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Ljunggren, J., Bylund, D., Jonsson, B.-G., Edman, M. & Hedenström, E. (2020). Antifungal efficiency of individual compounds and evaluation of non-linear effects by recombining fractionated turpentine. Microchemical journal (Print), 153, Article ID 104325.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antifungal efficiency of individual compounds and evaluation of non-linear effects by recombining fractionated turpentine
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2020 (English)In: Microchemical journal (Print), ISSN 0026-265X, E-ISSN 1095-9149, Vol. 153, article id 104325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A combination between a reductive and a holistic assay was employed to investigate whole fraction, synergistic, antagonistic and individual compound efficacy of vacuumdistilled turpentine fractions against the economically important brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. The fungus was subjected to recombinations of turpentine fractions at a concentration of 1000 ppm. All combinations exhibited useful antifungal properties, but some antifungal mixtures showed a more pronounced effect than the expected level of inhibition. Synergistic effects by a two-fold factor and minor antagonistic effects were observed. Complete growth inhibition of C. puteana was observed by a fraction obtained after distilling 1 L turpentine at 111–177°C (0.5 mbar) as well as by mixing it with another fraction withdrawn at 70–79°C (0.5 mbar). Chemical compositions of distilled fractions were determined through GC–MS analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) multivariate data analysis of GC–MS chromatograms was employed to zoom in on the most active compounds responsible for antifungal activity. Isomers of epicubenol, the hydrocarbon aromatic compound ar-himachalene and α-cadinol are suggested as effective antifungal compounds. In addition, a subsequent fractionation of the most effective fraction was performed with preparatory gas chromatography and subfractions showed similar or better efficacy than previously observed. Our work demonstrates the possibility to retain adequate synergistic antifungal efficiency and offers an opportunity to explore the effects of individual compounds originating from the same crude sample.

Keywords
Turpentine composition, Bioassa, yConiophora puteana, Growth inhibition, Fractions, Synergism, Antagonism
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38174 (URN)10.1016/j.microc.2019.104325 (DOI)000514218800008 ()2-s2.0-85075369850 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Rahmani, R., Carrasco, D., Svensson, G. P., Roweck, H., Ryrholm, N., Larsson, M. C. & Hedenström, E. (2020). Identification and Synthesis of Putative Pheromone Components of the Threatened Salt Marsh Bagworm Moth, Whittleia retiella (Lepidoptera Psychidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 46, 115-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification and Synthesis of Putative Pheromone Components of the Threatened Salt Marsh Bagworm Moth, Whittleia retiella (Lepidoptera Psychidae)
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 46, p. 115-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whittleia retiella (Newman, 1847) is a threatened salt marsh species of the bagworm moth family Psychidae. For its preservation it is necessary to develop efficient tools to survey its distribution and habitat requirements in order to use appropriate conservation methods. Such tools may be pheromone-based monitoring systems, which have documented efficacy in establishing the occurrence of cryptic insect species in nature. By using gas chromatography combined with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), we found two compounds in female W. retiella headspace samples and whole-body extracts that elicited electrophysiological activity in male antennae. Gas chromatograpy coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron impact (EI) mode and comparison of the analytical data with those of synthetic reference compounds showed the chemical structures of these putative pheromone components to be (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate and 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate. Field assays using baits loaded with synthetic compounds revealed that conspecific males were attracted to (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate alone or in combination with 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate, whereas 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate neither attracted nor repelled males in the field assays when tested alone. This study shows the potential of using (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate for monitoring W. retiella to gather more detailed information about the geographic distribution and habitat needs of this rare moth.

Keywords
Endangered species, Species monitoring, Field observation, 1-Methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate, (1S)-1-Methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate, Stereoisomers, Enantiomers
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38433 (URN)10.1007/s10886-020-01145-x (DOI)000516301200001 ()2-s2.0-85079705878 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-03-16Bibliographically approved
Wallin, E. A., Kalinová, B., Kindl, J., Hedenström, E. & Valterová, I. (2020). Stereochemistry of two pheromonal components of the bumblebee wax moth, Aphomia sociella. Scientific Reports, 10(1), Article ID 2094.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stereochemistry of two pheromonal components of the bumblebee wax moth, Aphomia sociella
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2020 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2094Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The bumblebee wax moth, Aphomia sociella, is a parasite of bumblebees. In this species, males produce sexual pheromone to attract females, while females produce an aphrodisiac pheromone that initiates male courtship. Both pheromones contain 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (TMPD-one) and the corresponding alcohol, 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (TMPD-ol) in sex specific quantities. Male sex pheromone consists of 7 components with TMPD-one as a minor one and traces of TMPD-ol. In female aphrodisiac pheromone, TMPD-ol is the major component, while TMPD-one is present in traces. Here we report on the absolute configuration of TMPD-one in male sex pheromone and TMPD-ol in female aphrodisiac pheromone of A. sociella. The configuration was determined from GC/MS of prepared (S)-acetoxypropionyl esters of TMPD-ol. TMPD-one was first reduced to the alcohol that was then derivatized with (S)-acetoxypropionyl chloride. The GC/MS data of obtained diastereoisomers were compared with synthetic standards. The absolute configuration of TMPD-one in the male pheromone was (6R,10R). The configuration of TMPD-ol in the female pheromone was (2R,6R,10R). Electrophysiological experiments showed that TMPD-one and TMPD-ol are perceived by both sexes. The synthetic standards of naturally produced stereoisomers elicited higher responses than mixtures of all stereoisomers. 

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38422 (URN)10.1038/s41598-020-59069-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079080717 (Scopus ID)
Note

We are grateful to J. Titzenthalerová for her skillful assistance in electrophysiological experiments and to R. Hanus for his help with statistical evaluations of the EAG recordings. This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic (grant No. LD15102). The research was done within the frames of the COST Action Super-B (FA1307). EW and EH are thankful for the funding from ERUF (European regional developmental fund), the region of Jämtland/Härjedalen and the region of Västernorrland.

Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Rahmani, R., Wallin, E., Viklund, L., Schroeder, M. & Hedenström, E. (2019). Identification and Field Assay of Two Aggregation Pheromone Components Emitted by Males of the Bark Beetle Polygraphus punctifrons (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 45(4), 356-365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification and Field Assay of Two Aggregation Pheromone Components Emitted by Males of the Bark Beetle Polygraphus punctifrons (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 356-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The bark beetle Polygraphus punctifrons (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a species that feeds on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and is found in the Northern parts of Europe and Russia. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by males and females of P. punctifrons when the beetles bore into spruce stem sections in a laboratory environment was studied using solid phase microextraction (SPME). The sampled VOCs emitted by boring beetles were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). (+)-2-[(1R,2S)-1-Methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclobutyl]ethanol [(+)-(1R,2S)-grandisol] and (−)-(R)-1-isopropyl-4-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ol [(−)-(R)-terpinen-4-ol] were identified to be male specific volatiles. The identity of the compounds was confirmed by comparison with synthetic samples. Field trials with synthetic compounds in Sweden showed that racemic grandisol per se was strongly attractive for both males and females, while (−)-(R)-terpinen-4-ol was not. Further, when adding (−)-(R)-terpinen-4-ol to rac-grandisol, a synergistic effect was observed as the trap catch of P. punctifrons was fourfold. (−)-(R)-Terpinen-4-ol by its own did not attract P. punctifrons but Polygraphus poligraphus, and the latter was also attracted to traps baited with a 10:90 mixture of the two compounds. Thus, we have identified (+)-(1R,2S)-grandisol as a main component and (−)-(R)-terpinen-4-ol as a minor component of the aggregation pheromone of P. punctifrons. This opens future possibilities to monitor and, if necessary, manage populations of P. punctifrons. 

Keywords
(+)-(1R, 2S)-Grandisol, (−)-(R)-Terpinen-4-ol, Enantiomeric separation, Picea abies, Preparative fraction collection, SPME
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35836 (URN)10.1007/s10886-019-01056-6 (DOI)000467745400003 ()30796678 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061967619 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Rahmani, R., Andersson, F., Andersson, M. N., Yuvaraj, J. K., Anderbrant, O. & Hedenström, E. (2019). Identification of sesquisabinene B in carrot (Daucus carota L.) leaves as a compound electrophysiologically active to the carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Forster). Chemoecology, 29(3), 103-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of sesquisabinene B in carrot (Daucus carota L.) leaves as a compound electrophysiologically active to the carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Forster)
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2019 (English)In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis Forster (Homoptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) is one of the major insect pests of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in parts of northern and central Europe. Gas chromatography-single-sensillum recording (GC-SSR) previously confirmed several active compounds in a carrot leaf extract, but the most active compound remained unidentified. Mass fragmentation patterns observed from the unidentified active compound when analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to propose -sesquiphellandrene and -cis-bergamotene to be candidates as the unidentified compound. The compounds were synthesized and their mass spectra were nearly identical with the unknown active compound. But, the retention times differed from the compound in the carrot leaf extract. Thus, to obtain the unidentified compound pure enough and in adequate amounts for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, preparative gas chromatography was applied to separate and concentrate this biologically active compound. Analysis by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF) confirmed the unidentified compound to be a compound with theformula of C15H24 and together with GC-MS, H-1 and C-13 NMR analysis sesquisabinene B was identified as the unidentified compound in the extract. GC-SSR was then used to finally confirm the biological activity of sesquisabinene B isolated from the carrot leaf extract via preparative GC.

Keywords
Synthesis, beta-Sesquiphellandrene, alpha-cis-Bergamotene, Preparative gas chromatography, Single-sensillum recording, Analysis
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36651 (URN)10.1007/s00049-019-00280-6 (DOI)000469799200002 ()2-s2.0-85063037685 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Viklund, L., Rahmani, R., Bång, J., Schroeder, M. & Hedenström, E. (2019). Optimizing the attractiveness of pheromone baits used for trapping the four-eyed spruce bark beetle Polygraphus poligraphus. Journal of applied entomology, 143(7), 721-730
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing the attractiveness of pheromone baits used for trapping the four-eyed spruce bark beetle Polygraphus poligraphus
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2019 (English)In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 7, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bark beetles have caused extensive damage to forests in central Sweden during the past decade, and the four-eyed spruce bark beetle, Polygraphus poligraphus, seems to be involved. However, its role in these bark beetle outbreaks is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient pheromone bait for P. poligraphus, which would make it possible to study the species more carefully and thereby contribute to protect exposed forests in an environmentally friendly way. Three field studies were conducted in 2015, 2016 and 2018 in Medelpad, county of Västernorrland, Sweden. The pheromone of P. poligraphus, (−)-terpinen-4-ol, was tested at different release rates and in different enantiomeric purities, to find the most attractive formulation for the beetles. It was also tested in combination with racemic frontalin, a compound which has previously been shown to produce a synergistic effect together with (−)-terpinen-4-ol of low enantiomeric purity; 52% ee. Other compounds, chosen based on responses from electroantennographic studies, were also tested in an attempt to find additional attractants and repellents for P. poligraphus. The most attractive treatment tested was enantiomerically pure (−)-terpinen-4-ol (99% ee). When the enantiomeric purity was lower (50% ee), the trap catches was lowered to levels comparable to the catches for unbaited control traps. A strong synergistic effect with frontalin was observed for (−)-terpinen-4-ol of low enantiomeric purity (50% ee) but not for the enantiomerically pure compound (99% ee). The release rate of (−)-terpinen-4-ol (99% ee) was shown to be an important factor. For the combination of frontalin and (−)-terpinen-4-ol (50% ee), the attraction seemed strongest when (−)-terpinen-4-ol was released at a higher rate than frontalin. An interesting and novel result was that a repellent compound, α-terpineol, was identified in our studies. Our results from field studies and electroantennography recordings also indicate that (+)-terpinen-4-ol is a repellent for P. poligraphus.

Keywords
enantiomers, field study, frontalin, pheromone, synergism, terpinen‐4‐ol
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36659 (URN)10.1111/jen.12641 (DOI)000475465300003 ()2-s2.0-85064480153 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Ljunggren, J., Borrero-Echeverry, F., Chakraborty, A., Lindblom, T. U. T., Hedenström, E., Karlsson, M., . . . Bengtsson, M. (2019). Yeast Volatomes Differentially Affect Larval Feeding in an Insect Herbivore. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(21), Article ID e01761-19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Yeast Volatomes Differentially Affect Larval Feeding in an Insect Herbivore
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2019 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 85, no 21, article id e01761-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Yeasts form mutualistic interactions with insects. Hallmarks of this interaction include provision of essential nutrients, while insects facilitate yeast dispersal and growth on plant substrates. A phylogenetically ancient chemical dialogue coordinates this interaction, where the vocabulary, the volatile chemicals that mediate the insect response, remains largely unknown. Here, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by hierarchical cluster and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analyses, to profile the volatomes of six Metschnikowia spp., Cryptococcus nemorosus, and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The yeasts, which are all found in association with insects feeding on foliage or fruit, emit characteristic, species-specific volatile blends that reflect the phylogenetic context. Species specificity of these volatome profiles aligned with differential feeding of cotton leafworm (Spodoprera littoralis) larvae on these yeasts. Bioactivity correlates with yeast ecology; phylloplane species elicited a stronger response than fruit yeasts, and larval discrimination may provide a mechanism for establishment of insect-yeast associations. The yeast volatomes contained a suite of insect attractants known from plant and especially floral headspace, including (Z)-hexenyl acetate, ethyl (2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoate (pear ester), (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT), linalool, alpha-terpineol, beta-myrcene, or (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. A wide overlap of yeast and plant volatiles, notably floral scents, further emphasizes the prominent role of yeasts in plant-microbe-insect relationships, including pollination. The knowledge of insect-yeast interactions can be readily brought to practical application, as live yeasts or yeast metabolites mediating insect attraction provide an ample tool-box for the development of sustainable insect management. IMPORTANCE Yeasts interface insect herbivores with their food plants. Communication depends on volatile metabolites, and decoding this chemical dialogue is key to understanding the ecology of insect-yeast interactions. This study explores the volatomes of eight yeast species which have been isolated from foliage, from flowers or fruit, and from plant-feeding insects. These yeasts each release a rich bouquet of volatile metabolites, including a suite of known insect attractants from plant and floral scent. This overlap underlines the phylogenetic dimension of insect-yeast associations, which according to the fossil record long predate the appearance of flowering plants. Volatome composition is characteristic for each species, aligns with yeast taxonomy, and is further reflected by a differential behavioral response of cotton leafworm larvae, which naturally feed on foliage of a wide spectrum of broad-leaved plants. Larval discrimination may establish and maintain associations with yeasts and is also a substrate for designing sustainable insect management techniques.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37671 (URN)10.1128/AEM.01761-19 (DOI)000490946700023 ()31444202 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073483905 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Hedenström, E., Andersson, F., Sjöberg, N. & Eltz, T. (2018). 6-(4-Methylpent-3-en-1-yl)naphthalene-1,4-dione, a behaviorally active semivolatile in tibial perfumes of orchid bees. Chemoecology, 28(4-5), 131-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>6-(4-Methylpent-3-en-1-yl)naphthalene-1,4-dione, a behaviorally active semivolatile in tibial perfumes of orchid bees
2018 (English)In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 28, no 4-5, p. 131-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect volatiles from varied sources in their environment to compile complex, species-specific tibial perfumes, which are later released at mating sites. A major compound prominent in tibial extracts of Euglossa allosticta was purified, as well as isolated and its structure was elucidated by analytical methods including GC–MS, GC–FTIR, HRMS and 1H and 13C NMR. After synthesis, the compound with the proposed structure was finally identified as 6-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)naphthalene-1,4-dione. At field sites in Panama and Costa Rica, the synthetic compound attracted males of E. allosticta, but no other euglossines. This strengthens the view that semivolatiles play an important role in conveying specificity to perfume signals of orchid bees. 

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34598 (URN)10.1007/s00049-018-0264-6 (DOI)000446684800003 ()2-s2.0-85052937823 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Rönnander, J., Ljunggren, J., Hedenström, E. & Wright, S. A. (2018). Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood. AMB Express, 8(1), Article ID 137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood
2018 (English)In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and H-1 NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

Keywords
Vanillin, Cystobasidium, Bioconversion, Biodegradation, Cystobasidiomycetes, Rhodotorula
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34517 (URN)10.1186/s13568-018-0666-4 (DOI)000442555800002 ()30143905 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052069822 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Becher, P. G., Lebreton, S., Wallin, E., Hedenström, E., Borrero, F., Bengtsson, M., . . . Witzgall, P. (2018). The Scent of the Fly. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 44(5), 431-435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Scent of the Fly
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 431-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

(Z)-4-undecenal (Z4-11Al) is the volatile pheromone produced by females of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. Female flies emit Z4-11Al for species-specific communication and mate-finding. A sensory panel finds that synthetic Z4-11Al has a characteristic flavour, which can be perceived even at the small amounts produced by a single female fly. Since only females produce Z4-11Al, and not males, we can reliably distinguish between single D. melanogaster males and females, according to their scent. Females release Z4-11Al at 2.4 ng/h and we readily sense 1 ng synthetic Z4-11Al in a glass of wine (0.03 nmol/L), while a tenfold concentration is perceived as a loud off-flavour. This corroborates the observation that a glass of wine is spoilt by a single D. melanogaster fly falling into it, which we here show is caused by Z4-11Al. The biological role of Z4-11Al or structurally related aldehydes in humans and the basis for this semiochemical convergence remains yet unclear. 

Keywords
Drosophila melanogaster, Odorant, Off-flavour, Olfaction, Pheromone, Semiochemical, Wine
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33632 (URN)10.1007/s10886-018-0950-4 (DOI)000431113700001 ()29611073 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044769966 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5543-2041

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