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Vilches, A. P., Norström, S., Olofsson, M., Fransson, P. & Bylund, D. (2018). Biofuel ash addition increases ectomycorrhizal fungal exudation in pure culture. Environmental Chemistry, 15(8), 481-492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biofuel ash addition increases ectomycorrhizal fungal exudation in pure culture
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 481-492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental context. Spreading recycled wood ash in forests may counteract acidification and nutrient losses, but the process may also affect symbiotic fungi in these eco-systems. We show how fungal species react when exposed to ash solutions; for example, by an increased release of organic acids and other compounds. These effects can influence pH and metal availability in forest soils treated with ash.. Recycling of wood ash may counteract acidification and losses of base cations resulting from whole-tree harvesting in boreal forest ecosystems. The effects of ash treatment on growth and exudation of eight ectomycorrhizal fungal species were investigated in this study. Six basidiomycetes and two ascomycetes were grown in liquid pure culture with different levels of ash amendments. Biomass production, pH and the exudation of 17 low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOAs), 23 amino acids (AAs) and 9 hydroxamate siderophores (HSs) were recorded after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of incubation. Ash did not affect fungal growth, but resulted in higher exudation of the investigated compounds, in particular LMMOAs. Ash also influenced the composition of the exudates. We measured exudation of LMMOAs and AAs up to millimolar and micromolar concentrations respectively. For example, Rhizopogon roseolus mainly produced oxalic acid, whereas Lactarius rufus and Tomentellopsis submollis produced the highest concentrations of AAs. Ferricrocin, the only HS detected, was exuded at the nanomolar level. Exudation responses were also highly species-dependent, e.g. the ascomycetous isolates that produced the largest biomass released low amounts of exudates compared with the basidiomycetes, and were the only ones producing siderophores. This growth–exudation response to ash is likely a trade-off in carbon allocation whereby the mycorrhizal fungal species invest carbon in either higher biomass production or higher exudation.

Keywords
mass spectrometry, metabolomics, metal stress, soil acidification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35059 (URN)10.1071/EN18146 (DOI)000452149900003 ()2-s2.0-85056110727 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Zhang, R., Carlsson, F., Edman, M., Hummelgård, M., Jonsson, B.-G., Bylund, D. & Olin, H. (2018). Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles. Advanced Biosystem, 2(5), Article ID 1800019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Biosystem, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 1800019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibacterial agents based on nanoparticles (NPs) have many important applications, e.g., for the textile industry, surface disinfection, wound dressing, water treatment, and food preservation. Because of their prevalent use it is important to understand whether bacteria could develop resistance to such antibacterial NPs similarly to the resistance that bacteria are known to develop to antibiotics. Here, it is reported that Escherichia coli(E. coli) develops adaptive resistance to antibacterial ZnO NPs after several days' exposure to the NPs. But, in contrast to antibiotics‐resistance, the observed resistance to ZnO NPs is not stable—after several days without exposure to the NPs, the bacteria regain their sensitivity to the NPs' antibacterial properties. Based on the analyses it is suggested that the observed resistance is caused by changes in the shape of the bacteria and the expressions of membrane proteins. The findings provide insights into the response of bacteria to antibacterial NPs, which is important to elucidate for designing and evaluating the risk of applications based on antibacterial NPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34436 (URN)10.1002/adbi.201800019 (DOI)000446970000008 ()2-s2.0-85065053901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, A. E., Lindqvist, M., Sihlbom, C., Bergström, J. & Bylund, D. (2018). Identification of potential plasma biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm using tandem mass tag quantitative proteomics. Proteomes, 6(4), Article ID 43.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of potential plasma biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm using tandem mass tag quantitative proteomics
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2018 (English)In: Proteomes, ISSN 2227-7382, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plasma biomarkers that identify abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk would greatly assist in stratifying patients with small aneurysms. Identification of such biomarkers has hitherto been unsuccessful over a range of studies using different methods. The present study used an alternative proteomic approach to find new, potential plasma AAA biomarker candidates. Pre-fractionated plasma samples from twelve patients with AAA and eight matched controls without aneurysm were analyzed by mass spectrometry applying a tandem mass tag (TMT) technique. Eight proteins were differentially regulated in patients compared to controls, including decreased levels of the enzyme bleomycin hydrolase. The down-regulation of this enzyme was confirmed in an extended validation study using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TMT-based proteomic approach thus identified novel potential plasma biomarkers for AAA. 

Keywords
Aortic aneurysm, Biomarker, Bleomycin hydrolase, Clinical proteomics, Mass spectrometry, Proteomics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35439 (URN)10.3390/proteomes6040043 (DOI)000455629200009 ()2-s2.0-85059399283 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Vilches, A. P., Norström, S. H. & Bylund, D. (2017). Direct analysis of free amino acids by mixed-mode chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Separation Science, 40(7), 1482-1492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct analysis of free amino acids by mixed-mode chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry
2017 (English)In: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1482-1492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We developed a straightforward, robust, and relatively fast method for the analysis of amino acids by mixed-mode high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The method does not involve derivatization and allows the detection of 21 amino acids, representing a wide range of isoelectric points, in less than 40 min. Chromatographic separation was governed by a silica-based mixed-mode column providing simultaneous hydrophobic and ion exchange separation mechanisms. The use of tandem mass spectrometry increased selectivity, reducing potential problems associated with poor selectivity in the chromatographic system. For an injection volume of 1 μL, we obtained detection limits <3 μM for the majority of analytes. For all analytes, a linearity of r > 0.99 was obtained, recovery in matrix was >86%, and the retention times were highly reproducible. The method was successfully applied to soil solution and fungal culture samples, demonstrating the advantages in successfully avoiding issues associated with high amounts of substances that may interfere with derivatization-based methods. This method represents an alternative to derivatization-based methods and can be applied in areas where sample matrices are highly complex.

Keywords
amino acids, fungi, mass spectrometry, mixed-mode chromatography, soil
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30655 (URN)10.1002/jssc.201601097 (DOI)000399782900006 ()2-s2.0-85014685988 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, M., Kelk, P., Belibasakis, G. N., Bylund, D., Molin Thorén, M. & Johansson, A. (2017). Titanium ions form particles that activate and execute interleukin-1β release from lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages. Journal of Periodontal Research, 52(1), 21-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Titanium ions form particles that activate and execute interleukin-1β release from lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Periodontal Research, ISSN 0022-3484, E-ISSN 1600-0765, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Objective: Peri-implantitis is a destructive inflammatory process characterized by destruction of the implant-supporting bone. Inflammasomes are large intracellular multiprotein complexes that play a central role in innate immunity by activating the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Although inflammasome activation has previously been linked to periodontal inflammation, there is still no information on a potential association with peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to examine cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, including inflammasome activation, of metals used in dental implants, in an in vitro model, as well as from clinical tissue samples. Material and methods: Human macrophages were exposed to different metals [titanium (Ti), cobalt, chromium and molybdenum] in a cell-culture assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using the neutral red uptake assay. Cytokine secretion was quantified using an ELISA, and the expression of genes of various inflammasome components was analysed using quantitative PCR. In addition, the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Ti in mucosal tissue samples taken in the vicinity of dental implants were determined using ELISA and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Results: Ti ions in physiological solutions stimulated inflammasome activation in human macrophages and consequently IL-1β release. This effect was further enhanced by macrophages that have been exposed to lipopolysaccharides. The proinflammatory activation caused by Ti ions disappeared after filtration (0.22 μm), which indicates an effect of particles. Ti ions alone did not stimulate transcription of the inflammasome components. The Ti levels of tissue samples obtained in the vicinity of Ti implants were sufficiently high (≥ 40 μm) to stimulate secretion of IL-1β from human macrophages in vitro. Conclusion: Ti ions form particles that act as secondary stimuli for a proinflammatory reaction.

Keywords
Caspase-1, Inflammation, Interleukin-1β, Macrophage, Peri-implantitis, Titanium
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29603 (URN)10.1111/jre.12364 (DOI)000393165200003 ()26987886 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84961176243 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Fransson, P., Andersson, A., Norström, S., Bylund, D. & Bent, E. (2016). Ectomycorrhizal exudates and pre-exposure to elevated CO2 affects soil bacterial growth and community structure. Fungal ecology, 20, 211-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ectomycorrhizal exudates and pre-exposure to elevated CO2 affects soil bacterial growth and community structure
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2016 (English)In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 20, p. 211-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ectomycorrhizal fungi produce low molecular weight organic compounds, supporting diverse microbial communities. To link mycorrhizal root exudation directly to bacterial responses, we used Scots pine exudates with (Suillus variegatus and Piloderma fallax) and without mycorrhiza as substrata for forest soil bacteria. Bacterial growth and vitality was monitored, and community composition determined using TRFLP, cloning and sequencing. We investigated if the amount of organic acids in exudates explained bacterial growth, and whether bacterial communities were influenced by pre-exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. We demonstrated functional differences in bacterial growth rates related to CO2. There was a shift in the bacterial community (e.g. Burkholderia sp. and gamma-proteobacteria) toward organisms better able to rapidly utilize exudates when pine microcosms were pre-exposed to elevated CO2. Soil bacteria from all treatments tended to grow more abundantly and rapidly in exudates from Pilo derma -colonized seedlings, suggesting that the organic acids and/or unidentified compounds present supported greater growth.

Keywords
Exudation, Organic acids, Mycorrhiza, Burkholderia, Suillus, Piloderma, Soil microbes, Nonmycorrhizal, Soil microbiome
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27813 (URN)10.1016/j.funeco.2016.01.003 (DOI)000373539100026 ()2-s2.0-84959931329 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, M. & Bylund, D. (2016). Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry Applied in the Quantitative Analysis of Chitin-Derived Glucosamine for a Rapid Estimation of Fungal Biomass in Soil. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Article ID 9269357.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry Applied in the Quantitative Analysis of Chitin-Derived Glucosamine for a Rapid Estimation of Fungal Biomass in Soil
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 1687-8760, E-ISSN 1687-8779, article id 9269357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This method employs liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to rapidly quantify chitin-derived glucosamine for estimating fungal biomass. Analyte retention was achieved using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, with a zwitter-ionic stationary phase (ZIC-HILIC), and isocratic elution using 60 % 5 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) and 40 % ACN. Inclusion of muramic acid, and its chromatographic separation from glucosamine, enabled calculation of the bacterial contribution to the latter. Galactosamine, an isobaric isomer to glucosamine, found in significant amounts in soil samples, was also investigated. The two isomers form the same precursor and product ions, and could not be chromatographically separated using this rapid method. Instead, glucosamine and galactosamine were distinguished mathematically, using the linear relationships describing the differences in product ion intensities for the two analytes. The m/z transitions of 180→72 and 180→84 were applied for the detection of glucosamine and galactosamine and that of 252→126 for muramic acid. Limits of detection were in the pico-molar range for all included analytes. The total analysis time was 6 min, providing a high sample through-put method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016
Keywords
Amino sugars, galactosamine, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, muramic acid
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25992 (URN)10.1155/2016/9269357 (DOI)000370708500001 ()2-s2.0-84959156661 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FORE
Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, M. & Bylund, D. (2015). Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration. Journal of Separation Science, 38(19), 3305-3312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration
2015 (English)In: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 38, no 19, p. 3305-3312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze thirteen hydroxamate siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin, ferrioxamine B, D1, E and G, neocoprogen I and II, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C). Samples were pre-concentrated on-line via switch-valve setup prior to analyte separation on a Kinetex C18 column. Gradient elution was performed using a mixture of an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile. Total analysis time including column conditioning was 20.5 minutes. Analyte were fragmented by applying collision induced dissociation, enabling structural identification via tandem mass spectrometry. Limit of detection values for the selected ion monitoring method ranged from 71 pM to 1.5 nM with corresponding values of two to nine times higher for the multiple reaction monitoring method. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method resulted in a robust and sensitive quantification of hydroxamate siderophores as indicated by retention time stability, linearity, sensitivity, precision and recovery. The analytical error of the methods, assessed trough random-order, duplicate analysis of soil samples extracted with a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and methanol, appears negligible in relation to between-sample variations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2015
Keywords
Collision induces dissociation, column-switching, coprogens/fusigens, ferrichromes, ferrioxamines
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25990 (URN)10.1002/jssc.201500509 (DOI)000362553600001 ()2-s2.0-84942828265 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FORE
Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Bylund, D. & Henriksson, A. E. (2015). Proteomic approaches to identify circulating biomarkers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 5(3), 140-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proteomic approaches to identify circulating biomarkers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm
2015 (English)In: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, ISSN 2160-200X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 140-145Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common condition with high mortality when ruptured. Most clinicians agree that small AAAs are best managed by ultrasonographic surveillance. However, it has been stated in recent reviews that a serum/plasma biomarker that predicts AAA rupture risk would be a powerful tool in stratifying patients with small AAAs. Identification of such circulating biomarkers with traditional hypothesis driven studies has been unsuccessful. In this review we summarize six studies using different proteomic approaches to find new, potential plasma AAA biomarker candidates. In conclusion, by using proteomic approaches novel potential plasma biomarkers for AAA have been identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
e-Century Publishing Corporation, 2015
Keywords
Aortic aneurysm, biomarker, proteomics
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26469 (URN)000364955400001 ()26417533 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Boija, S., Almesåker, A., Hedenström, E., Bylund, D., Edlund, H. & Norgren, M. (2014). Determination of conditional stability constants for some divalent transition metal ion-EDTA complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 49(7), 550-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of conditional stability constants for some divalent transition metal ion-EDTA complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1076-5174, E-ISSN 1096-9888, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conditional stability constants of coordination complexes comprising divalent transition metals, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were determined utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The deviation of signal response of a reference complex was monitored at addition of a second metal ion. The conditional stability constant for the competing metal was then determined through solution equilibria equations. The method showed to be applicable to a system where Co2+ and Zn2+ competed for EDTA at pH 5. When Cu2+ and Ni2+ competed for EDTA, the equilibrium changed over time. This change was shown to be affected in rate and size by the type of organic solvent added. In this work, 30% of either methanol or acetonitrile was used. It was found that if calibration curves are prepared for both metal complexes in solution and the measurements are repeated with sufficient time space, any change in equilibrium of sample solutions will be discovered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.

Keywords
chelating agent, conditional stability constant, EDTA, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, mixed solvent
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22614 (URN)10.1002/jms.3372 (DOI)000339614300002 ()2-s2.0-84904184855 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Norgren, M.; Fibre Science and Communication Network (FSCN), Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden; email: Magnus.Norgren@miun.se

Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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