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Höök, M.
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Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Hofmann, K. B., Ohlsson, M. L., Höök, M., Danvind, J. & Kersting, U. G. (2016). The influence of sitting posture on mechanics and metabolic energy requirements during sit-skiing: a case report. Sports Engineering, 19(3), 213-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of sitting posture on mechanics and metabolic energy requirements during sit-skiing: a case report
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2016 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several different sitting postures are used in Paralympic cross-country sit-skiing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sitting posture on physiological and mechanical variables during steady-state double-poling sit-skiing, as well as to determine how seat design can be improved for athletes without sufficient trunk control. Employing a novel, custom-designed seat, three trunk positions were tested while performing double-poling with submaximal oxygen consumption on an ergometer. Cycle kinematics, pole forces, and oxygen consumption were monitored. The athlete performed best, with longer cycle length and less pronounced metabolic responses, when kneeling with the trunk resting on a frontal support. For this case, a forward leaning trunk with knees below the hip joint was interpreted as most optimal, as it showed lower oxygen consumption and related parameters of performance during cross-country sit-skiing. Further investigations should examine whether such improvement is dependent on the level of the athlete’s handicap, as well as whether it is also seen on snow.

Keyword
Biomechanics, Oxygen consumption, Poling force, Seat, Sit-ski
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28014 (URN)10.1007/s12283-016-0209-7 (DOI)000387943300010 ()2-s2.0-84982712590 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Stöggl, T., Bishop, P., Höök, M., Willis, S. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2015). Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(3), 617-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes
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2015 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 617-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Methods: Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5- incline) and V1 techniques (8-) at 8 and 6 kmIhj1, respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), 10.7 T 0.8 and 7.7 T 0.9 kmIhj1, respectively). VO2, ventilation (VE), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Results: Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows:VO2, +2.5%;VE, +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P G 0.001; HR, +1.7%; and BLa, +15.1%; both P G 0.05. Biomechanically, carrying a rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P G 0.05). With the exception of elevated pole forces when V2 skating at racing velocity, there were no differences between the peak and impulse of pole force. The difference inVE between R and NR was greater for the women than that for men (P G 0.05), and the difference in BLa also tended to be larger for the women (P G 0.1). Conclusions: Carrying a rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

Keyword
Crosscountry skiing, economy, energy cost, rifle carriage, skating
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24609 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000000438 (DOI)000349984600020 ()2-s2.0-84923614720 (Scopus ID)
Note

CODEN: MSCSB

Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez-Zamora, L., Lodin-Sundström, A., Engan, H. K., Höök, M., Patrician, A., Degerström, E. & Schagatay, E. (2015). Effects of altitude acclimatization on spleen volume and contraction during submaximal and maximal work in lowlanders. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of altitude acclimatization on spleen volume and contraction during submaximal and maximal work in lowlanders
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26743 (URN)
Conference
20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Malmö, June 24-27, 2015
Available from: 2015-12-28 Created: 2015-12-28 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
Jensen, K., Höök, M., Willis, S. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2014). Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers. In: Erich Muller, Josef Kroll, Stefan Lindinger (Ed.), Science & Skiing VI: (pp. 414-420). Meyer & Meyer Sport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers
2014 (English)In: Science & Skiing VI / [ed] Erich Muller, Josef Kroll, Stefan Lindinger, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2014, p. 414-420Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2014
National Category
Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24012 (URN)9781782550662 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-12-23 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2015-01-09Bibliographically approved
Höök, M., Jensen, K., Willis, S. J. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2013). Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after mderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers. In: Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl (Ed.), Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing: . Paper presented at 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing (pp. 95).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after mderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers
2013 (English)In: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, p. 95-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20940 (URN)978-3-200-03417-4 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Congress on Science and Skiing
Available from: 2014-01-02 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2014-01-02Bibliographically approved
Jensen, K., Höök, M., Willis, S. J. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2013). Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers. In: Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl (Ed.), Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing: . Paper presented at 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing (pp. 115).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers
2013 (English)In: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, p. 115-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.

METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique  at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). The test protocol was a standardized progressive submaximal session of 4 min exercise with 1 min rest between each stage, followed by a 6-10 min progressive “all out” exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during submaximal and maximal exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during the 1 min rest between submax stages and 2 min after the max test. Power at each submax and max stage were calculated from roller ski friction and body weight against gravity [1]. Each stage power was further used for calculations of power at VO2max, (WVO2max), work efficiency at submaximal loads (GE) and for the estimation of O2 cost at maximal work load (used to calculate accumulated O2 deficit (MOD)) [2].

RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 71.9±10.7kg and VO2max 214±12ml/min/kg0.73. The GE varied between 17.9-19.5% during the 3-5 submaximal loads, with no difference between conditions (P>0.05). Also, blood lactate accumulation after submaximal exercise loads showed no difference between conditions (P<0.05). At ALT1, the VO2max and the WVO2max decreased 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively (P<0.05), however there were no differences between ALT1 and ALT2 or from NORM1 and NORM2 (P>0.05). In contrast, the average power output (322±87W) during the “all out” test increased 3.4±2.7% 10 days after the altitude training (P<0.05). Average MOD varied between 57-79 mlO2·kg-1 over the training period, but with no change between conditions (P>0.05). The coefficient of variation (CV%) for the changes in MOD between NORM1 and 2 was 40%.

DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that performance (VO2max, WVO2max) deteriorates by 8-9% in a group of elite skiers training at a moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m. No increase in any of the physiological parameters related to performance included in the study was seen after moderate altitude training, except for the maximal power which increased 3.4%. The response after moderate altitude training seems to be related more to anaerobic than aerobic factors. However, this was not confirmed by the MOD in this group of highly trained skiers. The large CV for change in MOD reflects the individual responses to this training.

CONCLUSION: Small changes of 2-3% in performance in highly trained in elite skiers after moderate altitude training seems not to be related to any single parameter. One should not ignore individual differences in adaptation.

 

REFERENCES

1.         Ainegren, M. et al Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.

2.         Medbo, J.I.et al J.Appl.Physiol., 1988. 64: p. 50-60.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20942 (URN)978-3-200-03417-4 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Congress on Science and Skiing
Available from: 2014-01-02 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2014-01-03Bibliographically approved
Stöggl, T., Bishop, P., Höök, M., Willis, S. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2013). Physiological and biomechanical response to rifle carriage in elite biathletes. In: Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl (Ed.), Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing: . Paper presented at The 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing (pp. 81).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological and biomechanical response to rifle carriage in elite biathletes
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, p. 81-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20936 (URN)978-3-200-03417-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing
Available from: 2014-01-02 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2014-04-24Bibliographically approved
Jensen, K., Höök, M., Wedholm, L., Björklund, G. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2012). How work economy changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performance. In: Erich Mueller, Stefan Lindinger, Thomas Stöggl (Ed.), Science and Skiing V (pp. 523-529). Meyer & Meyer Sport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How work economy changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performance
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2012 (English)In: Science and Skiing V / [ed] Erich Mueller, Stefan Lindinger, Thomas Stöggl, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2012, p. 523-529Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18216 (URN)1841263532 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-01-09 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2013-01-11Bibliographically approved
Jensen, K., Höök, M., Wedholm, L., Björklund, G. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2010). How work efficiency changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performace. In: Erich Mueller (Ed.), Proceedings for the fifth international conference on Science and Skiing: . Paper presented at 5th International Conference Science and Skiing, St Cristoph am Aarlberg (pp. 75). Salzburg: Meyer & Meyer Sport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How work efficiency changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performace
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings for the fifth international conference on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Salzburg: Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2010, p. 75-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Salzburg: Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2010
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12656 (URN)978-3-200-02097-9 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference Science and Skiing, St Cristoph am Aarlberg
Projects
Integrative Physiologi & Biomechanics
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2013-09-17Bibliographically approved
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