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Fredman, P. & Wikström, D. (2018). Income Elasticity of Demand for Tourism at Fulufjället National Park. Tourism Economics, 24(1), 51-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Income Elasticity of Demand for Tourism at Fulufjället National Park
2018 (English)In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

National Parks are significant markers in the tourism attraction system and represent an important supply of recreation opportunities for the clients of the nature-based tourism industry. In this study, we analyze income elasticities among visitors from two major nationalities at Fulufjället National Park (FNP)—a cross-boundary park between Sweden and Norway—to see if this tourism product is a luxury or not. Modeling demand with a Tobit model, we find that visiting this National Park is close to a luxury, but results also show that elasticities differ across both income and nationality: FNP is more likely to be a luxury good among low-income Germans and high-income Swedes. The article concludes with a discussion on policy and management implications from these results.

Keywords
Income Elasticity Tourism National park
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32579 (URN)10.1177/1354816617724012 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Wall-Reinius, S., Fredman, P., Dahlberg, A., Svensson, D., Sörlin, S. & Godtman Kling, K. (2018). Vägar till mångfunktionella landskap: En pilotmodell i Jämtlandsfjällen. Stockholm: Natruvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vägar till mångfunktionella landskap: En pilotmodell i Jämtlandsfjällen
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Natruvårdsverket, 2018. p. 66
Series
Naturvårdsverket, ISSN 0282-7298 ; 6820
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33523 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)978-91-620-6820-2 (ISBN)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Margaryan, L. & Fredman, P. (2017). Bridging outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in a commercial context: Insights from the Swedish service providers. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, 17(March 2017), 84-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in a commercial context: Insights from the Swedish service providers
2017 (English)In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, no March 2017, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how outdoor recreation demand is reflected in the commercial tourism supply. We bring together the demand and the supply perspectives as well as the domestic and international dimensions, i.e. linking outdoor recreation with nature-based tourism. The data is collected through a nation-wide survey among nature-based tourism providers, catering to both domestic and international markets in Sweden. Four major data-driven avenues of commercializing outdoor recreation are discussed (Winter/Nordic, Summer/Active, Summer/Relaxing and Extractive) and further profiled against external variables, such as types of business operations, international markets or seasonality. The findings offer a new insight into the patters of the commercial supply of nature-based tourism in Sweden, while also building on the previous research and history of outdoor recreation. Evident commercial importance and domestic popularity of such ordinary outdoor activities as cycling on roads, swimming, jogging, picnicking or hiking outside mountain areas are linked to changes in leisure and lifestyles noticed previously. Commercialization of outdoor recreation, a snapshot of which is presented in this study, is discussed as an ever-expanding and diversifying process, observed both in Sweden and globally.

Keywords
Outdoor recreation, Nature-based tourism, Commercialization, Commodification, Friluftsliv
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30005 (URN)10.1016/j.jort.2017.01.003 (DOI)000400277500010 ()2-s2.0-85011700254 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2017-10-09Bibliographically approved
Margaryan, L. & Fredman, P. (2017). Natural amenities and the regional distribution of nature-based tourism supply in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 145-159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural amenities and the regional distribution of nature-based tourism supply in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nature-based tourism is often perceived as one of the easiest and readily-available tools for regional development and diversification of rural economies, and Sweden is not an exception. Successful tourism development, however, depends on various amenities, which vary with region. This article, based on a national survey among nature-based tourism service providers in Sweden, discusses general characteristic of Swedish nature-based tourism supply, reveals the most important natural amenities from the supply perspective and discusses the patterns of their regional variation. It is further investigated how distributions of various amenities is related to the density of nature-based tourism operations across regions. The scope of the analysis includes three levels: country, land and county. Results show that nature-based tourism in Sweden is a highly diversified sector, which demonstrates significant north-south variations, visible on the level of the three lands. On the level of counties, natural and human-made amenities are comparable in their power to predict distribution of NBT operations, suggesting that the border between NBT and other forms of tourism is not as distinct as is often imagined.

Keywords
Nature-based tourism, tourism supply, natural amenities, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27760 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2016.1153430 (DOI)000396820500003 ()2-s2.0-84961200147 (Scopus ID)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Note

Published online: 10 Mar 2016

Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2017-10-09Bibliographically approved
Godtman Kling, K., Wall-Reinius, S. & Fredman, P. (2017). The Multi-functional Trail: An International Literature Review and the Case of Trails in Southern Jämtland Mountains, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Multi-functional Trail: An International Literature Review and the Case of Trails in Southern Jämtland Mountains, Sweden
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report provides an overview of international research on recreational trails, and presents results from a Swedish case study on trails in the southern Jämtland mountains.

The report consists of three parts, beginning with a literature review on recreational trails in non-urban areas in international research. In this section, a quantitative literature review was conducted and 195 papers on recreational trails published in academic journals were reviewed and categorized, in order to gain insights on where there is research on trails, what trails have been assessed and what methods have been used, what trail activities and trail functions have been researched, and where research gaps remain. Results from the literature review reveal that research on recreational trails has been given increased attention within the academia, as the majority of the reviewed papers were published between 2000 and 2016. Results also show that research is geographically uneven, with a majority of the studies being conducted in the USA and Australia and little research has been conducted in Asia, Africa and South- and Central America. The literature review also reveal that research on different trail types and trail functions is limited, with a majority of the studies researching the trail types traditional backcountry trail and wilderness track, i.e. trails in natural settings and/or remote wilderness areas. Research was primarily based on natural sciences with an emphasis on environmental and ecological aspects of trails, such as erosion and wear and tear on the surrounding environment, and there was less research on social aspects of recreational trails, such as conflict management and public health. The trail-based activity dominating research is hiking, although there appears to be an increase in studies researching multiple activities.  Based on the findings of the literature review, it is suggested that future research on recreational trails should stimulate studies in under-represented regions, and a need for more studies on winter use is recognized. Also, there is a need for studies looking at the opportunities and challenges of multiple-use trails, as well as studies looking at conflicts associated with trail use.

 

The second part of this report concerns the case study area and visitors’ trail use. Findings from an on-site visitor survey from the summer of 2013 is presented. This visitor survey was conducted in the study area to collect information on visitor attitudes, experiences and preferences, and for this report, only questions about trail usage and attitudes towards trails have been used in the analysis. For this report, analysis of the questions regarding trails in the survey aimed to capture Swedish and international recreationists’ and tourists’ use and perceptions about trail management and conditions of trails. Some survey questions are also compared with a previous visitor survey done in the same area in 1999 to capture if there are any changes over time regarding Swedish visitors’ attitudes. Results show that the availability of marked trails is important to both Swedish and international visitors, and that these two visitor-groups have similar thoughts regarding the importance of the availability of marked trails. Just above 80 % think that the availability of marked trails is an important factor when they decided to visit the area. Results from the on-site visitor survey also show that the majority of the visitors use trails during their visit. A majority of the respondents also think the quality of the marked trails is good or very good. Only 4% of the international and the Swedish respondents respectively, state that trail quality is bad.

 

The third part of the report concerns stakeholders’ perceptions of trails in the case study area. Results from this section is based on answers from a web-based survey about trails in the southern Jämtland mountains that was distributed to stakeholders in the case study area, and a two-day workshop that was organized among stakeholders with the purpose of discussing current and future use/management of trails in the southern Jämtland mountains. Stakeholders represent Sami organizations, tourism organizations and entrepreneurs, local service providers and lodges, and public authorities, both from Norway and Sweden. The survey concerned questions regarding the role of trails in general and potential conflicts associated with trails, marked trails in the area, historical trails and unmarked trails, and the respondents own use of trails in the study area. Topics discussed during the workshop included definitions of trails, how they are used and their importance; if current trails fulfil the intended purpose; management and information; and conflicts associated with trails in the area. Future needs were also discussed, as well as new trails and changes in the trail system; future challenges in trail management, finance and responsibility; future challenges and solutions; and future co-operation between Sweden and Norway regarding trails. Key findings from the survey and workshop among the stakeholder group in the southern Jämtland mountains, reveal that trails are an important feature for successful management of this area. Their role to facilitate accessibility and visitor experiences, channel usage, protect nature, provide guidance and interpretation, facilitate reindeer herding, support nature protection and increase safety are important according to the stakeholders in the area.

Publisher
p. 120
Series
Rapportserien / European Tourism Research Institute, ISSN 1403-4220 ; 2017:1
Keywords
trails, tourism, outdoor recreation, nature areas, literature review, Jämtland mountains
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30362 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)9789188527103 (ISBN)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Negotiating pathways to multi-funtional landscapes
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2017-02-28 Created: 2017-02-28 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Godtman Kling, K., Fredman, P. & Wall-Reinius, S. (2017). Trails for Tourism and Outdoor Recreation: A Systematic Literature Review. Tourism, 65(4), 488-508
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trails for Tourism and Outdoor Recreation: A Systematic Literature Review
2017 (English)In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 488-508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trails are important elements in the natural and cultural landscape, and many ancient pathways have developed into routes of great significance for recreation and tourism in contemporary societies. By conducting a systematic quantitative literature review, this paper report on the status of international trail research and analyzes some of the key content with focus on trails for tourism and outdoor recreation in non-urban settings. For this purpose, we reviewed 195 research papers published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Results show that research on trails for tourism and outdoor recreation is primarily from English-speaking Western countries. The most studied trail-based activity is hiking, but there has been an increase in the number of studies researching multiple activities. Results also show that international trail research to a large extent is based on the natural sciences, and focus on environmental and managerial aspects of trail use. This review identifies gaps in trail research, especially in a socio-cultural context on topics such as heritage and public health. Research on conflicts between different recreational trail-based activities is also relatively scarce, as well as studies concerning conflicts between trail-based recreation interests and other land-use interests. We also identify a need for an exploration of the trail concept, as research has not yet articulated a clear definition of what a trail is. The paper also includes analyses of changes in trail-related research over time.

Keywords
recreational trails, tourism, outdoor recreation, literature review, trail research over time
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32676 (URN)000419189800008 ()2-s2.0-85040866997 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Negotiating Pathways to Multi-functional Landscapes
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Garms, M., Fredman, P. & Mose, I. (2017). Travel Motives of German Tourists in the Scandinavian Mountains: the Case of Fulufjället National Park. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(3), 239-254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel Motives of German Tourists in the Scandinavian Mountains: the Case of Fulufjället National Park
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 239-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the travel motives of German visitors to Fulufjället National Park (FNP). The park attracts more than one-third international visitors, which is a high proportion compared to other regions in the Scandinavian mountains. Data for this study were derived from a mixed-method approach including a visitor survey and on-site interviews conducted in summer 2014. Factor and reliability analysis revealed, along with the usage of recreational experience preference scales, five motivational factors with an appropriate internal consistency including focus on self, nature, freedom, others, and experiences. As a result, the self-related and socialness factors play a subordinate role within the travel decision of German visitors. Instead, it is the outstanding scenery of FNP that provides German visitors with rewarding experiences in the Scandinavian “wilderness”. Results from the study are discussed with respect to national park management and business development.

Keywords
Travel motive, REP scales, national park, wilderness experience
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32580 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2016.1176598 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2017-12-22Bibliographically approved
Svensson, D., Sörlin, S., Dahlberg, A., Fredman, P. & Wall-Reinius, S. (2017). Walking on the Shoulders of Giants: Historical Mountain Trails as Management Tools?. In: C. M. Hall, Y. Ram, N. Shoval (Ed.), The Routledge International Handbook of Walking Studies: (pp. 330-339). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Walking on the Shoulders of Giants: Historical Mountain Trails as Management Tools?
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2017 (English)In: The Routledge International Handbook of Walking Studies / [ed] C. M. Hall, Y. Ram, N. Shoval, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 330-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Walking in mountains is a way of transport in varied terrain and a means to enhance nature experiences and deepen landscape relations. It is also one of the most popular activities in Swedish outdoor life as well as among international tourists. Mobility has over time and for multiple reasons resulted in a network of trails and pathways – a ‘mobility heritage’. However, this heritage is not static but continuously transformed through new needs and uses, and as such it is a vital component in any reform towards a more sustainable landscape management by and for governing bodies, NGOs, and other interest groups.

 

Despite multiple users and uses, trails are often discrete, small-scale and with marginal direct effects on local ecology and landscape, although exceptions also exist. However, the long history of multiple actor use of trails and landscapes alongside them, and the reasons and interests behind their location and maintenance, has profoundly affected landscape perceptions over time.

 

We argue that trails can be used as a tool to engage different interests and to minimize conflicts between different users, while aiming to enhance landscape values for all users. This is highly relevant to various forms of nature conservation, Sami reindeer herding, recreation and tourism. We aim to provide deeper knowledge about trails, conceptually and about their roles, functions, and how this may relate to future management. Against a background of theoretical, historical and empirical approaches to pathways and walking we present our topic through the lens of Swedish mountain trails, with a special focus on Jämtland County. Can the interests of visiting hikers and multiple local and regional interests come to co-exist in a sustainable way by using trails as one main tool? 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Trails paths, history, tourism, mobility heritage, mobility landscape, landscape governance
National Category
History Human Geography
Research subject
History of Science, Technology and Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32585 (URN)2-s2.0-85041037354 (Scopus ID)9781138195349 (ISBN)
Projects
Negotiating Pathways to Multifunctional Landscapes: A Pilot Model in the Jämtland Mountains
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection AgencyMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Fredman, P., Wolf-Watz, D., Sandell, K., Wall-Reinius, S., Lexhagen, M., Lundberg, C. & Ankre, R. (2016). Dagens miljömål och framtidens fjällupplevelser: Iakttagelser av aktivitetsmönster, landskapsrelationer och kommunikationsformer. Östersund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dagens miljömål och framtidens fjällupplevelser: Iakttagelser av aktivitetsmönster, landskapsrelationer och kommunikationsformer
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2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten "Dagens miljömål och framtidens fjällupplevelser – Iakttagelser av aktivitetsmönster, landskapsrelationer och kommunikationsformer" ger inledningsvis en bakgrund till fjällupplevelser och en genomgång av de metoder som använts i projektet. Därefter följer en beskrivning av de förändringar forskarna anser kunna se i de olika datamaterial som samlats in, följt av en diskussion av dagens miljökvalitetsmål i förhållande till framtidens fjällupplevelser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: , 2016
Series
Rapportserien / European Tourism Research Institute, ISSN 1403-4220 ; 2016:3
Keywords
miljökvalitetsmål, upplevelser, fjäll
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29206 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Projects
Storslagen fjällmiljö Naturvårdsverket
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2016-12-16Bibliographically approved
Sievänen, T., Fredman, P., Søndergaard Jensen, F., Lexhagen, M., Lundberg, C., Sandell, K., . . . Wolf-Watz, D. (2016). Foresight Outdoor Recreation: A discussion based on monitoring experiences in the Nordic context. In: Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas, Abstract Book: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas, 26-30 September 2016, Novi Sad, Serbia (pp. 173-175).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foresight Outdoor Recreation: A discussion based on monitoring experiences in the Nordic context
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2016 (English)In: Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas, Abstract Book, 2016, p. 173-175Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29629 (URN)ETOUR (Local ID)978-86-7031-409-2 (ISBN)ETOUR (Archive number)ETOUR (OAI)
Conference
8th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas, 26-30 September 2016, Novi Sad, Serbia
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3098-1490

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