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Carr, A., McGawley, K., Govus, A., Andersson, E., Shannon, O. M., Mattsson, S. & Melin, A. K. (2019). Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 29(3), 273-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the energy, macronutrient and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity; USG), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (day one) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (day two). Thirty-one (18 male and 13 female) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and USG was measured on days one and two. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females-Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency. Energy intake for males was 65+/-9 kcal/kg on day one versus 58+/-9 kcal/kg on day two (P=0.002), and for females was 57+/-10 on day one versus 55+/-5 kcal/kg on day two (P=0.445). Carbohydrate intake recommendations of 10-12 g/kg/day were not met by 89% of males and 92% of females. All males and females had a protein intake above the recommended 1.2-2.0 g/kg on both days, and a post-exercise protein intake above the recommended 0.3 g/kg. Of the females, 31% were classified as being at risk of long-term energy deficiency. In the morning of day one, 50% of males and 46% of females were dehydrated; on day two this was the case for 56% of males and 38% of females. In conclusion, these data suggest that elite cross-country skiers ingested more protein and less carbohydrate than recommended, and one third of the females were considered at risk for long-term energy deficiency. Furthermore, many of the athletes were dehydrated prior to training and competition.

Keywords
Carbohydrate, Energy deficiency, Hydration status, Protein, Winter sports
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34474 (URN)10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0411 (DOI)000466708800005 ()29989466 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065593387 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-22 Created: 2018-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E., Govus, A., Shannon, O. M. & McGawley, K. (2019). Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during sprint skiing. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, Article ID 295.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during sprint skiing
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aimed to compare performance and pacing strategies between elite male and female cross-country skiers during a sprint competition on snow using the skating technique.

Methods: Twenty male and 14 female skiers completed an individual time-trial prolog (TT) and three head-to-head races (quarter, semi, and final) on the same 1,572-m course, which was divided into flat, uphill and downhill sections. Section-specific speeds, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear), cycle characteristics, heart rate and post-race blood lactate concentration were monitored. Power output was estimated for the different sections during the TT, while metabolic demand was estimated for two uphill camera sections and the final 50-m flat camera section.

Results: Average speed during the four races was ∼12.5% faster for males than females (P < 0.001), while speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were ∼11, 18, and 9% faster for the males than females (all P< 0.001 for terrain, sex, and interaction). Differences in uphill TT speed between the sexes were associated with different sub-technique preferences, with males using a higher gear more frequently than females (P < 0.05). The estimated metabolic demand relative to maximal oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) was similar for both sexes during the two uphill camera sections (∼129% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) and for the final 50-m flat section (∼153% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max). Relative power output during the TT was 18% higher for males compared to females (P < 0.001) and was highly variable along the course for both sexes (coefficient of variation [CV] between sections 4–9 was 53%), while the same variation in heart rate was low (CV was ∼3%). The head-to-head races were ∼2.4% faster than the TT for both sexes and most race winners (61%) were positioned first already after 30 m of the race. No sex differences were observed during any of the races for heart rate or blood lactate concentration.

Conclusion: The average sex difference in sprint skiing performance was ∼12.5%, with varying differences for terrain-specific speeds. Moreover, females skied relatively slower uphill (at a lower gear) and thereby elicited more variation in their speed profiles compared to the males.

Keywords
Cross-country skiing, elite athletes, head-to-head, metabolic demand, power output, time-trial
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35839 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2019.00295 (DOI)000462046900001 ()30967794 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-03-22 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E. & McGawley, K. (2018). A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(FEB), Article ID 82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no FEB, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise.

Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT.

Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of the O2 deficit may be possible using data from only one submaximal stage in combination with the GE/EC method.

Keywords
Anaerobic capacity, Cross-country skiing, Endurance exercise, Energetics, Oxygen deficit, Oxygen demand, Oxygen uptake
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32837 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00082 (DOI)000424478800001 ()29472871 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041823353 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Govus, A., Andersson, E. P., Shannon, O. M., Provis, H., Karlsson, M. & McGawley, K. (2018). Commercially available compression garments or electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery following a sprint competition in elite cross-country skiers. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(10), 1299-1308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commercially available compression garments or electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery following a sprint competition in elite cross-country skiers
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 1299-1308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated whether commercially available compression garments (COMP) exerting a moderate level of pressureand/or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) accelerate recovery following a cross-country sprint skiing competitioncompared with a control group (CON) consisting of active recovery only. Twenty-one senior (12 males, 9 females) and 11junior (6 males, 5 females) Swedish national team skiers performed an outdoor sprint skiing competition involving foursprints lasting ∼3–4 min. Before the competition, skiers were matched by sex and skiing level (senior versus junior) andrandomly assigned to COMP (n = 11), NMES (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). Creatine kinase (CK), urea, countermovementjump (CMJ) height, and perceived muscle pain were measured before and 8, 20, 44 and 68 h after competition. NeitherCOMP nor NMES promoted the recovery of blood biomarkers, CMJ or perceived pain post-competition compared withCON (all P > .05). When grouping all 32 participants, urea and perceived muscle pain increased from baseline, peaking at8 h (standardised mean difference (SMD), [95% confidence intervals (CIs)]): 2.8 [2.3, 3.2]) and 44 h (odds ratio [95%CI]: 3.3 [2.1, 5.1]) post-competition, respectively. Additionally, CMJ was lower than baseline 44 and 68 h postcompetitionin both males and females (P < .05). CK increased from baseline in males, peaking at 44 h (SMD: 1.4 [−0.4,0.9]), but was decreased in females at 20 h post-competition (SMD: −0.8 [−1.4, −0.2]). In conclusion, cross-countrysprint skiing induced symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage peaking 8–44 h post-competition. However, neitherCOMP nor NMES promoted physiological or perceptual recovery compared with CON.

Keywords
Countermovement jump, creatine kinase, muscle damage, performance, urea
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34475 (URN)10.1080/17461391.2018.1484521 (DOI)000444565000001 ()29924696 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048822175 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-22 Created: 2018-09-22 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Carlsson, P. & Andersson, E. (2018). Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing. In: Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings: . Paper presented at The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA). Basel: MDPI AG, 2, Article ID 312.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing
2018 (English)In: Proceedings / [ed] Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel, Basel: MDPI AG , 2018, Vol. 2, article id 312Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare various power output estimates and estimate anaerobic energy supply during treadmill roller-skiing. Roller-skiing sprint time-trial performance on a treadmill was compared to numerical simulations of three different power output estimates; non-inertial power estimate (NIP), inertial power estimate (IP), and optimization power estimate (OP). The OP was in best agreement with the measured speed of the skier. However, the IP was in better agreement with the measured finishing time of the real time trial, which may suggest that the IP better approximated the mean power than the other two estimates. Moreover, the NIP and IP are more simplistic than the OP and thereby more practical from a scientific standpoint. Based on this we recommend the use of the IP estimate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32849 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060312 (DOI)
Conference
The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA)
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E. P., Govus, A., Shannon, O. M. & McGawley, K. (2018). Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during a sprint time-trial in cross-country skiing. In: : . Paper presented at Paper presented at the 23d annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Dublin, 4-7th July, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during a sprint time-trial in cross-country skiing
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the pacing strategies, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear) and overall performance between elite male and female cross-country (XC) skiers during a ski-skating sprint time-trial (TT) on snow.

METHODS: Thirty-four elite XC skiers (20 males and 14 females: age, 23 ± 4 and 21 ± 3 yr; body mass, 76 ± 8 and 64 ± 5 kg; height, 183 ± 7 and 171 ± 5 cm; sprint FIS points, 86 ± 42 and 90 ± 54) performed a 1.6 km TT, which was 56% flat (or undulating), 21% uphill and 22% downhill. The sprint course was measured with a differential global navigation satellite system and divided into four flat, three uphill and two downhill sections. Race time was measured with the EMIT timing system (Emit AS, Oslo, Norway) and one 25-m uphill (4°) section was filmed continuously with a fixed camcorder (50 Hz). All skiers used a similar stone-grind and all skis were glide-waxed similarly. The air temperature was +1°C (fresh snow at ±0°C), relative humidity was 90% and the friction coefficient between ski and snow was estimated to 0.045 (i.e., very slow).

RESULTS: Average speed during the TT was 25 ± 1 and 22 ± 1 km/h (TT time: 227 ± 11 and 254 ± 10 s) for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d effect size [ES] = 2.6). Average relative power output (PO) was estimated to 3.9 ± 0.3 and 3.3 ± 0.2 W/kg for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001, ES = 2.5). Average heart rate was 95 ± 2% and 96 ± 1% of maximum for males and females (P = 0.51), with a 2-min post-race blood lactate concentration of 10 ± 2 mmol/L for both sexes (P = 0.64). Within-athlete coefficient of variation in speed between sections was 20 ± 2% for males and 24 ± 1% for females (P < 0.001, ES = 2.6). Speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were 26 ± 1, 19 ± 1 and 32 ± 1 km/h for males and 23 ± 1, 16 ± 1 and 30 ± 1 km/h for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.01) corresponding to 9%, 16% and 8% slower speeds on flat, uphill and downhill terrain for females. Speeds relative to the average TT speed were 103 ± 1%, 77 ± 2% and 129 ± 4% for males and 105 ± 1%, 72 ± 2% and 133 ± 2% for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.001). Relative PO on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were estimated to 4.0 ± 0.3, 4.9 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 W/kg for males and 3.5 ± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.3 and 1.5 ± 0.2 W/kg for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.001). The males were 20% faster than the females on the uphill video section (16 ± 1 versus 13 ± 1 km/h, P < 0.001, ES = 2.6), with 95% of the male skiers and 21% of the female skiers using gear 3 exclusively, and the remaining skiers using gear 2 exclusively or a combination of gears 2 and 3.

CONCLUSION: The present results indicate an overall sex difference in sprint skiing performance of ~12% and reveal differences in terrain-specific pacing as well as gear choice between sexes with females showing a higher overall variation in speed and considerably slower uphill skiing.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34772 (URN)
Conference
Paper presented at the 23d annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Dublin, 4-7th July, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
Spencer, M., McGawley, K., Olofsson, A. & Andersson, E. (2018). The effect of active, passive and combined warm-up strategies on maximal performance in a very cold environment. In: : . Paper presented at the 23d annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Dublin, 4-7th July, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of active, passive and combined warm-up strategies on maximal performance in a very cold environment
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34771 (URN)
Conference
the 23d annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Dublin, 4-7th July, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Govus, A., Andersson, E., Shannon, O., Provis, H., Karlsson, M. & McGawley, K. (2017). Compression garments and electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery from a cross-country sprint skiing competition. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Metropolis Ruhr, 5-8th July, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compression garments and electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery from a cross-country sprint skiing competition
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate whether compression garments (CG) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) augment post-race recovery compared with a passive control group (CON) following a cross-country sprint skiing competition. Methods: Twenty-one senior (12 males, 9 females) and 11 junior (6 males, 5 females) Swedish national team skiers performed a sprint skiing competition involving four, ~3-4 min sprints. After the race, skiers were matched by sex and skiing level (senior versus junior) and randomly assigned to a CON (n = 10), CG (n = 11) or NMES group (n = 11). Creatine kinase (CK) and urea, countermovement jump height (CMJ) and perceived sleep duration, sleep quality and muscle pain were measured before and 8, 20, 44 and 68 h after the race to assess the efficacy of each recovery intervention. Results: Neither CG nor NMES promoted the recovery of blood biomarkers, perceived wellness nor CMJ post-race compared with the passive control group (all P < 0.05). When grouping all 32 participants, CK, urea and muscle pain increased from pre-race values, peaking 20-44 h post-race (P < 0.05). CMJ was lower than pre-race values 44 and 60 h post-race in males and females (both P < 0.05). Sleep duration increased from pre-race to post-race (P < 0.05), whereas sleep quality was unchanged (P > 0.05). Conclusion: A cross-country sprint skiing competition induced symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage peaking 20-44 h post-race. However, CG and NMES did not augment the recovery of physiological, perceptual or performance parameters compared with a passive control group after the sprint skiing competition.

Keywords
Muscle damage, creatine kinase, urea
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30896 (URN)
Conference
22nd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science ECSS, Metropolis Ruhr, 5-8th July, 2017
Available from: 2017-06-17 Created: 2017-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
Andersson, E., Björklund, G., Holmberg, H.-C. & Ørtenblad, N. (2017). Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(4), 385-398
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 385-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance.

Keywords
Energetic cost, incline, oxygen demand, oxygen uptake, oxygen deficit, technique transitions.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27227 (URN)10.1111/sms.12666 (DOI)000395709400002 ()26923666 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959270767 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Note

Article first published online: 29 FEB 2016

Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2017-07-07Bibliographically approved
Laaksonen, M., Andersson, E., Jonsson, M. & McGawley, K. (2017). Laboratory-based factors predicting performance in biathlon skiing. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science, July 5-8, 2017, Essen, Germany. European College of Sports Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory-based factors predicting performance in biathlon skiing
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European College of Sports Science: , 2017
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31634 (URN)
Conference
22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science, July 5-8, 2017, Essen, Germany
Available from: 2017-09-18 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4433-1218

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