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Zetterström Dahlqvist, HeléneORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3209-186X
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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2019). Poly-victimization of Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Violence in Youth - A Latent Class Analysis. In: : . Paper presented at World Anti Bullying Forum, Dublin, Ireland, 4-6 June, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poly-victimization of Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Violence in Youth - A Latent Class Analysis
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Violence in a broad sense among youth is common and there is some evidence that there are groups of youth who are victims of more than one form of violence. More knowledge is needed in terms of patterning of subgroups of poly-victimization. The aim was to explore if there are distinct subgroups of youth with particular patterns of violence victimization.

Method: Survey data from a Swedish sample (n = 1,569) of 14-16-year-olds were used (females 48.4%). Measures were physical violence, threat of physical violence, bullying, sexual harassment, and cyber bullying and harassment in the past six months as well as lifetime physical violence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of youth with particular violence victimization patterns. Model fit assessment was based on model parsimony, theoretical justification and fit indices criteria (the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion).

Result: A three-latent-class model was selected: 1. Poly-victims with high probabilities of being victimized by a multitude of different types of violence (girls 47.6%). 2. Overall low probabilities of violence victimization (girls 47.5%). 3. High probabilities of victimization of sexual harassment off- and online as well as bullying online (girls 65.6%).

Discussion: Three distinct subgroups of violence victimization in youth was evident in the data. There was a greater representation of girls in the purely sexualized violence sub-group. Further research and preventive programs should acknowledge that young people who are victims of one type of violence are likely also to be victims of other types of violence.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36298 (URN)
Conference
World Anti Bullying Forum, Dublin, Ireland, 4-6 June, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2018). A Latent Class Analysis of Violence Poly-victimization in Youth. Paper presented at 11th European Public Health Conference. Winds of change: towards new ways of improving public health in Europe, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 28 November - 1 December, 2018. European Journal of Public Health, 28, 483-484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Latent Class Analysis of Violence Poly-victimization in Youth
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 483-484Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Violence among youth is common and has been linked to poor mental health outcomes. There is some evidence that there are groups of youth who are victims of more than one form of violence but more knowledge is needed in terms of patterning of subgroups of multiple violence victimization. Aim: To explore if there are distinct subgroups of youth with particular patterns of violence victimization. Method: Survey data from a Swedish sample (n = 1,569) of youth 14-16 years old were used (females 48.4%). Using a broad definition of violence, respondents indicated if they had experienced physical violence, threat of physical violence, bullying, sexual harassment, cyber bullying, online sexual victimization, and other adverse sexual experience in the past six months as well as lifetime physical violence victimization. Distinct subgroups of youth within the data set with particular patterns of violence victimization were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). Model fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), with smaller values indicating better model fit. Results: Preliminary results show three distinct subgroups: 1. Sexualized violence off- and online (girls 66.6%), 2. Bullying only (girls 47.5%) and 3. Multi-victimization including threat of physical violence, violence in the past six months and lifetime, sexual harassment on- and offline, bullying on- and offline as well as other adverse sexual experience (girls 47.6%). Conclusions: Three distinct subgroups of violence victimization in a sample of 14-16 year old youth was evident in the data. There was a greater representation of girls in the sexualized violence sub-group. Further research as well as preventive programs should acknowledge that many young people are victims of several types of violence. Future research should also investigate the implications of multi-victimization on mental health outcomes.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35012 (URN)000461384202204 ()
Conference
11th European Public Health Conference. Winds of change: towards new ways of improving public health in Europe, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 28 November - 1 December, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2018). Online Sexual Victimisation in Youth: Predictors and Cross-Sectional Associations with Depressive Symptoms. European Journal of Public Health, 28(6), 1018-1023
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Sexual Victimisation in Youth: Predictors and Cross-Sectional Associations with Depressive Symptoms
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1018-1023Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim

The aim was to analyze (i) the prevalence of online unwanted sexual solicitation (USS) victimization, (ii) predictors of online USS and (iii) the associations between online USS and depressive symptoms in Swedish pupils in grades 7–9.

Methods

An electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Total n = 1193 (boys n = 566; girls n= 627). Logistic regression models were fitted to test the cross-sectional associations between predictors of online USS and depressive symptoms, respectively.

Results

One third of girls and every fifth boy reported online USS victimization. In boys, predictors associated with online USS were offline bullying and sexual harassment victimization. Only offline sexual harassment victimization was associated with online USS in girls. Girls victimized by online USS had about twice the likelihood to report depressive symptoms compared to non-victimized girls. There were no associations between online USS and depressive symptoms in boys. While offline bullying was associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, offline sexual harassment victimization increased the likelihood to report depressive symptoms in girls only.

Conclusions

Online USS was common among Swedish youth, particularly among girls. Schools, parents and internet safety educators should look at co-occurrence of different forms of victimization as offline victimization was a predictor of online USS. Online USS was associated with depressive symptoms in girls and may hence be a factor driving gender inequity in mental health in youth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
adolescent depressive disorders, internet, sexual harassment, bullying, victimization
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33608 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky102 (DOI)000456673500009 ()29868848 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056721364 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-13 Created: 2018-05-13 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2018). Online Sexual Victimization in Youth: Predictors of Victimization and Associations with Depressive Symptoms in a Swedish Sample. In: : . Paper presented at SRA-E 2018: Risk & Uncertainty - From Critical Thinking to Practical Impact, Östersund, Sweden, 18-20 June 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Sexual Victimization in Youth: Predictors of Victimization and Associations with Depressive Symptoms in a Swedish Sample
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33811 (URN)
Conference
SRA-E 2018: Risk & Uncertainty - From Critical Thinking to Practical Impact, Östersund, Sweden, 18-20 June 2018
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E., Almqvist, Y. B. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2017). A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76(1), Article ID 1396146.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1396146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DISA-programme in preventing depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls, as implemented in a real-world school setting, accounting for baseline socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and to investigate whether the effects of these baseline variables on DS differed between intervention participants and non-participants. In this non-randomised pragmatic trial, an electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) in schools in one municipality in northern Sweden. Pupils (total n=275; intervention participants identified in the questionnaire: n=53; non-partici-pants: n=222) were 14–15 years old at baseline. The groups were compared by means of SEM. DISA could not predict differences in DS at follow-up in this real-life setting. In the overall sample, sexual harassment victimisation (SH) at baseline was associated with DS at follow-up and the estimate for SH increased in the DISA-participants compared to the overall sample.

Keywords
School, depressive symptoms, real-life setting, pragmatic trial, cognitive-behavioural, sexual harassment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29189 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2017.1396146 (DOI)000417206200001 ()2-s2.0-85045666575 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-04 Created: 2016-11-04 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. (2017). Dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal cross-lagged study in a Swedish sample. In: : . Paper presented at World Anti-Bullying Forum 2017, May 7-9, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal cross-lagged study in a Swedish sample
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences inthese pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

Keywords
Sexual harassment; Depressive symptoms
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30733 (URN)
Conference
World Anti-Bullying Forum 2017, May 7-9, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. (2017). Flickors psykiska ohälsa i skolan. In: : . Paper presented at Kvinnors hälsa - fakta och myter. Ålands Landskapsregering, Mariehamn, 17 November, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flickors psykiska ohälsa i skolan
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32177 (URN)
Conference
Kvinnors hälsa - fakta och myter. Ålands Landskapsregering, Mariehamn, 17 November, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Reinikainen, L. & Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. (2016). Curating an exhibition in a university setting.: An autoethnographic study of an autoethnographic work. In: Pillay, D., Naicker, I. and Pithouse-Morgan, K. (Ed.), Academic autoethnographies: Inside teaching in higher education (pp. 69-84). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Curating an exhibition in a university setting.: An autoethnographic study of an autoethnographic work
2016 (English)In: Academic autoethnographies: Inside teaching in higher education / [ed] Pillay, D., Naicker, I. and Pithouse-Morgan, K., Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016, p. 69-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016
National Category
Pedagogical Work Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26865 (URN)10.1007/978-94-6300-399-5_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85018921894 (Scopus ID)9789463003995 (ISBN)9789463003988 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-01-14 Created: 2016-01-14 Last updated: 2017-06-21Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H. (2016). Determinants of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: The Role of Sexual Harassment and Implications for Preventive Interventions. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 45(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: The Role of Sexual Harassment and Implications for Preventive Interventions
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Depression is considered the worldwide leading cause of illness and disability in young people and an urgent public health issue. Within the field of public health it is of interest to deepen the understanding of determinants of depressive symptoms (DS) that are possible to address on a political or an organizational level. Also, it is of great importance to find methods to prevent depression in adolescents. To address these issues, the present thesis had two Aims: I) To study determinants of DS in adolescents, and II) to, by means of a non-randomized pragmatic trial evaluation, investigate the effectiveness a cognitive-behavioral intervention (DISA) in a real-world setting in relation to determinants of DS in adolescent girls. This was addressed by asking a) Which determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels are associated with DS in adolescents? (Paper I); b) What are the directional pathways between sexual harassment (SH) and DS? (Paper II); c) Which features characterize students who were assigned to a cognitive-behavioral intervention regarding levels of DS, psychosocial aspects and socioeconomic status of the respondents as well as of schools? (Paper III); d) Does DISA have an effect on DS in girls aged 14-16? (Paper IV); and e) Are there differences between the DISA participants and non-participants in the effects of psychosocial and structural determinants on DS? (Paper IV). Method: Data was collected in January 2010, 2011, and 2012, by means of a self-administered, electronic questionnaire in school. Students aged 14-16 in all nine public and one independent high school in a municipality in northern Sweden participated in the study (~1,000-1,200 students depending on the wave). All studies had DS as the single outcome variable. Individual level determinants were self-esteem and self-efficacy. Psychosocial determinants were parental/peer/teacher support; school demands; sexual harassment; and bullying. Structural determinants were family material affluence; parental foreign background, parental employment status; disrupted family, and personal relative affluence. Logistic regression was employed for research question a) (Paper I). Structural equation (SEM) cross-lag models were modeled for research question b) (Paper II). The Mann-Whitney U statistic was employed for research question c) (Paper III). SEM was used for research questions d-e) (Paper IV). Results: Determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels were independently associated with depressive symptoms in both genders. Self-efficacy, low teacher support, bullying victimization, and low personal relative affluence was associated with elevated levels of DS in both genders (Paper I). In girls, low parental support, high school demands, and sexual harassment victimization (SH) were also associated with elevated levels of DS. Among boys, parental migrant background was also associated with DS. Among girls, both the targeting of girls with elevated DS, and the consequence of SH explained the relationship between DS and SH victimization over time. In boys, only the predating of DS explained the association between DS and SH (Paper II). Only girls were assigned to DISA during 2011 and DISA participants reported higher levels of DS and lower levels of self-esteem than the non-participants at pre-intervention, which indicates that DISA was used as a targeted intervention for girls with elevated symptoms. Also, DISA participants reported higher levels of SH victimization, less peer support, and lower personal relative affluence (Paper III). In contrast to the non-participants, DISA participants did not increase their mean scoring on DS at an eight months follow-up. However, SEM analyses showed that the effect of DISA participation on DS at follow-up was negligible (Paper IV). Conclusions: This study showed that SH victimization was an important determinant for DS in girls followed by personal relative affluence. Among boys, personal relative affluence and parental migrant background were the most important factors. SH victimization had mental health consequences in girls only. DISA was implemented as a targeted intervention rather than as selective or universal one, and did not have an effect on DS in this group of girls. Implications for further research and health promotion practice in the school setting are discussed.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Depression anses vara den världsledande orsaken till sjukdom och funktionsnedsättning hos unga människor och en av de viktigaste folkhälsofrågorna gällande ungdomar. Inom folkhälsoområdet är det viktigt att fördjupa förståelsen av bestämningsfaktorer för depressiva symtom (DS) som är möjliga att ta itu med på en politisk eller organisatorisk nivå. Det är också av stort intresse att finna metoder för att förebygga depression hos ungdomar. För att adressera detta hade denna avhandling två Syften: I) Att studera bestämningsfaktorer för DS hos ungdomar 14-16 år, och II) Att genom en icke-randomiserad pragmatisk utvärderingsstudie undersöka effekten av en kognitiv beteendemodifierande intervention (DISA) så som den implementerats i praktiken i skolan i förhållande till bestämningsfaktorer för DS hos flickor. Följande frågeställningar formulerades: a) Vilka bestämningsfaktorer på individ, psykosocial och strukturell nivå är förknippade med DS hos ungdomar? (Paper I); b) I vilken riktning går sambandet mellan sexuella trakasserier (ST) och DS? (Paper II); c) Vad karaktäriserar elever som gått en kognitiv beteendemodifierande metod (DISA) avseende nivåer av DS, psykosociala aspekter och respondenternas och skolornas socioekonomiska status? (Paper III); d) Har DISA en effekt på DS hos flickor i åldern 14-16? (Paper IV); och e) Fanns det skillnader mellan DISA-deltagare och icke-deltagare avseende effekterna av psykosociala och strukturella faktorer på DS? (Paper IV). Metod: Data samlades in i januari 2010, 2011 och 2012 med hjälp av en självadministrerad, elektronisk enkät i skolan. Elever i åldrarna 14-16 i samtliga nio kommunala skolor och i en friskola i en kommun i norra Sverige deltog i studien (~1000-1200 elever beroende på datainsamlingsår). Samtliga studier hade DS som enda hälsoutfall. Individfaktorer som antogs ha samband med DS var självkänsla och upplevd förmåga att hantera problem i livet. Psykosociala faktorer var föräldra-, kamrat-, och lärarstöd; krav i skolan; sexuella trakasserier och mobbning. Strukturella faktorer var materiellt välstånd i familjen; föräldrar med utländsk bakgrund, föräldrars arbetslöshet; splittrad biologisk familj och personligt relativt välstånd. Logistisk regression användes för forskningsfråga a) (Paper I). Strukturell ekvationsmodellering (SEM) med en cross-lag design användes för forskningsfråga b) (Paper II). Mann-Whitney U test användes för forskningsfråga c) (Paper III). SEM användes för forskningsfrågorna d-e) (Paper IV). Resultat: Bestämningsfaktorer på individ-, psykosocial och strukturell nivå var associerade med DS hos båda könen. Upplevd förmåga att hantera problem i livet, lågt lärarstöd, utsatthet för mobbning, och lågt personligt relativt välstånd var associerat med förhöjda nivåer av DS för både pojkar och flickor (Paper I). Bland flickor var dessutom lågt föräldrastöd, höga krav i skolan, och utsatthet för sexuella trakasserier (ST) också associerade med förhöjda nivåer av DS och hos pojkar var även föräldrars invandrarbakgrund associerat med DS. Bland flickor förklarades sambandet mellan DS och ST både av att flickor med förhöjda DS blev utsatta för ST, och av att ST ledde till senare DS. Hos pojkar var det endast att pojkar med DS blev utsatta för ST som förklarade sambandet (Paper II). Endast flickor deltog i DISA och de rapporterade högre nivåer av DS och lägre självkänsla än de som inte deltog, vilket tyder på att DISA användes som en riktad intervention för flickor med förhöjda symtom. DISA-deltagare rapporterade även högre nivåer av utsatthet för ST, lägre kamratstöd och lägre personligt relativt välstånd (Paper III). DISA-deltagarnas genomsnittliga nivå av DS hade inte försämrats vid åttamånadersuppföljningen vilket icke-deltagarnas nivåer hade. SEM-analysen visade dock att effekten av DISA-deltagande på DS vid uppföljning var försumbar (Paper IV). Slutsatser: Denna studie visade att utsatthet för SH var en viktig faktor för DS hos flickor, följt av lågt personligt relativt välstånd. Hos pojkar var lågt personligt relativt välstånd den viktigaste bestämningsfaktorn följt av föräldrarnas invandrarbakgrund. Utsatthet för ST hade konsekvenser för psykisk ohälsa för flickor men inte för pojkar. DISA genomfördes som en riktad intervention snarare än som en selektiv eller universell intervention och hade inte en effekt på DS i denna grupp av flickor. Implikationer för fortsatt forskning samt för hälsofrämjande arbete i skolan diskuteras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2016. p. 108
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 254
Keywords
Depressive symptoms, Adolescence, School, Public Health, Sexual harassment, Personal relative affluence, Gender theory, Ecosocial theory, Cognitive-behavioral, Preventive interventions
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27565 (URN)978-91-88025-91-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-02, E409, Sundsvall, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 4 manuskript.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 4 manuscript.

Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2016-11-07Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E., Young, R. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2016). Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(5), 858-873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample
2016 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 858-873Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

Keywords
Sexual harassment Depressive symptoms Adolescence Directional pathways Gender differences
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27138 (URN)10.1007/s10964-016-0446-x (DOI)000374067000003 ()26910524 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959097241 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3209-186X

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