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Grönlund, Erik
Publications (10 of 71) Show all publications
Grönlund, E. (2018). Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-2017. Östersund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-2017
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: , 2018. p. 8
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-3b
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology Energy Systems Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35173 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, S. E. (2018). Indicators and methods to assess sustainability of wastewater sludge management in the perspective of two systems ecology models. Ecological Indicators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators and methods to assess sustainability of wastewater sludge management in the perspective of two systems ecology models
2018 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper, inspired by Sven Erik Jørgensen's academic life, takes a systems ecology perspective on sustainability in wastewater sludge management. First, an overview identifies the indicators and methods currently used to assess sustainability and sustainable development in the area of wastewater sludge. Second, two systems ecology conceptual models are presented. Third, the indicators and methods are discussed in the perspective of these systems ecology models. Four methods were found common in assessing wastewater sludge sustainability: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Exergy Analysis (ExA), Emergy Analysis (EmA), and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was added since it was found to be used in the larger wastewater treatment context, and complements the other four methods. When comparing the indicators and methods with the systems ecology models it was found that no method covered every aspect of the models. ExA, EmA and ERA covered the full extent of the models but not from every aspect interesting from a sustainability point of view. LCA and CBA had a lower reach at the ecosystem side of the models, but produced deeper knowledge regarding environmental impacts for LCA, and economic flows and storages for CBA. The investigation concludes that a complementary approach of methods and indicators is needed to assess sustainability, and they are suggested to be used in an integrated way, in the spirit of Sven Erik Jørgensen's findings. 

Keywords
Ecosystem ecology, Integrated assessment, Sewage, Sustainability tools, Sustainable development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34551 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.07.013 (DOI)
Note

 Available online 11 July 2018

Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Brandén Klang, A., Vikman, P.-Å. & Carlman, I. (2018). Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emergy methodology questions were raised during a case study where a Sugar factory effluent were treated in a pond system in the Lake Victoria watershed, and evaluated from a performance, cost and resource use perspective. This paper focus on the methodological questions, which were the following: (1) how should the emergy systems diagram be drawn when dealing with a system that is in the recycle loop? Is the wastewater on top in the energy hierarchy (highest transformity) or should the treatment system be located somewhere between the sugar factory on the energy hierarchy top and the dispersed nutrients low down in the energy hierarchy? (2) Rain emergy dominated the local renewable inputs. But how do rain contribute to the wastewater treatment in a pond system, other than as minor dilution? And is evapotranspiration a relevant measure of rain emergy in an aquatic system? (3) Since the case study had a microeconomic focus, is the historical ecosystem work behind lime a relevant item to include from the company's perspective? (4) the wastewater can be considered as a treatment problem, but also as a nutrient and water resource for e.g. irrigation. How does emergy accounting deal with the dualism of a get-rid-of-view and a get-use-of-view? (5) Is the, among some people, controversial maximum empower theory needed for the evaluation of the system, or is the less controversial energy hierarchy theory sufficient for the interpretation? (6) Does the emergy evaluation add any information regarding the sustainability of the pond system?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2018
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-1a
Keywords
emergy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32695 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2018). Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my ecology and environmental science friends?. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my ecology and environmental science friends?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Communication problems concerning the emergy concept, in an ecology/environmental science context are described. Problematic areas to communicate are identified, as 1) the different use of the energy concept, where adding up energies of different kinds are not accepted, 2) the size of tidal and deep heat emergy compared to solar energy, 3) the solar energy being represented by rainfall or land cycle, and 4) the view on value and connection to economics. Pedagogic experiences are shared regarding 1) how to communicate the energy hierarchy concept, 2) the communication benefits of decoupling the hypothesis' of energy hierarchy, maximum empower and pulsing, and 3) communication to economists regarding the emergy concepts relation to economics. Some larger contextual reasons influencing the communication are also identified as 1) the important paradigm shift in ecology during the 1970s, from a holistic ecosystem ecology to a reductionistic population and community ecology, and 2) the dualistic view of quantity and quality regarding the four main types of flows existing in systems (energy, mass, money and information), where useful qualitative measures seem to be missing as a complement to the quantitative measure of information in bits. The main recommendation from this paper is that even more carefulness is spent on explaining that the emergy concept relies on the theory of the energy hierarchy, with the implication that the energy concept is used in a slightly, but very important, different way than by most scientists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2018. p. 11
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-2a
Keywords
ecosystem ecology, emergy, tidal energy, deep heat energy, pedagogy, energy hierarchy, maximum empower, pulsing, paradigm shift
National Category
Environmental Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33513 (URN)10.13140/RG.2.2.36439.98725 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-21 Created: 2018-04-21 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2017). Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?. Östersund: Avd. Ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Avd. Ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Mittuniversitetet, 2017. p. 30
National Category
Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31454 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, . 2270-16-012
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2017). Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 10
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2a
National Category
Ecology Information Systems Environmental Sciences Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30675 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2017). Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 12
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 1a
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Information Systems Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30674 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Billgren, C., Tonderski, K. S. & Raburu, P. O. (2017). Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin. Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 5(1), 11-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

Keywords
Ecosystem ecology, Sewage treatment, Environmental valuation, Kenya, Stabilization ponds, Oxidation ponds
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30513 (URN)10.5890/JEAM.2017.03.002 (DOI)000407588500002 ()
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Fröling, M., Tellström, S., Edholm, J., Van den Brink, P., Longueville, A. & Grönlund, E. (2016). Appearances of Ecosystem Services in Environmental Impact Assessment - learnings from two Swedish case studies. In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016: The 10th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutionsin the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World.. Paper presented at Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21–23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appearances of Ecosystem Services in Environmental Impact Assessment - learnings from two Swedish case studies
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016: The 10th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutionsin the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World., 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecosystem Services is an increasingly used concept to understand and describe the dependencies of socio-technical systems on the ecosystems in which they exist. We have studied to what extent ecosystem services are appearing in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in two Swedish cases, the improvement of ecological status in a river used for small scale hydropower and the mining operations of the MM mine. In neither of the two cases ecosystem services have been intentionally included in the work with the EIAs. The goal of the studies has been to examine to what extent ecosystem services are appearing anyway in the EIAs, to what extent data in the EIAs are sufficient to perform more structured ecosystem service assessments, and if the use of a more structured ecosystem services review during the EIA process could have contributed positively to the EIA work. 

Both EIAs in this study holds some information on impacts on ecosystem services, and more information on affected ecosystem functions that could be translated into ecosystems services and probably to full ecosystem service reviews with additional data gathering. Cases of ecosystem functions and services impacting other ecosystem functions and services, sometimes in several stages, were found, indicating that such functions or services could be of special importance to protect and / or support.

Keywords
Ecosystem services, Environmental Impact Assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29770 (URN)
Conference
Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21–23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved
Tellström, S., Fröling, M., Grönlund, E. & van den Brink, P. (2016). Ecosystem Service Assessment of Measures to Mitigate Small-scale Hydropower Ecological Impact. In: Proceedings of 22nd International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 13 – 15 July 2016: . Paper presented at 22nd International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference, School of Science and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 13 – 15 July 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecosystem Service Assessment of Measures to Mitigate Small-scale Hydropower Ecological Impact
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 22nd International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 13 – 15 July 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower is important for provisioning of renewable energy, but the ecological effects to watersheds and rivers used for hydro-electrical production has gained increased attention in recent years. Concerns in connection to small-scale hydropower plants are particularly pointed out, as small plants causes several issues for aquatic biodiversity while the energy output remains limited. Hydropower dams poses as migration barriers, e.g. limiting reproduction of migratory fish; the flow regulation regimes disturbs the natural seasonal flows and damages bottom fauna; and rivers adapted to hydropower have altered biotic factors removing entire ecosystems, such as seasonally flooded wetlands. Projects to mitigate such impacts while maintaining hydro-electrical production are presently discussed and in some cases start to be undertaken. One such project is planned in river Billstaån, Sweden, affected by three small-scale hydropower plants and historically also by timber floating. The main measures in the ecological restoration process include construction of fauna passages, deconstruction of an unused reservoir and reintroduction of freshwater pearl mussels. The restoration project is carried out by the company owning the hydropower plants in Billstaån, in a joint effort including local authorities and stakeholders, to benefit local biodiversity and strengthen the ecological status of Billstaån towards the European Water Framework Directive. In this study, the expected outcomes of the Billstaån river restoration project has been assessed in terms of ecosystem services. Note that ecosystem services were not considered in the project planning of the restoration project itself, but were suggested for later monitoring efforts and for enabling inclusion of indicators of economic and social development connected to the restoration results. As ecosystem services describe the value of ecosystems through their interaction with society, this is done to complement ecological monitoring with effects on human residents in the area. Two frameworks for ecosystem service assessment have been tested: Corporate Ecosystem Service Review (ESR) and Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA). Both frameworks have been useful for assessing the expected development of Billstaån, but each of them have specific limitations. While ESR was good for qualitative scoping and defining important ecosystem services, the corporate focus made the later steps of the ESR framework hard to implement in this type of case. TESSA worked well for providing tools for quantitative assessment, but at present the number of services covered by the toolkit was limited. This indicates that different methods for ecosystem service assessment provide different levels of understanding of the assessed system. The two frameworks used to assess Billstaån do complement each other in terms of scope, but combined they point at gaps in coverage. This study has shown that ecosystem service assessment provides a complementary perspective of the value of increasing ecological status in rivers affected by small-scale hydropower, but also that the ecosystem services methodology needs further development for this type of case.

Keywords
ecosystem service assessment, hydropower, ecological restoration, Corporate Ecosystem Service Review, Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-bases Assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28488 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
22nd International Sustainable Development Research Society Conference, School of Science and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 13 – 15 July 2016
Available from: 2016-07-21 Created: 2016-07-21 Last updated: 2016-09-15Bibliographically approved
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