesting nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BJ) has been suggested to enhance physical performance by reducing the oxygen cost, which could be useful in apneic diving. We previously found that after ingestion of BJ, arterial oxygen saturation was higher after static apneas (Engan et.al, Resp. Physiol & Neurobiol, 2012) and after dynamic apneas involving exercise (Patrician & Schagatay. Scand.J.Med.Sci.Sports, 2016). Our aim was to investigate the effect of BJ ingestion on spleen contraction and the resulting Hb increase, a mechanism known to prolong apneas (Schagatay et.al, J.Appl.Physiol, 2001).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight volunteers aged 24±2 years simulated diving by performing maximal apneas with face immersion during prone rest ~2.5h after ingesting 70 ml BJ (5 mmol NO3-) or placebo (0.003 mmol NO3-) on separate days in a weighted order. We measured spleen diameters for volume calculation and capillary Hb before and after "dives".

RESULTS: Baseline (mean±SE) spleen volume was 269±33 mL with placebo and 206±27 mL after BJ ingestion (P<0.05). Post "dive" spleen volumes were smaller, but similar at 168±35 mL and 193±25 mL, respectively (NS). Baseline Hb was 145.4±3.4 g/L with placebo and 149.8±2.6 g/L with BJ (P<0.05). Post "dive" Hb had increased to 152.0±4.8 g/L with placebo and 153.7±3.0 g/L with BJ (NS). 

CONCLUSION: With BJ ingestion spleen volume was reduced and Hb elevated even before the "dive". The elevated Hb at the start of apnea would likely have a positive effect on apneic duration by enhancing circulating oxygen stores. The positive effect of nitrate on performance in various sports could in part be due to its spleen-emptying effect, causing a natural blood boosting, which is a novel finding.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29758 (URN)000393916600067 ()
Conference
Scandinavian Physiological Society Meeting in Oslo, Norway, 26-28 August 2016
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Tymko, M. M., Tremblay, J. C., Steinback, C. D., Moore, J. P., Hansen, A. B., Patrician, A., . . . Ainslie, P. N. (2017). UBC-Nepal Expedition: acute alterations in sympathetic nervous activity do not influence brachial artery endothelial function at sea level and high altitude. Journal of applied physiology, 123(5), 1386-1396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UBC-Nepal Expedition: acute alterations in sympathetic nervous activity do not influence brachial artery endothelial function at sea level and high altitude
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2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 1386-1396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence indicates that increases in sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), and acclimatization to high altitude (HA), may reduce endothelial function as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); however, it is unclear whether such changes in FMD are due to direct vascular constraint, or consequential altered hemodynamics (e.g., shear stress) associated with increased SNA as a consequence of exposure to HA. We hypothesized that 1) at rest, SNA would be elevated and FMD would be reduced at HA compared with sea-level (SL);and 2) at SL and HA, FMD would be reduced when SNA was acutely increased, and elevated when SNA was acutely decreased. Using a novel, randomized experimental design, brachial artery FMD was assessed at SL (344 m) and HA (5,050 m) in 14 participants during mild lower-body negative pressure (LBNP; -10 mmHg) and lower-body positive pressure (LBPP; -10 mmHg). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), heart rate (electrocardiogram), oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), and brachial artery blood flow and shear rate (Duplex ultrasound) were recorded during LBNP, control, and LBPP trials. Muscle SNA was recorded (via microneurography) in a subset of participants (n = 5). Our findings were 1) at rest, SNA was elevated (P < 0.01), and absolute FMD was reduced (P = 0.024), but relative FMD remained unaltered (P = 0.061), at HA compared with SL; and 2) despite significantly altering SNA with LBNP (+60.3 +/- 25.5%) and LBPP (-37.2 +/- 12.7%) (P < 0.01), FMD was unaltered at SL (P = 0.448) and HA (P = 0.537). These data indicate that acute and mild changes in SNA do not directly influence brachial artery FMD at SL or HA.

Keywords
sympathetic nervous activity, lower-body negative pressure, lower-body positive pressure, endothelial function, high altitude
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32563 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00583.2017 (DOI)000416597900039 ()28860174 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047306817 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez-Zamora, L., Patrician, A., Starfelt, V., Olander, C., Lodin-Sundström, A. & Schagatay, E. (2016). Physiological responses to apnea at sea level predict SaO2 at simulated 5300 m altitude. In: : . Paper presented at 8th European Hypoxia Symposium: High altitude and isobaric hypoxia influence on human performance: science and practice, Police, Slovenia, 8 - 11 September 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological responses to apnea at sea level predict SaO2 at simulated 5300 m altitude
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29760 (URN)
Conference
8th European Hypoxia Symposium: High altitude and isobaric hypoxia influence on human performance: science and practice, Police, Slovenia, 8 - 11 September 2016
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Bakker, E., Engan, H., Patrician, A., Schagatay, E., Karlsen, T., Wisloff, U. & Gaustad, S. E. (2015). Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves arterial endothelial function at high altitude: A double-blinded randomized controlled cross over study. Nitric oxide, 50, 58-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves arterial endothelial function at high altitude: A double-blinded randomized controlled cross over study
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2015 (English)In: Nitric oxide, ISSN 1089-8603, E-ISSN 1089-8611, Vol. 50, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation serves as an exogenous source of nitrite (NO3-) and nitric oxide (NO) through the NO3- NO3- NO pathway, and may improve vascular functions during normoxia. The effects of NO3- supplementation in healthy lowlanders during hypobaric hypoxia are unknown. Purpose: Determine the effect of acute oral NO3- supplementation via beetroot juice (BJ) on endothelial function (flow mediated dilation; FMD) in lowlanders at 3700 m. Methods: FMD was measured using ultrasound and Doppler in the brachial artery of 11 healthy subjects (4 females, age 25 +/- 5 yrs; height 1.8 +/- 0.1 m, weight 72 +/- 10 kg) sojourning to high altitude. In a randomized, double-blinded crossover study design, FMD was measured 3 h after drinking BJ (5.0 mmol NO3-) and placebo (PL; 0.003 mmol No-3(-)) supplementation at 3700 m, with a 24-h wash out period between tests. FMD was also measured without any BJ supplementation pre-trek at 1370 m, after 5 days at 4200 m and upon return to 1370 m after 4 weeks of altitude exposure (above 2500 m). The altitude exposure was interrupted by a decent to lower altitude where subjects spent two nights at 1370 m before returning to altitude again. Results: Ten subjects completed the NO3- supplementation. FMD (mean +/- SD) pre-trek value was 6.53 +/- 2.32% at 1370 m. At 3700 m FMD was reduced to 3.84 +/- 1.31% (p < 0.01) after PL supplementation but was normalized after receiving BJ (5.77 +/- 1.14% (p = 1.00). Eight of the subjects completed the interrupted 4-week altitude stay, and their FMD was lower at 4200 m (FMD 3.04 +/- 2.22%) and at post-altitude exposure to 1370 m (FMD 3.91 +/- 2.58%) compared to pre-trek FMD at 1370 m. Conclusion: Acute dietary NO3- supplementation may abolish altitude-induced reduction in endothelial function, and can serve as a dietary strategy to ensure peripheral vascular function in lowland subjects entering high altitude environments. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Nitric oxide, Beetroot juice, Field-study, FMD, Flow mediated dilation, Nepal, Altitude medicine
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26568 (URN)10.1016/j.niox.2015.08.006 (DOI)000363362900008 ()2-s2.0-84941336858 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez-Zamora, L., Lodin-Sundström, A., Engan, H. K., Höök, M., Patrician, A., Degerström, E. & Schagatay, E. (2015). Effects of altitude acclimatization on spleen volume and contraction during submaximal and maximal work in lowlanders. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of altitude acclimatization on spleen volume and contraction during submaximal and maximal work in lowlanders
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26743 (URN)
Conference
20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015
Available from: 2015-12-28 Created: 2015-12-28 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
Johansson, H., Engan, H. K., Melin, M., Patrician, A., Lodin-Sundström, A. & Schagatay, E. (2015). No effect of dietary nitrate on the human diving response in dry and wet apneas. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No effect of dietary nitrate on the human diving response in dry and wet apneas
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26739 (URN)
Conference
20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015.
Available from: 2015-12-28 Created: 2015-12-23 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
Fernández, F., Patrician, A., Lodin-Sundström, A. & Schagatay, E. (2015). Predicting static and dynamic apnea performance in elite divers using a 2-minute static apnea test. In: : . Paper presented at EUBS conference, Amsterdam 19-22 August, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting static and dynamic apnea performance in elite divers using a 2-minute static apnea test
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26747 (URN)
Conference
EUBS conference, Amsterdam 19-22 August, 2015
Available from: 2015-12-28 Created: 2015-12-28 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
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