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Skytt, Torbjörn
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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Torbjörn, S. & Fröling, M. (2016). Comparison of Different Types of Photo Voltaics at One Site. In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016: . Paper presented at Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21–23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Different Types of Photo Voltaics at One Site
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In May 2015 A4 Campus AB made a 30 kWp solar cell installation in cooperation with Mid Sweden University at one of the university buildings in Östersund. Four different types of solar cells were being installed each type with a power of about 7 kW; two types of polycrystalline silicon panels, one monocrystalline silicon type and one thin film (CuInSe2) type. The three types of crystalline panels were equipped with individual optimizers making individual panel follow up possible. A one year evaluation shows the installed thin film panels produces more electricity (as Wh per installed W) than do any of the installed crystalline types. The efficiency of the thin film panels is relatively higher compared to the crystalline panels those days when the insolation is lower, which might indicate future climate change should be taken into consideration when choosing which type of solar cells to install (for northern Sweden more rain is being predicted). Each one of the crystalline types are installed as a matrix with 2 or 3 rows. The lowest rows of each type produces more electricity compared to the row above. This might be caused by an increased temperature of the air flow behind the panels. However, during the period November to April the production especially of the lower rows is reduced due to snow coverage. For multiple row installation this phenomenon should be taken into consideration for calculations for optimal layout (1,7-1,9% reduction per row for 3 rows).

Out from the follow-up made it can be seen that the evaluation of offers from different manufactures is rather complex and the yearly production cannot be easily calculated of from the specified efficiency. A 6% difference in power output from crystalline types can be seen at an insolation close to 1.000 W/m2 and the difference in efficiency given in the specifications is in the range 15,2% to 15,8%.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29772 (URN)
Conference
Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21–23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Fröling, M. & Skytt, T. (2016). Energy, emergy, and the city. Östersund: Mittuniverstitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy, emergy, and the city
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In his book “Environment, Power, and Society” (1971) H.T. Odum introduced a picture of the energy metabolism of a city based on Wolman's paper from 1965 (Sci. Am., 213: 179-190). With the development of the emergy analysis--a branch of energy systems accounting--several authors have contributed to develop quantitative measures of HT Odum’s picture, which from many perspectives are diverging from traditional energy studies. In this paper, studies using emergy analysis to study cities are reviewed. The research regarding emergy and cities had during the period 1975-1995 its focus on cities in the United States, e.g. Miami, Jacksonville, San Francisco and Chicago. The research during 1995-2005 was almost exclusively focused on Taipei. From approximately 2006 up till 2015 the research focus has been on Chinese cities; Macao, Beijing and 37 other Chinese cities have been investigated. But there are resent also studies made on Rome (Italy) and Montreal (Canada). Studies up to about 2007/2008 were generally concerned with understanding spatial aspects of the cities investigated. After that, evaluating the sustainability of cities has become a main research focus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mittuniverstitetet, 2016. p. 14
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2016-1c
Keywords
Emergy assessment, Spatial distribution, Sustainable city
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27946 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2016-06-21Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nors Nielsen, S., Grönlund, E. & Fröling, M. (2016). Involvement of Advanced Level Students Using Ecological Modelling in Research About Regional Sustainability (1ed.). In: Walter Leal Filho and Luciana Brandli (Ed.), Engaging Stakeholders in Education for Sustainable Development at University Level: (pp. 145-162). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Involvement of Advanced Level Students Using Ecological Modelling in Research About Regional Sustainability
2016 (English)In: Engaging Stakeholders in Education for Sustainable Development at University Level / [ed] Walter Leal Filho and Luciana Brandli, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 145-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to present a pilot educational project where ecological modelling has been used to integrate advanced level students into the research about regional sustainability. Addressing regional sustainability with an ecological systems model based on carbon and energy balances is a way to understand the basics of sustainability integrating detail and holistic views. Such model has been developed in a case study on the Danish island Samsø, and currently a similar model is now being developed for the Jämtland county. Even though Jämtland, located in mid Sweden, is a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydro power, and only one major city, it is still not obvious how to reach long term sustainability. For educational purposes ecological models are excellent tools, since complex interactions can be studied, analysed and discussed in a structured way. It can be expected future sustainable society development presupposes integration between research and education, thus building a long term strategy for the possibilities to change negative cultural patters of whatever kind these might be. To strengthen the authorisation of the education for sustainability, clarification of the university’s integrative role in society may well be used, to give students self-confidence for continuous development within the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
World Sustainability Series, ISSN 2199-7373, E-ISSN 2199-7381
Keywords
Regional sustainability, Ecological modelling, Role of the academia, Educational involvement, Carbon balance, Work energy balance, Education for sustainability
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29896 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-26734-0 (DOI)978-3-319-26732-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-26734-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-19 Created: 2017-01-19 Last updated: 2017-01-19Bibliographically approved
Torbjörn, S. (2016). What is it like to be at tree?. In: E. Grönlund, A. Longueville (Ed.), Society's steering systems – a Friend book to Inga Carlman: (pp. 213-223). Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is it like to be at tree?
2016 (English)In: Society's steering systems – a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund, A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 213-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2016
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29786 (URN)978-91-88025-97-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-27 Created: 2016-12-27 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nielsen, S. N., Ståhl, F., Jonsson, A., Grönlund, E., Carlman, I. & Fröling, M. (2015). A strategic tool to find out regional sustainability methodologies helpingindividuals to make long term decisions. In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, November 1-4, 2015: . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, Novmenber 1-4, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategic tool to find out regional sustainability methodologies helpingindividuals to make long term decisions
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, November 1-4, 2015, 2015Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a variety of definitions of the concept ‘sustainable’ to be found, and many interestingideas how to measure and evaluate what can be regarded as ‘sustainability’. Meanwhile,whatever the definition is used it must have a strong physical background. There is also acontinuous flow of information and a general awareness about the necessity of taking action,thereby reducing the negative anthropocentric contribution to global warming and ecologicalsystems depletion. A number of visions about (for example) future emission values typically 15-30 years from today are often presented. At the same time there is a continuous political debateabout the balance between individual freedom vs political regulations. The typical individual -standing in the intersection of all this - still seldom gets practical guidelines on how to act in thedaily life to meet future visions. This paper argues that it is necessary to simplify the indicatorsused to evaluate sustainability and at the same time ensure clear instructions of action therebyincreasing the communicability. This is believed to be possible through the application of aholistic approach based upon a detailed mapping, thus making it possible to find out an over-allstrategy and then transform it into specific guidelines for the individual to apply, taking anentrance point in a realistic description of individual everyday life. The regional level is chosenas the most suitable level to work with to keep in touch with the individual level without losingthe strategic possibilities and over-all view when attacking the problem. Without a deep andcommon understanding of the ‘daily life’ in the region, visions and guidelines might show to becounterproductive.For the Swedish region Jämtland, a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydropower, and one major city (Östersund with about 60.000 inhabitants), some industries and skiresorts (the largest being Åre), the method developed by Nielsen and Jørgensen for the minorisland named Samsø in Denmark has been chosen. By building a model for evaluating thecarbon balance and the work energy balances we are able to focus the strategies and make aguideline for individuals. It seems necessary to accept some usage of fossil fuels also in thefuture but we need to see how this usage can be steered to applications where non-fossilalternatives are less realistic. By working with sectors, built together, we are able to work withsub-models without having to compromise on either lower or higher level of societal activities.Compared to the Samsø case, Jämtland is more complex and also much larger (127.000inhabitants compared to Samsø’s 4.000 and with an area about 20% larger than theNetherlands). The sectors chosen are Industry (Businesses other than those covered in othersectors), Agriculture, Forestry, Tourism, Nature, Public, Private (households), Reindeerherding, Wastes and Energy. The budget of each sector is mapped in terms of carbon and workenergy balances as a sub-model of an over-all model of Jämtland. By finding out the limits(constrains) from simulations carried out on the region it is possible to set for example carbonand energy budgets as basis for personal guidelines for the citizens of the region.The major idea is that most citizens of the region will understand and adapt to such guidelinesto an extent that may induce a change of individual behavioral patterns thus turning the regiontowards sustainability. Jämtland has a specific “culture” which can be used to create proudnessand interest for the sustainability aims. It is important to arrange a platform that serves to shapea fruitful dialogue between all stakeholders – from individual to groups – that will make itpossible to create a common plan for measurements to be implemented, i.e. a concertedgovernance which ensure and guarantee a future of optimal existence for ecosystems as wellas human beings.

Keywords
Sustainability evaluation, Carbon balance, Work energy, Societal transition
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26231 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Barcelona Sitges, Novmenber 1-4, 2015
Available from: 2015-11-08 Created: 2015-11-08 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nors Nielsen, S., Grönlund, E. & Fröling, M. (2015). Ecological systems modelling of regional sustainability. In: : . Paper presented at 4th European Fair on Education for Sustainable Development Hamburg (Germany), Sept 10-11,2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecological systems modelling of regional sustainability
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to present a pilot educational project where ecological modelling has been used to integrate advanced level students into the research about regional sustainability. Addressing regional sustainability with an ecological systems model based on carbon and energy balances is a way to understand the basics of sustainability integrating detail and holistic views. Such model has been developed in a case study on the Danish island Samsø and currently a similar model is now being developed for the Jämtland county. Even though Jämtland, located in mid Sweden, is a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydro power, and only one major city, it is still not obvious how to reach long term sustainability. For educational purposes ecological models are excellent tools, since complex interactions can be studied, analysed and discussed in a structured way. It can be expected future sustainable society development presupposes integration between research and education, thus building a long term strategy for the possibilities to change negative cultural patters of whatever kind these might be. To strengthen the authorisation of the education for sustainability, clarification of the university’s integrative role in society may well be used, to give students self-confidence for continuous development within the field.

Keywords
Regional sustainability, Ecological modelling, Role of the academia, Educational involvement, Carbon balance, Work energy balance, Education for sustainability
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26227 (URN)
Conference
4th European Fair on Education for Sustainable Development Hamburg (Germany), Sept 10-11,2015
Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-11-06 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Fröling, M. & Skytt, T. (2015). Energy, Emergy and the City. In: : . Paper presented at Energy and Urban Systems. 9th Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies, Stockholm 4-7 May, 2015 (pp. 296-304).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy, Emergy and the City
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In his book “Environment, Power, and Society” (1971) H.T. Odum introduced a picture of the energy metabolism of a city based on Wolman's paper from 1965 (Sci. Am., 213: 179-190). With the development of the emergy concept--a branch of energy systems accounting--several authors have contributed to develop a quantitative view of HT Odum’s picture, which from many aspect are diverging from the traditional energy accounting picture. In this paper the emergy view of the city is reviewed. The research on emergy and cities had its focus in United States during the period 1975-1995 with investigations of cities like Miami, Jacksonville, San Francisco and Chicago. The main research during 1995-2010 took place almost only in Taipei. From approximately 2006 up today the main research takes place in Chinese cities; Macao, Beijing and 30 other Chinese cities have been investigated the last 6 years. Newer investigations have also been done on Rome (Italy) and Montreal (Canada). The main interest in the research up to 2007/2008 was on the spatial aspect of the city. After that new focuses have emerged, with sustainability as a main question.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24919 (URN)
Conference
Energy and Urban Systems. 9th Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies, Stockholm 4-7 May, 2015
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2016-06-21Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Nielsen, S. N., Grönlund, E., Ståhl, F., Jonsson, A., Carlman, I. & Fröling, M. (2015). Interdisciplinary Cooperation And System Modelling As Means To Govern The Anthropocene. In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences: . Paper presented at 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences; Scandic Berlin Potsdamer PlatzBerlin; Germany; 2 August 2015 through 7 August 2015; Code 121844. international society for the systems sciences (ISSS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interdisciplinary Cooperation And System Modelling As Means To Govern The Anthropocene
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, international society for the systems sciences (ISSS) , 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global development has now come to a critical state where humanity act as a new geological force and it is obvious that there are numerous of environmental problems which arise from the present geosphere-biosphere-anthroposphere interactions which urgently need to be addressed. This paper argues that systems analysis and modelling of environmental systems is one necessary part in successful governing of societies towards sustainability. In the 1960th many observations and data made it evident that the environment in most countries was in a bad state. To get a holistic view of the complex problems and to clarify the relationships of structure and function, systems thinking was applied e.g. modelling, cybernetics, systems analysis, life cycle assessment and energy and material flow analysis. Such tools used collectively, conceptualized as ‘integrated assessment’, can help to communicate fundamental knowledge, and to support decision-making when identifying, developing and implementing precautionary measures and solutions. There are good examples demonstrating the strength of such approaches; Solutions to the ozone depletion by replacing CFC’s with more chemically reactive compounds that are degraded within the troposphere. Acidification of European low buffer soils and lakes, sensitive to acid rain, has decreased due to concerted action on Sulphur emission control in large parts of Europe. The handling and recycling of solid waste has resulted in a considerable reduction of deposits in large parts of the world. This basically natural scientific knowledge has also influenced the development within e.g. economy and jurisprudence and today ecological economy and environmental law assume ecological systems as fundamental.

The complexity of ecosystems and environmental issues can only be understood by use of advanced scientific tools such as modelling as a base for establishing interdisciplinary co-operation. Each component of such models will of course be an approximation, but validation and verification of the models will serve to make them useful. An ongoing research project at Mid Sweden University aims at building a complete carbon and energy balance model of an entire Swedish region, based on the Danish Samsø-model. Such models will make it possible to refer to a robust scientific base, thereby making it easier to argue for appropriate measures and actions. At the same time it will be clear what data these actions rest upon thereby making it easier to identify possible errors or limitations.

Systems analysis and subsequent modes are constructs. According to systems theory and model development they are strategies as the best representations of nature, we can make. At the same time it must be assured, that a continuous adaptation and improvement in a studied area is possible - i.e. that model outcomes are matched with phenomenological observations and that empirical work also is carried out. Model development can therefore be characterized as a dynamic and iterative process.

Governance in the Anthropocene must be based on an understanding of the problem picture at hand, and learning how to appropriately address increasingly complex issues. For identifying potential solutions and consequences of policy implementation, systems modelling on relevant levels will be one necessary tool. The current project developing an environmental regional model, illustrates how modelling can provide decision support for the county of Jämtland regarding management of energy resources and planning of future infrastructure, as well as serving regional and national information purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
international society for the systems sciences (ISSS), 2015
Keywords
Integrated Assessment, Regional sustainability, Governing Anthropocene, Ecological modelling, Interdisciplinary cooperation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25797 (URN)2-s2.0-84976466711 (Scopus ID)978-151082337-2 (ISBN)
Conference
59th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences; Scandic Berlin Potsdamer PlatzBerlin; Germany; 2 August 2015 through 7 August 2015; Code 121844
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2016-07-21Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T. (2014). What is it like to be a tree?. In: : . Paper presented at NIES X / ECOHUM Research Symposium, Rethinking Environmental Consciousness, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, 5–8 December 2014, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is it like to be a tree?
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Can human beings ever imagine what it is like to be a tree? Is there such a thing as ‘being’ a tree? We use empathy to position ourselves into the life of others or even as animals, plants or things. This empathy can follow Arne Næss’ ecosophy, highlighting the intrinsic value of nature, thus making us conclude there are too many human beings on earth. 

GH von Wright says the idea nature needs to be protected from man is the result of comprehensive environmental anthropogenic degradation; ancient man was not environmentally conscious. In this paper I argue we need to develop an environmental consciousness, at the same time we intellectually need to ethically separate a tree from a human being, thereby preventing a non-human environmentalism. Every generation and every human being needs to be environmentally awakened, at the same time learn to accept to live in a world of contradictions.

Keywords
Environmental consciousness, Deep ecology, Ecosophy, Environmentalism, Nature religion, Fundamentalism, Nature identification
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24019 (URN)
Conference
NIES X / ECOHUM Research Symposium, Rethinking Environmental Consciousness, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, 5–8 December 2014, 2014
Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2015-01-02Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T. (2013). Prototeser. Ludvika: Problemskytten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototeser
2013 (Swedish)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Det finns riktiga böcker med en slags handling eller ett särskilt tema. Just den här boken är inte i den bemärkelsen en riktig bok eftersom det snarast är en sammanställning av begynnande tankar, en slags prototyper till teser som behöver en närande jordmån för att utvecklas vidare. Den jordmånen får läsaren stå för, alltså du själv. I de riktiga böckerna har författaren tänkt ut hur det är. Författaren av denna bok trodde en gång att det var möjligt att komma fram till hur det är, men det var nog en illusion. Allt som växte fram under arbetet var dessa prototeser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ludvika: Problemskytten, 2013. p. 178
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29899 (URN)978-91-977251-4-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-19 Created: 2017-01-19 Last updated: 2017-03-01Bibliographically approved
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