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Eslami, B., Di Rosa, M., Barros, H., Torres-Gonzalez, F., Stankunas, M., Ioannidi-Kapolou, E., . . . Melchiorre, M. G. (2019). Lifetime abuse and somatic symtoms among older women and men in Europe. PLoS ONE, 14(8), Article ID e0220741.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime abuse and somatic symtoms among older women and men in Europe
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0220741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables.

Methods

A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version.

Results

Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms.

Conclusions

The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36947 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0220741 (DOI)000485002500057 ()31393925 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071280429 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Pojskic, H. & Eslami, B. (2018). Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 1734.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to examine: (i) the level of physical activity (PA), obesity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among boys and girls in primary school, and (ii) to determine the association of obesity indices and PA with CRF for the total number of participants, and then separately for boys and girls. 753 sixth to ninth grade girls and boys aged 10-14 years took part in this cross-sectional study. The PA was assessed by the "Physical Activity Questionnaire - Children" and CRF was assessed by the Maximal multistage a 20 m shuttle run test. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were considered as obesity indices. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of CRF. The results obtained showed the prevalence of general overweight and obesity was 25.5% in our sample which was lower than that in the regional estimate (e.g., similar to 28%) for Eastern Europe. Among all participants, CRF was associated with male sex, older age, a lower WC percentile, higher WHtR, and higher level of PA. The model accounted for 24% of the variance. CRF was associated with older age and higher level of PA among girls and boys. Lower WC percentile was a significant determinant of CRF among boys. In conclusion, general overweight/obesity was not independently associated with CRF. Those with better CRF were more likely to be male and older, had a higher level of PA and lower central adiposity. These findings emphasize the importance of supporting school age children to take a part in programmed physical activity regardless of their body composition.

Keywords
BMI, overweight, shuttle run test, VO2max, waist circumference
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35391 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.01734 (DOI)000451675900001 ()30546322 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B. (2017). Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adultswith congenital heart disease. Congenital Heart Disease, 12(3), 357-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adultswith congenital heart disease
2017 (English)In: Congenital Heart Disease, ISSN 1747-079X, E-ISSN 1747-0803, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 357-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics).

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

Patients: A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18–64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited.

Outcome Measures: The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants.

Results: The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Conclusions: The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of invasive procedures.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30229 (URN)10.1111/chd.12452 (DOI)000405090100017 ()28217850 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013378437 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-21 Created: 2017-02-21 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Kovacs, A., Moons, P., Abbasi, K. & Jackson, J. (2017). Hopelessness among adults with congenital heart disease: Cause for despair or hope?. International Journal of Cardiology, 230(March 2017), 64-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hopelessness among adults with congenital heart disease: Cause for despair or hope?
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 230, no March 2017, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) face unique life courses and challenges that may negatively influence their psychological functioning. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the level of hopelessness among adults with CHD in comparison with non-CHD participants and (2) identify correlates of elevated hopelessness among adults with CHD.

Methods

We enrolled 347 patients with CHD (18–64 years, 52.2% female) and 353 matched (by sex/age) non-CHD persons in this cross-sectional study. Hopelessness was assessed by Beck Hopelessness Scale. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of elevated hopelessness.

Results

The mean total hopelessness score did not significantly differ between the CHD and non-CHD groups. Twenty-eight percent of CHD patients had elevated hopelessness scores. Within the CHD patient sample, regression analyses revealed that being male (odds ratio = 2.62), not having children (odds ratio = 3.57), being unemployed (odds ratio = 2.27), and elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.21) were significantly associated with hopelessness. Regular physical activity (odds ratio = 0.36) emerged as a protective factor and all CHD disease parameters were unrelated to hopelessness. The final model explained 43% of the variance in hopelessness.

Conclusions

Adult CHD teams are encouraged to continue to explore strategies to support patients to live as rich and full as lives as possible by pursuing relationships, employment and physical activity, as well as managing depression and hopelessness.

Keywords
Depression, Grown up, Loneliness, Physical activity, Psychosocial
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29960 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.12.090 (DOI)000397904000012 ()28038812 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009237718 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2017-06-27Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Macassa, G., Melchiorre, M. G., Barros, H., Viitasara, E., Lindert, J., . . . Soares, J. J. .. (2017). Life-time abuse and mental health among older persons: a European study. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 26(6), 590-607
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-time abuse and mental health among older persons: a European study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 590-607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to investigate the association of lifetime abuse and mental health among older persons, considering associated factors (e.g., demographics) through a cross-sectional design. We recruited 4,467 women and men ages 60–84 years from 7 European cities. Mental health was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, and physical injuries) based on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that country of residence, low educational level, and experienced financial strain increased the odds of probable cases of anxiety and depression. Female sex, white-collar profession, and financial support by social/other benefits/or partner income were associated with higher odds of anxiety, while older age and experience of lifetime injury were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms. The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic factors, as well as experienced lifetime severe physical abuse leading to injuries, are significant in perceived mental health of adults in later life.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30084 (URN)10.1080/10926771.2017.1330295 (DOI)000409344800002 ()2-s2.0-85021064195 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-09 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Di Rosa, M., Barros, H., Stankunas, M., Torres-Gonzalez, F., Ioannidi-Kapolou, E., . . . Melchiorre, M. G. (2017). Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries. European Journal of Public Health, 27(4), 686-692
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 686-692Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. Methods: A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Conclusions: Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31871 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckx047 (DOI)000407142100021 ()28407061 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026476571 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Fraga, S., Soares, J. J. .., Melchiorre, M., Barros, H., Eslami, B., Ioannidi-Kapolou, E., . . . Viitasara, E. (2017). Lifetime Abuse and Quality of Life among Older People. Health & Social Work, 42(4), 215-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime Abuse and Quality of Life among Older People
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2017 (English)In: Health & Social Work, ISSN 0360-7283, E-ISSN 1545-6854, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected.

Keywords
abuse, aging, quality of life, violence
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29163 (URN)10.1093/hsw/hlx036 (DOI)000414389500004 ()29025015 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85034853034 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ABUEL
Available from: 2016-10-29 Created: 2016-10-29 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Sotoudeh Anvari, M., Mortazavian Babaki, M., Boroumand, M. A., Eslami, B., Jalali, A. & Goodarzynejad, H. (2016). Relationship between calculated total antioxidant status and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.. The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, 16(9), 689-695
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between calculated total antioxidant status and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
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2016 (English)In: The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 2149-2263, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 689-695Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Antioxidants play a major role in the cellular protection cascade against oxidative damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. Our aim was to evaluate the association between calculated serum total antioxidant status (cTAS) and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods: One hundred and seventy-four patients with angiographically documented significant (≥50%) luminal stenosis (n=123) or with minimal (<50%) luminal stenosis (n=51) in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment in the epicardial coronary tree were categorized as CAD+ group; 88 patients with no luminal stenosis were considered as the control group. The level of cTAS (mmol/L) was evaluated using the following equation: (0.63×albumin concentration)+(1.02×uric acid concentration)+(1.53×bilirubin concentration).Results: In univariate analyses, mean levels of cTAS, uric acid, and creatinine were significantly higher in CAD+ group than in controls. However, adjusted cTAS level was not found to be a CAD predictor in the total population [odds ratio (OR)=1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81–1.76;p=0.364] or in men (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 0.73–2.12; p=0.420) and women (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.66–2.19; p=0.553). A weak but statistically significant correlation was found between cTAS and Gensini score (Spearman’s ρ=0.16, p=0.015).Conclusion: In patients with suspicious CAD, the level of cTAS was not found to be an independent predictor for the presence of CAD. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm the results.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29965 (URN)10.5152/AnatolJCardiol.2015.6482 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2017-02-02Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Viitasara, E., Macassa, G., Melchiorre, M. G., Lindert, J., Stankunas, M., . . . Soares, J. J. F. (2016). The prevalence of lifetime abuse among older adults in seven European countries. International Journal of Public Health, 61(8), 891-901
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prevalence of lifetime abuse among older adults in seven European countries
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics).

Methods This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60–84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people.

Results Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain.

Conclusions High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse is a considerable public health problem warranting further longitudinal studies. Country of residence is an independent factor associated with all types of elder abuse which highlights the importance of national interventions alongside international collaborations.

Keywords Determinant Elder abuse Financial Injuries Psychological Sexual

Keywords
Determinant, Elder abuse, Financial, Injuries, Psychological, Sexual
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27407 (URN)10.1007/s00038-016-0816-x (DOI)000386766200006 ()2-s2.0-84963748729 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Macassa, G., Sundin, Ö., Khankeh, H. & Soares, J. J. F. (2015). Quality of life and life satisfaction among adults with and without congenital heart disease in a developing country. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(2), 169-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of life and life satisfaction among adults with and without congenital heart disease in a developing country
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Life-expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved world-wide, but there are limited data on these patients' experiences of quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS), and their determinants (e.g. social support), particularly among patients from developing countries.

Design Cross-sectional case-control.

Methods A total of 347 CHD patients (18-64 years, 52.2% women) and 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex/age, were recruited from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. LS and QoL served as dependent variables, and demographic/socioeconomic status, mental-somatic symptoms, social support, and clinical factors (e.g. defect category) served as independent variables in multiple regression analyses once among all participants, and once only among CHD patients.

Results The CHD patients had significantly lower scores in LS and all domains of QoL than the control group. However, having CHD was independently negatively associated only with overall QoL, physical health, and life and health satisfaction. Additionally, multivariate analyses among the CHD patients revealed that female sex, younger age, being employed, less emotional distress, and higher social support were significantly associated with higher perceived QoL in most domains, while LS was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress, and better social support. Neither QoL nor LS was associated with cardiac defect severity.

Conclusions The adults with CHD had poorer QoL and LS than their non-CHD peers in our developing country. Socio-demographics, emotional health, and social support were important 'determinants' of QoL and LS among the CHD patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal links.

Keywords
Grown-up congenital heart disease; heart defect; mental health; psychosocial; social support
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20112 (URN)10.1177/2047487313514017 (DOI)000348115400004 ()2-s2.0-84920942176 (Scopus ID)
Note

Publ online before print 18 nov 2013

Available from: 2013-11-02 Created: 2013-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7544-6475

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