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Randevåg, L. & Boström, L. (2019). Completing studies in alternative ways in adult education. ‘Who has told me that I cannot ...?’. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(7), 165-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Completing studies in alternative ways in adult education. ‘Who has told me that I cannot ...?’
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 165-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Every fourth young adult in Sweden leaves upper secondary school without complete grades (Statistiska Centralbyrån, 2017). These young adults without a diploma are at risk of being marginalized (Hugo, 2007; Lundahl et al. 2015). Therefore, all attempts to support these students’ needs using alternative methods to help them complete their studies are of great importance for both society and the individuals. With this study, we aim to shed light on how participants with different functional variations and overall unfavourable school experiences in a project-based alternative study program in upper secondary education perceive the factors of success. Moreover, we want to understand the project’s outcome based on contextual factors. To do this, we use an abductive content analysis of project documents, field notes, and interviews with five students. Our analysis follows three steps. Firstly, we identify three major themes expressed by the participants as success factors concerning ways to attend and complete their secondary education. Secondly, we identify how contextual factors can explain the project’s outcome. Finally, we draw conclusions on how motivation theory, motivation strategies, and factors in the learning environment can explain the project’s outcome. The overall conclusions are (a) students in this target group need to participate in negotiations concerning their adaptation in their studies, (b) a symmetrical interpersonal relationship between teachers and students is a necessity, and (c) beneficial learning environments are essential for these students’ learning. 

Adult learning, Alternative pedagogy, Content analysis, Functional variations, Study motivation
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37012 (URN)10.26803/ijlter.18.7.11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070916179 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
Boström, L. & Sundgren, M. (2019). Digital Visualization Compared toTraditional Teaching in Geometry: -about Students' Results and Attitudes. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2019, Hamburg, 3-6 September, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Visualization Compared toTraditional Teaching in Geometry: -about Students' Results and Attitudes
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37114 (URN)
ECER 2019, Hamburg, 3-6 September, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Bostedt, G. & Boström, L. (2019). Motivation to study: Upper secondary school teachers´and students´views on students´motivation to study. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg 2-6/9 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivation to study: Upper secondary school teachers´and students´views on students´motivation to study
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Students’ motivation to study in upper secondary schools





Lena Boström (Professor in Education)


Göran Bostedt (Associate Professor in Political science)



Department of Education

Mid Sweden University

Sidsjövägen 5

S- 851 70 Sundsvall











Keywords: study motivation, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, upper secondary school


In order to increase the number of student who successfully complete upper secondary school, Sweden reformed its upper secondary school system in year 2011. Despite the new system "the throughput is in principle unchanged, which means that approxima­tely every fourth student interrupts his upper secondary studies" (Sveriges elevkårer & Lärarnas Riksförbund, 2015, p 6). The main explanation for this was stated to be a lack of study motivation among students. Some 53 percent of the upper secondary school students reported low study motivation.

The most important factors for improving students’ motivation are, according to Sveriges elevkårer & Lärarnas Riksförbund, a) the supportive interaction between teacher and student and b) access to student health. This means that both internal and external motivational factors are viewed as important for reaching better study results. Research often highlights internal factors as particularly interesting when focusing students’ study motivation (Wery & Thomson, 2013). However some researchers (Blomberg, 2016: Hugo 2011; Håkansson & Sundberg, 2012) also argue for a broader perspective on the issue of motivation. In order to analyze the lack of motivation to study as the cause of low throughput in upper secondary school, a perspective is thus chosen which not only focuses the individual student but also takes into account both the classroom situation as well as the entire school. International research on student motivation is extensive.  While international research on student motivation is extensive, it is not as prominent in the Swedish educational context (Giota, 2013).


The results of this study are based on empirical data from one of Sweden’s 20 largest municipalities. The municipality was chosen as a result of a decision taken by local politicians to focus raising the students’ motivation to study as a highly prioritized activity for the upper secondary school programs. In 2015, the chosen municipality was, compared to both Swedish municipalities of the same size as well as other municipalities in Sweden, in a troublesome situation in terms of student completion (Skolverket, 2015).


The aim of the study is to describe and analyze what determines student motivation or lack of motivation to study. The research questions are:

a)      What determines upper secondary school students’ motivation/lack of motivation to study?

b)      What are teachers’ and students’ perceptions on how to increase students’ study motivation in upper secondary school and reasons/explanations for low study motivation? 

c)      To what extent is motivation linked to specific course content? 

d)     To what extent is motivation related to the conditions for the implementation of the course/didactical approaches? 

e)      How can we understand and describe students’ ambitions or lack of ambitions in relation to acquire the knowledge and skills the programs and its courses are in line with the intentions? 


Students’ study motivation will be analyzed from a perspective where motivation is more about transaction than interaction (Perry, Turner and Meyer, 2006). Motivation should not only be understood as an individual aspects, but also as negotiating meaning in social interaction. Motivation is seen as a process integrated into a larger whole, impossible to separate from learning, individual differences, and the nature of tasks or social context. For these reasons, it is important to analyze and discuss the results in relation to learning and perspectives on knowledge. According to Perry et al. there are strong links between motivation and a) communicated expectations b) clear feedback on results, c) interaction between teacher and pupil and between students, d) positive climate and e) teacher leadership. Students` study motivation will thereby be discussed based on individual characteristics, group dynamics, didactics and learning environments. In other words, we will analyze how both internal and external motivational factors can affect the results.


Since the study focuses on organizational conditions, perceptions of inter-human processes and individual properties, the study has been designed as a case study with an ethnographically inspired approach (Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007). The empirical data is based on 207 students’ responses in a web-survey containing 20 questions about motivation and six semi-structured group interviews with 12 students and 20 teachers. The students and teachers represent four different study programs (Social Science, Social Care, Individual choice and Vehicles and Transport programs). The programs were selected according to the principle of a) constituting a variation in what is theoretically versus practical oriented programs, b) ensuring a reasonable distribution between boys and girls, c) representing a possible variation in pupils with regard to learning strategies and d) representing student groups with different challenges in learning. All participants were informed about the project's objectives and applicable research ethics rules.

The study is divided into two sub-studies. Sub-study one is based on a quantitative approach. The responses to the different questions in the questionnaire are presented by descriptive statistics with the four study programs divided into separate groups. The data were also analyzed with the help of other statistical methods, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Vallis. The statistical calculations were conducting using SPSS.

Sub-study two is based on s a qualitative research design, which ca be characterized as a hybrid content analysis (Fereday & Muir-Cochrane 2006), which started initially with deductive analysis, switched to inductive analysis and finally linked with deductive analysis and then switched to an inductive analysis and finally linking the theoretical starting points in the result. Here deductive analysis (theory-driven) means that themes have been determined in advance before the interview material is analyzed, which can be described as themes based on existing theories and research results (Mayring, 2000). The four themes we build the analysis on are the concepts of motivation, motivational strategies, learning environments and other environment. In order to analyze the content of the interviews, an inductive content analysis was used which was based on the interview responses. In other words, the analysis switched to an inductive approach. With the four themes as a basic structure, a categorization matrix was developed and all data were sorted into relevant theme. Based on the results from the two sub-studies, the research questions will be addressed and discussed.

The statistical data show differences between study programs in terms of positive/negative attitude towards schoolwork, absence from school, expectations on teachers and on results, competitiveness in realizing personal ambitions, support in terms of personal feedback and attitudes towards learning (i.e. learning for exams or learning for knowledge). There are also differences in self-esteem and self-confidence that affect motivation among the students. On the other hand, students tend to appreciate school as an institution, they feel safe being at school and the teachers have legitimacy in the eyes of the students.  

The results from the interviews indicate that both teachers and students view the complex interplay between results and motivation as an important part of the concept of motivation. Study results affect motivation and vice versa in both a positive and a negative way. Teachers and teachers' leadership are also of great importance for students’ study motivation. Teachers focus their leadership tasks on the importance of knowledge. Students relate to teacher leadership in relation to personal qualities such as being understood and getting support.

A difference between the two samples, is that teachers emphasize "life skills" in learning such as strategies for purposes, intermediate goals and sense of belonging, whiles students do not ll mention these strategies at all. A category where the perceptions between teachers and students coincide is the importance of well-being and safety in the learning environment and that the class/group/peers represents a motivational source for them. The teachers pointed to the importance of adaptations and smaller groups in the learning environment. The students believed that the external learning environment also played an important role. Regarding the surrounding environment, the two groups mentioned the importance of peers as a motivational factor, either helping to increase or reduce study motivation.



Blomgren, J. (2016). Den svårfångade motivationen: elever i en digitaliserad lärmiljö. (Diss) Gothenburg studies in educational sciences 393


Giota, J. (2013). Individualisering i skolan – vilken, varför och hur? En

forskningsöversikt. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie, 3, Stockholm:


Fereday, J. & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating Rigor Using Thematic Analysis: A Hybrid Approach of Inductive and Deductive Coding and Theme Development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, pp 80-92.

Hammersley, M. & Atkinson, P. (2007).  Ethnography: Principles in practice. New York Routledge,

Håkansson J. & Sundberg, D. (2012), Utmärkt undervisning: framgångsfaktorer i svensk och internationell belysning. Stockholm: Natur och kultur,

Illeris, (2015) Lärande. Lund: Studentlitteratur


Mayring,P. (2000). Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Social Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Art. 20


Perry, N., Turner,J.C.,  & Meyer, D.K  (2006) Student Engagement in the classroom. In Alexander, P., Winne, P. (Eds) Handbook of Edcucational Psychology. Erlbaum


Sveriges elevkårer & Lärarnas Riksförbund, (2015). Från avhopp till examen- så vill skolan utveckla skolan. Retrieved from www.lr.se/download/18.682f72ec14e16f2ff5c7b1ba/1435316342104/Fr%C3%A5n%20avhopp%20till%20examen%20Web.pdf


Wery, J. & Thomson, M. (2013). Motivational strategies to enhance effective learning in teaching struggling students. Support for learning, Vol. 28, pp. 103-108


study motivation, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, upper secondary school
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37141 (URN)
European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg 2-6/9 2019
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Bostedt, G. & Boström, L. (2019). Studiemotivation: En studie av fyra utbildningsprogram vid Sundsvalls gymnasium. Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studiemotivation: En studie av fyra utbildningsprogram vid Sundsvalls gymnasium
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2019. p. 88
Studiemotivation, Didaktik, Lärande, Skolforskning
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36237 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-31 Created: 2019-05-31 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Boström, L., Sjöström, M., Karlsson, H., Sundgren, M., Andersson, M., Olsson, R. & Åhlander, J. (2018). Digital visualisering i skolan: Mittuniversitetets slutrapport från förstudien. Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital visualisering i skolan: Mittuniversitetets slutrapport från förstudien
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den här studiens syfte har varit tvåfaldigt, nämligen att testa alternativa lärmetoder via ett digitalt läromedel i matematik i en kvasiexperimentell studie samt att tillämpa metoder av användarupplevelser för interaktiva visualiseringar, och därigenom öka kunskapen kring hur upplevd kvalitet beror på använd teknik. Pilotstudien sätter också fokus på flera angelägna områden inom skolutveckling både regionalt och nationellt samt viktiga aspekter när det gäller kopplingen teknik, pedagogik och utvärderingsmetoder inom “den tekniska delen”. Det förra handlar om sjunkande matematikresultat i skolan, praktiknära skolforskning, stärkt digital kompetens, visualisering och lärande samt forskning om visualisering och utvärdering. Den senare svarar på frågor om vilka tekniska lösningar som tidigare använts och med vilket syfte har de skapats samt hur visualiseringar har utvärderats enligt läroböcker och i forskningslitteratur.


När det gäller elevernas resultat, en av de stora forskningsfrågorna i studien, så fann vi inga signifikanta skillnader mellan traditionell undervisning och undervisning med visualiseringsläromedlet (3D). Beträffande elevers attityder till matematikmomentet kan konstateras att i kontrollgruppen för årskurs 6 förbättrades attityden signifikans, men inte i klass 8. Gällande flickors och pojkars resultat och attityder kan vi konstatera att flickorna i båda klasserna hade bättre förkunskaper än pojkarna samt att i årskurs 6 var flickorna mer positiva till matematikmomentet än pojkarna i kontrollgruppen. Därutöver kan vi inte skönja några signifikanta skillnader. Andra viktiga rön i studien var att provkonstruktionen inte var optimal samt att tiden för provgenomförande har stor betydelse när på dagen det genomfördes. Andra resultat resultaten i den kvalitativa analysen pekar på positiva attityder och beteenden från eleverna vid arbetet med det visuella läromedlet. Elevernas samarbete och kommunikation förbättrades under lektionerna. Vidare pekade lärarna på att med 3D-läromedlet gavs större möjligheter till att stimulera flera sinnen under lärprocessen. En tydlig slutsats är att 3D-läromedlet är ett viktigt komplement i undervisningen, men kan inte användas helt självt.


Vi kan varken sälla oss till de forskare som anser att 3D-visualisering är överlägset som läromedel för elevers resultat eller till de forskare som varnar för dess effekter för elevers kognitiva överbelastning.  Våra resultat ligger mer i linje med de slutsatser Skolforskningsinstitutet (2017) drar, nämligen att undervisning med digitala läromedel i matematik kan ha positiva effekter, men en lika effektiv undervisning kan möjligen designas på andra sätt. Däremot pekar resultaten i vår studie på ett flertal störningsmoment som kan ha påverkat möjliga resultat och behovet av god teknologin och välutvecklade programvaror.


I studien har vi analyserat resultaten med hjälp av två övergripande ramverk för integrering av teknikstöd i lärande, SAMR och TPACK. Det förra ramverket bidrog med en taxonomi vid diskussionen av hur väl teknikens möjligheter tagits tillvara av läromedel och i läraktiviteter, det senare för en diskussion om de didaktiska frågeställningarna med fokus på teknikens roll. Båda aspekterna är högaktuella med tanke på den ökande digitaliseringen i skolan.


Utifrån tidigare forskning och denna pilotstudie förstår vi att det är viktigt att designa forskningsmetoderna noggrant. En randomisering av grupper vore önskvärt. Prestandamått kan också vara svåra att välja. Tester där personer får utvärdera användbarhet (usability) och användarupplevelse (user experience, UX) baserade på både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder blir viktiga för själva användandet av tekniken, men det måste till ytterligare utvärderingar för att koppla tekniken och visualiseringen till kvaliteten i lärandet och undervisningen. Flera metoder behövs således och det blir viktigt med samarbete mellan olika ämnen och discipliner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2018. p. 60
National Category
Pedagogical Work
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35376 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-31 Created: 2018-12-31 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Boström, L. & Berg, G. (2018). Läroplansimplementering och korstryck i fritidshemmets arbete. Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter (2), 107-132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Läroplansimplementering och korstryck i fritidshemmets arbete
2018 (Swedish)In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 2, p. 107-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

I svenska fritidshem pågår i en daglig verksamhet för cirka en halv miljon barn. Den präglas av en komplexitet omfattande exempelvis förändringar av styrdokument, brist på en accentuerad pedagogik och en förändrad profession. Mot denna bakgrund fokuserar denna studie på fritidspedagogers uppfattningar om läroplansimplementering och eventuell genomslagskraft i den fritidspedagogiska praktiken. Empirin består av individuella intervjuer, fokusgrupper och fältstudier. I studien flätas teorier om läroplansdidaktik och organisationsteori samman. Som analytiska begrepp används läroplansimplementering och korstryck. Resultatet visar att värden och uppgifter som pedagogerna betonar i relation till styrdokumenten är sociala färdigheter, professionell ambivalens samt fritidshemmets status. Strategier personalen använder är hög ledarskapsstruktur, reaktiv bekräftelse av läroplansskrivningar samt traditionella fritidshemsverksamheter. Begränsningar är fritidshemsverksamhetens låga status i jämförelse med traditionell skolverksamhet, brist på tid för implementering, ”skolifiering” samt oklarheter i styrdokumentens innehållsbeskrivningar. Därmed upplevs flera stressande korstryck i olika bemärkelser i arbetet, vilket försvårar realisering av läroplanens intentioner.

Abstract [en]

In Swedish leisure-time-centers, there is a daily activity for about half a million children. It is characterized by a complexity including, for example, changes in steering documents, lack of an accentuated pedagogy and a changing profession. Against this background, this study focuses on leisure-time-teachers' perceptions of curriculum implementation and possible impact in the leisure-time-center education practice. The empirical data consists of individual interviews, focus groups and field studies. In the study, theories of curriculum didactics and organizational theory are combined. As an analytical concept, curriculum implementation and cross pressures are used. The result shows that the values ​​and tasks that the leisure-time-teachers emphasize in relation to the steering documents are social skills, professional ambivalence and the status of leisure-time-centers. Strategies personnel use is high leadership structure, reactive confirmation of steering documents and traditional leisure-time activities. Restrictions in the professional practice are the low status of activities in leisure-time-centers compared with traditional school activities, lack of time for implementation, "schooling" and unclearness in the steering documents' descriptions. This means that several stressful cross pressure are experienced in different ways at work, which complicates the realization of the curriculum's intentions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: , 2018
fritidshem, korstryck, läroplansimplementering
National Category
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35005 (URN)10.24834/educare.2018.2.6 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Åhslund, I. & Boström, L. (2018). Teachers’ Perceptions of Gender Differences: What about Boys and Girls in the Classroom?. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17(4), 28-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ Perceptions of Gender Differences: What about Boys and Girls in the Classroom?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 28-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to describe how primary school teachers perceive differences in behaviour and learning between boys and girls in relation to their teaching and methods. A quantitative approach was used in this study, and the analysis was built on descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations. The results show that the teachers had a positive view of their teaching. However, they generally had low expectations of the boys. The teachers also perceived that they made a great effort to adapt the teaching according to the students' prerequisites and needs. Individual work was a frequently used teaching method, although this was perceived as unfavorable for the boys’ learning. The boys’ behaviours were perceived as negative for learning, the boys were described as dependent, idle, and unmotivated. Negative characteristics might affect the teachers’ expectations of high learning outcomes, and may ultimately affect the boys’ school performances. The result of this study emphasizes the importance of that teachers reflect on their teaching methods in relation to boys, and girls’ prerequisites in the classroom.

didactic; gender differences; teachers’ perceptions; teaching methods
National Category
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33557 (URN)10.26803/ijlter.17.4.2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061283501 (Scopus ID)

Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Boström, L. & Dalin, R. (2018). Young people's opinion on rural Sweden. International Education Studies, 11(6), 45-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young people's opinion on rural Sweden
2018 (English)In: International Education Studies, ISSN 1913-9020, E-ISSN 1913-9039, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focus on adolescents motivations about remaining in rural areas in the Mid Sweden Region, a part of Sweden with decreasing school performance scores and high out-migration. The study is based on 1,500 young people’s responses to a Web-based survey within the framework of a regional school development project. The research questions focused on: whether youths were going to stay there or move the future in urban or rural areas, influences, and the future choices and differences among genders, regions, and age groups. The empirical data are processed with statistical analysis. The study confirms previous research on young people’s relocations from rural areas; jobs and education are important motives, and the most prone to move are women. What is new knowledge is that lessons about the region’s importance have a positive, significant effect on individuals’ plans to remain in their home municipality. This can and should be highlighted in local, regional, and national politics, but more importantly in school discourses. Since school plays a role in students’ thinking and future choices, a larger formation effort could be of great value for norms and regional political standpoints. The study has relevance to the international terms of similar geographical areas.

regional development, regional youth voices, school improvement
National Category
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33886 (URN)10.5539/ies.v11n6p45 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Dahlström, H. & Boström, L. (2017). Gains and losses: Handwriting Versus Digital Writing. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference Madrid 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gains and losses: Handwriting Versus Digital Writing
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we compared three different writing conditions – pen and paper; tablet and tablet with access to speech synthesis. The study was conducted within a class of fourth graders in Sweden. The aim was to examine how these different conditions for writing affected students’ creation of narrative text. The empirical data consists of students’ texts completed with data from participant observations. The texts were analysed in order to capture dimensions of how the students express themselves from different perspectives such as the use of different verbs in terms of doing, being, sensing or talking (process analyse), the text structure and linguistic correctness. Findings show that digital writing with access to speech synthesis played a crucial role in improving students’ writing. This result turned out to be mainly valid for students with Swedish as their second language. When it comes to findings from the process analyse, that examined one aspect of the content of the texts was that processes that describe verbs of being increased when students wrote digitally, regardless of first or second language for the students.

National Category
Languages and Literature
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31277 (URN)
European Conference Madrid 2017
Available from: 2017-07-13 Created: 2017-07-13 Last updated: 2017-08-24Bibliographically approved
Dahlström, H. & Boström, L. (2017). Pros and Cons: Handwriting Versus Digital Writing. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 12(4), 143-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pros and Cons: Handwriting Versus Digital Writing
2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 143-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compares three different writing conditions – pen and paper, tablet, and tablet with access to speech synthesis – within a class of fourth graders in Sweden. The aim was to examine if these different conditions for writing had any impact on students’ creation of narrative text. The empirical data consists of students’ texts, composed under these three conditions, completed with data from participant observations. The theoretical model, the Wheel of Writing, in combination with a process analysis described in Systemic Functional Linguistics, served as a basis for analysis of the texts. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Findings presented in this article are partly in line with previous research. Speech synthesis seemed to play a crucial role in improving students’ writing. The texts were affected in terms of increased text length, spelling, structure, and content when using digital resources. These results were most obvious for students with Swedish as their sec- ond language. One core finding, which was true for most students, was that processes describing action verbs increased when students wrote digitally. Contradicting this, when students wrote by hand they used more processes, describing feelings and verbal processes.

handwriting, digital resources, writing, narrative text
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32485 (URN)10.18261/ISSN.1891-943X-2017-04-04 (DOI)000419071400004 ()2-s2.0-85038370055 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9182-6403

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