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Carnerud, D. & Bäckström, I. (2019). Four decades of research on quality: summarising, Trendspotting and looking ahead. Total quality management and business excellence (Online)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four decades of research on quality: summarising, Trendspotting and looking ahead
2019 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to identify and depict the key areas around which research on quality has orbited during the past 37 years. Additionally, this paper aims to explore longitudinal patterns and trends in the identified key areas. Thereby, this study aims to present new perspectives on the foundational elements and evolutionary patterns of research on quality as well as future directions. The paper applies data- and text modelling methodology to a chronological dataset covering 37 years and consisting of scientific journals specialising in research on quality; it also includes scientific journals with a broader spectrum of operations management (OM) research. The study identifies seven central topics around which research on quality has centred during this time period: Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction; Process design & Control; ISO Certification & Standards; TQM - Implementation, Performance & Culture; QM - Practices & Performance; Reliability, Costs, Failure & Problems and Excellence - BEMs, Quality Awards & Excellence in Higher Education. The results also show that the total number of entries has risen constantly since 1980; however, there was a period of decline between 2000 and 2012, indicating that after almost four decades, research on quality is still vibrant and relevant.

Keywords
QM, quality management, TQM, total quality management, service quality, quality movement, text mining, big data
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37119 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2019.1655397 (DOI)000482357000001 ()
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ingelsson, P., Bäckström, I. & Snyder, K. (2018). Adapting a Lean leadership-training program within a health care organization through co-creation. In: Su Mi Park-Daahlgard (Ed.), 21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, 22-24 August 2018, Cardiff University, Wales, UK: . Paper presented at 21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, 22-24 August 2018, Cardiff University, Wales, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting a Lean leadership-training program within a health care organization through co-creation
2018 (English)In: 21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, 22-24 August 2018, Cardiff University, Wales, UK / [ed] Su Mi Park-Daahlgard, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose –The purpose is to describe and evaluate a Lean leadership-training program within the healthcare sector, developed through a co-creative process with the intent of enhancing the possibilities for a context-specific adaption of Lean.

Methodology/approach – A co-created leadership-training program, executed over a period of one year, is described both as a model development process and as the final training program. The program was evaluated through reflective discussions and feedback as well as a written final evaluation of the program from participants in the program.  

Findings – Even though the process was not followed to the end the evaluation shows that the objectives of the training program was met, at least amongst the participators attended the whole program. Using a co-creative process when developing and realizing a leadership-training program enhances the possibilities for an organizational adaption of Lean to its own context. One condition for this approach to be successful is that the expectation on both the organization and the University needs to be in focus through the whole process. In addition the executive team needs to be continuously engaged and create conditions for the organization to realize the potential winnings from the training program.

Keywords
Health Care, Lean leadership, Lean implementation, Leadership-training program, co-create
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34306 (URN)
Conference
21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, 22-24 August 2018, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, I., Ingelsson, P., Snyder, K., Hedlund, C. & Lilja, J. (2018). Capturing value-based leadership in practice: Insights from developing and applying an AI-interview guide. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 10(4), 422-430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing value-based leadership in practice: Insights from developing and applying an AI-interview guide
Show others...
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 422-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results from the appreciative inquiry (AI)-inspired interviews to explore the underlying values held by top managers and to identify soft aspects ofleadership.Design/methodology/approach – Top managers were interviewed as a part of a research project withthe aim to support the development of value-based leadership that integrates company values, organizationalculture, customer needs and sustainable development. A structured interview guide, inspired by AI, wasdeveloped and used to pinpoint their motivation and vision of a good organization to understand the valuesthat the managers had and to identify soft aspects of leadership. The interviews were analyzed in workshopswith the whole research teamand structured and visualized through affinity diagrams.Findings – The results showed the underlying values held by top managers and identified soft aspects ofleadership.Practical implications – The presented interview guide can be used to identify the top managers’underlying values, and the presented results from the interviews can be used to inspire other managers andleaders to develop their leadership in their striving of good leadership and effective organizations.Originality/value – The paper explains how to apply an AI-inspired interview guide in finding out valuebasedleadership and soft aspects of leadership for enhancing organizational culture.

Keywords
Values, Leadership, Appreciative Inquiry, Organizational culture, Value-based
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34562 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-01-2018-0004 (DOI)000447318700006 ()2-s2.0-85050189979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Ingelsson, P., Snyder, K. & Bäckström, I. (2018). Developing value-based leadership for sustainable quality development: Let’s do it. In: : . Paper presented at 30th Shingo Conference, Optimize the Journey, Orlando, Florida, April 11-12, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing value-based leadership for sustainable quality development: Let’s do it
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

In a report in Harvard Business Review, Grant (2016) cited that one of the most critical factors for building quality and innovation in business today is the role of values. Companies that are grounded in clearly articulated values create conditions for employees to be creative and divergent, which is a key ingredient for quality improvement and innovation (ibid). The industrial model that valued compliance and order, is being replaced by a model that values employee engagement as necessary for meeting the needs of customers and improving quality (ibid). This is possible when employees are clear about the values from which decisions are made and understand the reasons why companies choose certain practices. No longer is the “what” and “how” of business practice sufficient to ensure quality: employees need to understand “why” they do what they do to establish a sense of identity and culture for quality innovation (Pink, 2006; Sinek, 2009).

Understanding values, including what they are and how they are developed is a contemporary challenge for many business leaders. Values are embedded in an organizations culture and reflected in the behaviors, language and symbol systems used in an organization (Schein, 2004). According to Hildebrandt (1991), changing the corporate culture is increasingly recognized as one of the primary conditions for successfully developing quality in business.  At the same time research shows that the majority of quality initiatives fail due to a lack of understanding about culture (Turesky & Connell, 2010, ). Instead, many leaders remain stuck in a leadership approach that worked in the past and miss opportunities to build energy that is revitalizing (Boyatzis & McKee, 2005).

Proponents of design thinking suggest there is much to learn from designers about how to understand and develop culture (Brown, 2008). Leavy (2010) states that there is a “growing recognition that ‘design thinking’ or the creative principles long associated with the design function, may now have something very significant to offer when applied…to business management and strategy development” (p. 5-6). Design thinking offers possibilities to develop innovation in management to generate sustainability in business excellence through high engagement and high performance organizational culture.

In 2015, a project was initiated through financing from KK Stiftelsen to help business leaders develop a value-based leadership to support sustainable quality innovation in manufacturing. Design thinking was applied as part of the research and innovation approach to gain insights into the challenges facing leaders and to develop prototypes for understanding and building cultures of success through value-based leadership.  

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from years one and two of the project to examine the cultures within three manufacturing companies and the corresponding leadership practices. Specifically, we address the question: what can we learn from business leaders about the constraints and possibilities to developing a value-based leadership in manufacturing; and what tools can be applied to build a culture of innovation and engagement that resonates with company values and support strategic planning and business excellence?

 

Method

A three-year multi-site case study was conducted in collaboration with three manufacturing companies in Sweden. Data were collected through a series of workshops to gain insights into the constraints and possibilities for leaders in manufacturing to develop a value-based leadership to support sustainable quality development. Data were gathered through a 1) leadership survey, 2) interviews with three general directors, 3) focus groups with middle and top-level managers, 4) observations and cultural analysis, survey, 5) storytelling and appreciative inquiry, and 6) an employee questionnaire. The study design was based on a collaborative, iterative model using the Stanford Design thinking framework (Ling, 2015): 1) empathy, 2) framing, 3) ideation, 4) prototyping, and 5) testing the prototypes with users. Respondents in the study represent leadership teams in three Swedish manufacturing companies and their employees. Company A includes 16 middle management leaders and two production leaders, and one general director. Company B is represented by ten middle managers and one production leader. Company C is represented by three middle managers, one production leader, and one general director.

           

Findings

The findings indicated that in general there is a lack of dialogue among leaders about what is leadership, what is culture and what is meant by values in the organization. As well, there is a heavy emphasis on structure and process, yet at the same time there lacks a clear understanding about why the structures exist and how they can be used to spawn innovation. Moreover, participating leaders in manufacturing succumb to a crisis leadership model that results from the heavy emphasis on productivity and bottom-line effectiveness. Leaders in each of the companies repeatedly expressed the need to develop structures and systems of leadership that would free them to become proactive. Participants also recognized a positive side effect they believed would result in the form of employee engagement and shared decision making if they had the opportunity to focus on long-term development.

       Design thinking and the methods used to develop work culture, including appreciative inquiry, storytelling and coaching, provided leaders with new insights into the culture within the company. Leaders were able to identify both constraints and possibilities for changing the culture from disengagement to engagement. Through the process, they also began to identify values and recognized the importance of valuing employees to affect innovation and build a culture of engagement. We also witnessed increased dialogue among leaders that reflected an understanding of the importance to engage middle managers and employees in problem solving and innovation.

 

Boyatzis R., McKee, A. (2005) Resonant leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Brown, T. (2008) “Design thinking". Harvard Business Review, pp. 1-10

Grant, A. (2016) “How to build a culture of originality”. Harvard Business Review. March 2016. 86- 94.

Hildebrandt, S. 1991. Quality culture and TQM. Total Quality Management, 2, 1-15.

Leavy, B. (2010) “Design thinking: a new mental model of value innovation”. Strategy & Leadership. Vol. 38, no 3., pp. 5-14

Ling, D. (2015) Complete design thinking guide for successful professionals. Singapore: Emerge Creatives Group.

Pink, D. (2006) A whole new mind: why right-brainers will rule the world. New York: Riverhead Books.

Schein, E. H. 2004. Organizational culture and leadership (3. ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sinek, S. (2009). Start with Why: how great leaders inspire everyone to take action. New York: Penguin Group.

Turesky, E. F., Connell, P. (2010). “Off the rails: understanding the derailment of a Lean manufacturing initiative”. Organization Management Journal. 7, pp. 110-132

National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35307 (URN)
Conference
30th Shingo Conference, Optimize the Journey, Orlando, Florida, April 11-12, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Carnerud, D. & Bäckström, I. (2018). Four Decades of Research on Quality: Summarizing, Trendspotting and Looking Ahead. In: : . Paper presented at 21st QMOD-ICQSS International Conference, Cardiff University, Wales, UK, 22-24 August 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four Decades of Research on Quality: Summarizing, Trendspotting and Looking Ahead
2018 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36214 (URN)
Conference
21st QMOD-ICQSS International Conference, Cardiff University, Wales, UK, 22-24 August 2018
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Häggström, M., Bäckström, I., Ingelsson, P. & Carina, E. (2018). How can patient transfers be improved by combining QM, Nursing and Health care sciences?. In: Su Mi Park-Daahlgard (Ed.), Proceedings of the 21th QMOD Conference: Building a Culture for Quality, Innovation and Sustainability. Paper presented at 21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, Cardiff University, Wales, UK, 22-24 August, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can patient transfers be improved by combining QM, Nursing and Health care sciences?
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 21th QMOD Conference: Building a Culture for Quality, Innovation and Sustainability / [ed] Su Mi Park-Daahlgard, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art when it comes to QM and nursing science, focusing on patient transfers from Intensive Care Unit (ICU)  to general wards, using the TQM values:  ‘customer focus’, ‘leadership commitment’, ‘participation of everybody’, ‘continuous improvement’, ‘process focus’ and ‘base decisions on facts’ as an analytical framework.

Methodology/approach Literature from the research fields of QM and nursing sciences was reviewed and analyzed with the TQM values as a framework.

Findings – No articles were found concerning QM within the specific area of patient transfer from ICU to general wards but the results are a summary of QM research and nursing science sorted under the TQM values. A result is that interdisciplinary care can improve a culture of safety and it can decrease mortality rates, staff turnover and increase quality of care and patient satisfaction. This means that there is a need for working with the QM culture in the patient transfer from ICU to general wards.

Practical implications – This review identified a large need for empirical research in the field of health care where CI methods needs to be described, for example what tool or method that was applied and how it was applied and how the implementation were conducted.

Keywords
Health care, Lean, Values, Organizational culture, Quality management, Patient transfers, Intensive Care Unit, Patient safety
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35291 (URN)
Conference
21st QMOD conference on quality and service science ICQSS, Cardiff University, Wales, UK, 22-24 August, 2018
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Carnerud, D., Jaca, C. & Bäckström, I. (2018). Kaizen and continuous improvement – trends and patterns over 30 years. The TQM Journal, 30(4), 371-390
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kaizen and continuous improvement – trends and patterns over 30 years
2018 (English)In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 371-390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to depict how Kaizen and continuous improvement (CI) are represented in scientific journals focusing on quality management (QM) from the 1980s until 2017. Additionally, the study aims to examine how Kaizen is studied and described and how the relationship between Kaizen and CI is portrayed. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies a mixed methods approach to search for tendencies and outlines concerning Kaizen and CI in four scientific journals focusing on QM and two focusing on OM. The data set contains entries from 1980 until 2017, which makes it possible to depict how Kaizen has evolved over more than 30 years. Findings: The findings show that Kaizen and CI attained special interest in the mid-1990s, after which interest appears to have decreased. However, the findings imply that a regenerated interest for the areas spiked post 2010. In addition, the results indicate that Kaizen is on the one hand accepted by one part of the management community but on the other hand completely ignored by the rest. Finally, the data illuminate a need to strengthen and clarify Kaizen’s theoretical basis and its relationship to CI. Practical implications: If an aspiration exists to increase the success rate of Kaizen implementation, the results from the study highlight the need to address and clarify epistemological, terminological and theoretical issues. Originality/value: Prior data mining studies pinpointing how Kaizen and CI have evolved over the last 30 years appear not to exist. 

Keywords
Continuous improvement, Kaizen, Management fashion, Quality management, Text mining, TQM
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34545 (URN)10.1108/TQM-03-2018-0037 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048752820 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, M., Bäckström, I., Ingelsson, P. & Åslund, A. (2018). Measuring customer value in commercial experiences. Total quality management and business excellence (Online), 29(5-6), 618-632
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring customer value in commercial experiences
2018 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 5-6, p. 618-632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Customer value is of importance to all businesses in the search for competitive advantage. To learn about what customers truly appreciate, measuring can be a vital source of information towards an understanding of what creates customer value. Commercial experiences are claimed to be an offering of their own, separate from goods and services. The existing tools and models for measuring customer value do not focus on the elements pointed out as vital for commercial experiences. A case study was performed on customers participating in a high-impact commercial experience to understand what is valuable to the customer. The results were used todevelop an approach to measuring customer value specifically for commercial experiences. In the study, questionnaires were designed to find out about custom erexpectations before the experience compared with customer satisfaction after theexperience in search for important factors of customer value. The study achieved a high score indicating a high level of received customer value, reinforcing the selected measurement variables. The approach proposes the development of a measuring tool consisting of 22 elements along with the WOW-impact specificallyadapted for measuring customer value in commercial experiences. This is one way of expressing the created experiential quality.

Keywords
customer value, hedonic value, commercial experiences, measuring service quality, experiential value, experiential quality
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29376 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2016.1224084 (DOI)000424128600007 ()2-s2.0-85041626825 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Ingelsson, P., Bäckström, I. & Snyder, K. (2018). Strengthening quality culture in private sector and health care: What can we learn from applying soft measures?. Leadership in Health Services, 31(3), 276-292
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthening quality culture in private sector and health care: What can we learn from applying soft measures?
2018 (English)In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive approach to studying organizational culture using “soft measures” to facilitate sustainable quality development in organizations. The purpose is also to present, discuss and compare the results from a survey designed to measure a company’s value base.

Design/methodology/approach – A number of different methods were used to collect soft data to study and measure organizational culture and at the same time influence the culture and the leadership within three organizations. One method, the survey, was used on two different occasions to obtain an overview of the culture within an organization and to investigate if the activities had influenced the culture and the leadership.

Findings – The application of soft measures used by leaders to study and develop organizational culture resulted in statistically significant positive changes in organizational work culture, according to a pre-post survey after a short period of one year.

Practical implications – The approach can be used by leaders in different types of organizations as the challenge of changing the organizational culture through the leadership seems to be a common challenge regardless of line of business.

Originality/value – The study shows the benefits of using a comprehensive approach to assess an organization’s culture based on qualitative measures and analysis.

Keywords
Values, Leadership, Lean, Organizational culture, Quality management, Soft measures
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34042 (URN)10.1108/LHS-02-2018-0012 (DOI)000439096700003 ()30016922 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048052683 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Snyder, K., Ingelsson, P. & Bäckström, I. (2018). Using design thinking to support value-based leadership for sustainable quality development. Business Process Management Journal, 24(6), 1289-1301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using design thinking to support value-based leadership for sustainable quality development
2018 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1289-1301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a study of value-based leadership in which design thinking was used as a participatory, iterative process to examine and stimulate changes in organizational culture and develop value-based leadership in Swedish manufacturing. Of particular interest to the authors was to make visible and understand the constraints in leadership that kept leaders from understanding and working with organizational culture and values.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-year multi-site case study was conducted in collaboration with three manufacturing companies in Sweden. The study design was based on a collaborative, iterative model using the Stanford Design thinking framework in which data were collected through a series of workshops using a variety of sources including: leadership survey; interviews with three general directors; focus groups with middle- and top-level managers; observations and cultural analysis, survey; storytelling and appreciative inquiry (AI); and an employee questionnaire. Respondents in the study represented leadership teams in three Swedish manufacturing companies and their employees.

Findings

In general, there is a lack of dialogue among leaders about what is leadership, what is culture and what is meant by values in the organization. As well, there is a heavy emphasis on structure and process, yet, at the same time, there lacks a clear understanding about why the structures exist and how they can be used to spawn innovation. Moreover, participating leaders in manufacturing succumb to a crisis leadership model that results from the heavy emphasis on productivity and bottom-line effectiveness. Design thinking and the methods used to develop work culture, including AI, storytelling and coaching, provided leaders with new insights into the culture within the company. Leaders were able to identify both constraints and possibilities for changing the culture from disengagement to engagement. Through the process, they also began to identify values and recognized the importance of valuing employees to affect innovation and build a culture of engagement. The authors also witnessed increased dialogue among leaders that reflected an understanding of the importance to engage middle managers and employees in problem solving and innovation.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that leaders can benefit from innovative approaches to identifying and building work culture to achieve value-based leadership.

Keywords
quality leadership
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34315 (URN)10.1108/BPMJ-02-2018-0045 (DOI)000447007200002 ()2-s2.0-85049108543 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Simply Lean
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7621-2649

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