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Hussain, M., Franked, L. & Björkqvist, O. (2023). Experiences of using LMS tools for implementing asynchronous interactive media to enhance student interaction in distance education. In: Joel Midemalm, Amir Vadiee, Elisabeth Uhlemann, Fredrik Georgsson, Gunilla Carlsson Kvarnlöf, Jonas Månsson, Kristina Edström, Lennart Pettersson, Pedher Johansson (Ed.), Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar: . Paper presented at 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 22-23 november, 2023 (pp. 287-295). Västerås: Mälardalens universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of using LMS tools for implementing asynchronous interactive media to enhance student interaction in distance education
2023 (English)In: Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Joel Midemalm, Amir Vadiee, Elisabeth Uhlemann, Fredrik Georgsson, Gunilla Carlsson Kvarnlöf, Jonas Månsson, Kristina Edström, Lennart Pettersson, Pedher Johansson, Västerås: Mälardalens universitet , 2023, p. 287-295Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recorded lectures and online tutorials have become common in higher education, offering students flexibility in their learning. New teaching methods like flipped classrooms aim to prioritise active, student-centred learning. However, these recorded materials often lack interactivity. Incorporating interactive annotations in videos and texts can enhance engagement and learning but presents challenges in terms of tool availability, integration with Learning Management System, and impact measurement. Here an action research approach is used to evaluate three tools (FeedbackFruits, H5P, Kaltura Quiz) for creating asynchronous interactive modules in online engineering education, with future research focused on assessing their impact on student learning and engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2023
Keywords
Interactive Media, Asynchronous Learning, Recorded Materials, Distance Learning, Flipped classroom, Peer review
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-49922 (URN)978-91-7485-620-0 (ISBN)
Conference
9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 22-23 november, 2023
Projects
Higher Education and Digitalisation (HEaD) Mid Sweden University
Available from: 2023-11-24 Created: 2023-11-24 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
Norgren, R., Jonsson, A. & Björkqvist, O. (2023). Fermented pulp and paper bio-sludge as feed for black soldier fly larvae. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 13(7), 5625-5632
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fermented pulp and paper bio-sludge as feed for black soldier fly larvae
2023 (English)In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 5625-5632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates the use of fermentation to increase nutrient availability in pulp and paper bio-sludge (PPBS) as feed for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL). Rearing of BSFL on fermented PPBS was carried out in a climate chamber in order to assess nutrient availability and larvae survival and growth. The PPBS used came from a chemo-thermomechanical pulp/groundwood pulp mill. The PPBS was fermented at 35 °C and 55 °C, respectively, at initial pH of 10. The effects of sediment and liquid from fermented PPBS on larvae dry weight, survival rate until the prepupae stage, bioconversion, and reduction rate of PPBS were measured. The bioconversion of the liquids (4.1–6.6%) was substantially higher than for both the sediments and untreated PPBS (≤ 0.4%). The survival rate, on the other hand, was substantially lower (26.3–30.9 %) than for the sediments and untreated PPBS (49.5–52.6%). Neither the sediments nor the liquids had significant effects on the larvae weight or on the PPBS reduction rate. The sediments had no significant effect on the survival rate or the bioconversion. This study demonstrates that fermentation dissolves a part of the PPBS and that dissolved substances in the fermentation liquid readily convert to larvae biomass. However, the bulk of the lignocellulose is not dissolved, and most of PPBS nutrients remain unavailable for growth of the larvae. Further research should focus on improved pretreatment of PPBS to increase availability of nutrients and thereby improve the feasibility of BSFL as a recycling method for PPBS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Lignocellulose, Bioconversion, Nutrient availability
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-42037 (URN)10.1007/s13399-021-01564-0 (DOI)000648840800002 ()2-s2.0-85105572058 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-11 Created: 2021-05-11 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Larsson, A. & Björkqvist, O. (2023). Information-flawing Filters in Critical Infrastructure Protection: The deficient Information Basis in a Swedish Approach. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 19(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information-flawing Filters in Critical Infrastructure Protection: The deficient Information Basis in a Swedish Approach
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, ISSN 1475-3219, E-ISSN 1741-8038, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Various societal functions, such as healthcare, freight transports, water supplies and electricity, ensure the daily life, endurance and progress of modern societies. The protection of such critical functions requires comprehensive information processing. Based on evidence from documents on the Swedish planning process STYREL and interviews with entrusted decisionmakers at county administrative boards, municipalities and power grid operators, this study aims to crystallise information pathways and flaws to highlight information filtration and alteration. Analyses of the material reveal a set of information-flawing filters, such as information withholding or loss when sharing, information scarcity in criticality assessments and ad-hoc information creation due to scarcity. Because of these filters, the Swedish process causes an altering of information that affects the quality of decisions and the emergency response plan that relies on them. Thus, this study indicates deficiencies that relate to information sharing, information security and decision-making that pose risks to citizens and businesses.

Keywords
critical infrastructure protection, CIP, societal security, information management, decision analysis, multi-level planning, public private policy network, filters, Swedish policy, information pathways, information sharing, security, decision making
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems, Social aspects Energy Systems Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-43994 (URN)10.1504/IJCIS.2023.129066 (DOI)000936375600003 ()2-s2.0-85149026346 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-23 Created: 2021-12-23 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Hedlund, A., Björkqvist, O., Nilsson, A. & Engstrand, P. (2022). Energy Optimization in a Paper Mill Enabled by a Three-Site Energy Cooperation. Energies, 15(8), Article ID 2715.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Optimization in a Paper Mill Enabled by a Three-Site Energy Cooperation
2022 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 8, article id 2715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there are opportunities to reduce electrical energy demand in unit processes of mechanical pulp-based paper and paperboard production, this may not be financially beneficial. This is generally because energy optimization opportunities connected to reduced refiner electricity demand in mechanical pulping systems also results in less steam available for the drying of the paper. As modern high consistency refiner systems produce approximately one ton of steam for each MWh of electricity when producing one ton of pulp, a reduction in electric energy demand leads to increased fuel demand in steam boilers to compensate for the steam shortage. In this study, we investigated what the financial and environmental situation would look like if we were to expand the system border from a paper mill to a larger system consisting of a mechanical pulp-based paper or paperboard mill, a district heating system with an incineration boiler and a chemical pulp mill. Mechanical pulp production has a wood to product yield of >90%, a high electric energy demand to separate woodchips to pulp and is a net producer of heat and steam while chemical pulp-based production has a wood to product yield of 50%, a low electric energy demand and is a net heat and electricity producer due to the combustion of dissolved wood polymers. The aim of this research is to create useful and robust models of how to use excess heat from certain industry sites to cover the steam shortage in other industry sites by means of utilizing and optimizing the district heating systems connecting these sites. For this purpose, we used a simulation tool which dynamically allows us to evaluate different scenarios. Our results shows that there is great potential to reduce both carbon dioxide emissions and production costs for industry sites and society by means of these tools.

Keywords
energy optimization, cooperation, energy reduction, collaboration between actors, district heating, industrial symbiosis
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-44954 (URN)10.3390/en15082715 (DOI)000786192800001 ()2-s2.0-85131566102 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-05 Created: 2022-05-05 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Norgren, R., Björkqvist, O. & Jonsson, A. (2020). Bio-sludge from the pulp and paper industry as feed for black soldier fly larvae: A study of critical factors for growth and survival. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11, 5679-5685
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-sludge from the pulp and paper industry as feed for black soldier fly larvae: A study of critical factors for growth and survival
2020 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 11, p. 5679-5685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pulp and paper bio-sludge (PPBS) has low economic value and is therefore often composted or incinerated. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of using PPBS to breed black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL), so improving resource efficiency and supplying protein and fat to the animal feed market. BSFL were reared on PPBS in a climate chamber on a laboratory scale in order to assess nutrient deficiency, inhibition and whether the BSFL recycle the PPBS well or not. The PPBS used came from a chemi-thermomechanical pulp/groundwood pulp mill. The effect of supplementing nutrient solution added either into the PPBS or as a free liquid surface were studied. Prepupae dry weight, survival rate until prepupae stage and residual dry PPBS were measured. The addition of reference diet leachate into the PPBS did not have a significant impact on the weight of the prepupae (2.0 mg) but the survival rate was significantly higher (16.0 %). On the other hand, the addition of reference diet leachate as a free liquid surface had a significant impact on both the weight of the prepupae (4.8 mg) and the survival rate (25.7 %). The bio – conversion and PPBS – reduction was as best 0.4 % and 3.2 % respectively. This study has proven that the nutrients in PPBS are not readily available to the larvae. Addition of reference diet leachate increase the survival rate which opens up for possibilities of co-digestion. However, it is clear that under the tested conditions, BSFL is not recycling PPBS well and BSFL as a method for recycling of PPBS need further research.

Keywords
Pulp and paper bio-sludges, Valorization, Black Soldier Fly larvae
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37565 (URN)10.1007/s12649-019-00864-x (DOI)000493766400001 ()2-s2.0-85074726395 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2022-01-20
Olausson, P. M., Björkqvist, O., Danielsson, E., Große, C., Larsson, A., Nyhlén, J. & Wallman Lundåsen, S. (2018). Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inomramen för STYREL. Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inomramen för STYREL
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
From authority to citizens and back: A study of the interaction and communication in the context ofSTYREL
Abstract [sv]

STYREL är en planeringsprocess som syftar till att säkra elförsörjningen vid ensituation av elbrist. Att STYREL är en viktig planeringsprocess med stor betydelseför att trygga elförsörjningen till samhällsviktiga elanvändare är en uppfattningsamtliga intervjuade uttrycker. Samtidigt råder det också konsensus kring attprocessen är i behov av utveckling och förändring för att uppnå de syften somligger bakom processen.Empirin för undersökningen har utgjorts av centrala dokument och utredningar,65 intervjuer, deltagande observation samt deltagande vid möten ochnätverksträffar inom ramen för planeringsprocessen. Den kritiska granskningen avprocessen visar att det finns flera förbättringsområden som bör beaktas i syfte atthöja kvaliteten och minska risken för att viktiga samhällsfunktioner blir utan elvid en situation av elbrist. De områden som särskilt lyfts fram i studien handlarom nödvändigheten av att integrera löpande feedback i planeringssystemet, attskapa nätverk på både lokal och regional nivå för att tillförsäkra att intesamhällsviktiga privata aktörer eller aktörer inom det civila samhället faller bort iplaneringen samt att ytterligare tydliggöra de olika stegen och de olika rollerna iplaneringssystemet. I detta arbete går det att finna lösningar som redan beprövatsdels i jämförelse med internationella processer kring kritisk infrastruktur, dels inationella processer inom krishanteringssystemet.

Abstract [en]

STYREL is a planning process aiming at ensuring electricity supply to sociallyimportant objects during a situation of power shortage. The fact that STYREL is animportant planning process with great importance for securing the electricitysupply to important users of electricity is an opinion all the interviewees express.At the same time, there is also a consensus that the process is in need ofdevelopment and change in order to achieve the aims behind the process.The empirical study included documents, investigations, 65 interviews,participatory observation and participation in meetings and network meetingswithin the framework of the planning process. The critical review shows that thereare several areas of improvement to consider that could increase the quality andreduce the risk of important social functions becoming without electricity during aperiod of power shortage. The areas that are particularly highlighted in the studyconcern the necessity of integrating recurring feedback into the planning system,creating networks at both local and regional level to ensure that private-sector orimportant civil society actors is excluded and finally, further clarify the varioussteps and the different roles in the planning system. This can be achievedcomparing with international planning systems on critical infrastructure and withnational planning systems within the crisis management systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten, 2018. p. 32
Keywords
Flernivåstyrning, planeringsprocess, krisberedskap, trygg elförsörjning, kritisk infrastruktur, komplex systemstyrning, nätverk-styrning
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35904 (URN)
Projects
Från myndighet till medborgare och tillbaka: En studie av samverkan och kommunikation inom ramen för STYREL
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40307-1
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2020-05-20
Hedlund, A., Stengard, A.-K. & Björkqvist, O. (2017). A simulation-based method for evaluation of energy system cooperation between pulp and paper mills and a district heating system: A case study. In: 19 World academy of science, engineering and technology conference proceedings: . Paper presented at ICESM 2017: 19th International Conference on Energy Systems and Management, Copenhagen, June 11-12, 2017 (pp. 1158-1164). , 19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation-based method for evaluation of energy system cooperation between pulp and paper mills and a district heating system: A case study
2017 (English)In: 19 World academy of science, engineering and technology conference proceedings, 2017, Vol. 19, p. 1158-1164Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A step towards reducing greenhouse gases and energy consumption is to collaborate with the energy system between several industries. This work is based on a case study on integration of pulp and paper mills with a district heating system in Sundsvall, Sweden. 

Present research shows that it is possible to make a significant reduction in the electricity demand in the mechanical pulping process. However, the profitability of the efficiency measures could be an issue, as the excess steam recovered from the refiners decreases with the electricity consumption. A consequence will be that the fuel demand for steam production will increase. If the fuel price is similar to the electricity price it would reduce the profit of such a project. If the paper mill can be integrated with a district heating system, it is possible to upgrade excess heat from a nearby kraft pulp mill to process steam via the district heating system in order to avoid the additional fuel need. The concept is investigated by using a simulation model describing both the mass and energy balance as well as the operating margin. Three scenarios were analyzed: reference, electricity reduction and energy substitution. The simulation show that the total input to the system is lowest in the Energy substitution scenario. Additionally, in the Energy substitution scenario the steam from the incineration boiler covers not only the steam shortage but also a part of the steam produced using the biofuel boiler, the cooling tower connected to the incineration boiler is no longer needed and the excess heat can cover the whole district heating load during the whole year. 

The study shows a substantial economic advantage if all stakeholders act together as one system. However, costs and benefits are unequally shared between the actors. This means that there is a need for new business models in order to share the system costs and benefits. 

Keywords
energy system, cooperation, simulation method, excess heat, district heating
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31561 (URN)
Conference
ICESM 2017: 19th International Conference on Energy Systems and Management, Copenhagen, June 11-12, 2017
Note

Founding’s from KK-stiftelsen, FrontWay AB and Sundsvall Energi AB are acknowledged by the authors.

Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Große, C., Olausson, P. M., Danielsson, E., Larsson, A., Wallman Lundåsen, S., Björkqvist, O. & Nyhlén, J. (2017). Collaboration and Decision-making in Response Planning for Power Shortages: The Swedish Policy. In: : . Paper presented at ISSRM.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaboration and Decision-making in Response Planning for Power Shortages: The Swedish Policy
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electricity is a key resource for the majority of societal functions and constitutes an important sector in the critical infrastructure of modern societies. Disturbances in power supply can have cascading effects on interdependent public sectors and ordinary citizens. However, it seems nearly impossible to completely prevent the occurrence of power shortages. Strategies to address temporary power losses are therefore essential. This paper aims to increase the understanding of national policies to manage the early consequences of power outages. Therefore, we critically review the Swedish national policy called Styrel as part of Swedish Crisis Management System. In the scientific literature, there are few examples similar to Styrel for handling emergencies in the electricity system. Particularly, we seek to discover related risks and benefits, conditions and constraints, as well as effects for specific stakeholders. We argue that the approach cannot yet be considered as fully developed. Three areas requiring improvement are identified. First, the scope and terms of the process must be specified. Second, (better) quality management seems necessary. Third, people responsible for identifying and prioritizing power consumers critical to local society need better decision aid. Improvements could facilitate risk-communication and collaboration among actors as well as decision-making and organisational learning.

National Category
Information Systems Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32822 (URN)
Conference
ISSRM
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Norgren, R., Fröling, M. & Björkqvist, O. (2016). Pulp mill bio-sludge - sludge properties and recycling. In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Industrial & Hazardous Waste Management, September 27th-30th, 2016, Chania, Kreta.: . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Industrial & Hazardous Waste Management, September 27th-30th, 2016, Chania, Kreta..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulp mill bio-sludge - sludge properties and recycling
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Industrial & Hazardous Waste Management, September 27th-30th, 2016, Chania, Kreta., 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bio sludge is a waste that is produced in large amounts at the waste water treatment plants at the pulp and paper industry. It is wet and has no obvious economic advantages, therefore present industrial focus is not on recycling methods but on disposal. Common disposal methods are incineration and composting. In Sweden and Norway about half of the sludge is incinerated, the other half is composted in Finland almost all is incinerated whereas landfilling of the sludge is common in Chile where half the sludge is landfilled and the other half is incinerated.

Biomass waste in general could be recycled for its energy content or as a resource for chemical products or solid materials. Different forces like legislation, market demand and scientific innovations will exert push or pull towards different potential paths of recycling. To choose a recycling method for a sludge from a specific pulp mill one must consider the properties of the sludge. These properties depends on the type of tree species used (hard wood or soft wood), amount of extractive substances, type of process the pulp mills use (mechanical pulp or Kraft), reject handling and the configuration of the water treatment plant. It could be that one single recycling method is not the optimal one for all pulp mills.

In this study, a comparison of bio-sludge properties between different Swedish pulp mills was investigated and its impact on the recyclability assessed. Ten mills were chosen that were expected to represent the extremes or unique combinations of raw material, type of cooking process, bleaching etc., and at the same time were easy to distinguish from each other. The samples were analysed for their content of possible useful substrates like lignin, fat or protein. Also the content of heavy metals were analysed, they could be problematic when handling rejects from the recycling process. Totally 21 parameters were analysed.

The potential relationship between types of processes, raw material, chemicals used etc. and sludge properties and its recyclability were assessed. Potential recycling methods found in the scientific literature was screened and evaluated for technology readiness level, environmental aspects, the potential market value and profitability for production of sludge derived benefits was estimated.

The two complementing perspectives mentioned above, sludge properties and appropriateness of technology were combined with the goal to suggest suitable recycling methods for the different sludge qualities that are produced today.

Keywords
Pulp and paper, waste, recycling, bio-sludge
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29887 (URN)978-960-8475-24-3 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Industrial & Hazardous Waste Management, September 27th-30th, 2016, Chania, Kreta.
Projects
Foric
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., He, J., Engstrand, P. & Björkqvist, O. (2015). Economic evaluation on bio-synthetic natural gas production integrated in a thermomechanical pulp mill. Energies, 8(11), 12795-12809
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic evaluation on bio-synthetic natural gas production integrated in a thermomechanical pulp mill
2015 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 12795-12809Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, biorefinery as a concept is applied to thermomechanical pulp (TMP)-based paper production to evaluate the possibility of co-production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), electricity and district heating in addition to mechanical pulp and paper. The combined heat and power plant (CHP) associated to TMP is replaced by a biomass-to-SNG (BtSNG) plant. Implementing BtSNG in a mechanical pulp production line might improve the profitability of a TMP mill and also help to commercialize the BtSNG technology by taking into account of some key issues such as biomass availability, heat utilization, etc. A TMP + BtSNG mathematical model is developed with ASPEN Plus. The model prediction shows that the scale of the TMP + BtSNG mill and SNG price are two strong factors for the implementation of BtSNG in a TMP mill. A BtSNG plant associated to a TMP mill should be built at a scale above 100 MW of biomass thermal input. For the case of Swedish economic condition, commercialization of SNG production as a transport biofuel has not matured yet. Political instruments to support commercialization of transport biofuel are necessary.

Keywords
Biomass; Electricity; Gasification; Synthetic natural gas (SNG); Thermomechanical pulp (TMP)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26356 (URN)10.3390/en81112343 (DOI)000365686800028 ()2-s2.0-84950245268 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-04 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6983-3121

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