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Grönlund, Erik
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Publications (10 of 75) Show all publications
Paschali, E. & Grönlund, E. (2019). Cyprus Sustainability Assessment: Can models help?. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society for Ecological Modelling Global Conference 2019, 1st - 5th October 2019, Salzburg, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyprus Sustainability Assessment: Can models help?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cypriot development is highly dependent on fossil fuel imports for supporting country production levels to meet the local demand.  With the island’s entry in the European Union, a long term strategy for converging the unsustainable development with sustainable development is necessary.  In our attempt to assess Cyprus sustainability, several factors that affect the system have been observed.  The most significant environmental impacts are drought, water pollution, erosion and wildlife preservation. The uneven precipitation levels and absence of natural reservoir catchments have striking effects on soil quality and life. The purity of the water supply is threatened by industrial pollutants, the lack of adequate sewage treatment and pesticides used in agricultural areas. The environmental load becomes a debt in the national liabilities.  Adding to the complexity, the effect of tourism poses more risks on the local communities. Resource availability and resource scarcity are a global concern. How, then, can models help in the assessment of Cyprus sustainability? Integrated assessment models – integrating e.g. geographic information, populations statistics, and environmental load – illustrate the interconnected relationships and limits of the socio-natural system and the biosphere.  For example, the albedo effect in the future under different assumptions can be estimated. Assumptions can be made regarding e.g. Cyprus future population, economic growth and indigenous resource availability.  The general ecologic view on global resource availability is that the Earth is finite.  Models like the “The Limits to Growth”, by Meadows et al. (1972) and “The Pulsing Paradigm” by Odum et al. (1995) represent the striking events of fossil fuel-based societies. Models can also be manipulatied in the quest for a high output/input ratio than in reality.  The ability to use modeling knowledge and facilitate decisions before the implementation stage helps avoiding crisis and system collapse.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37586 (URN)
Conference
The International Society for Ecological Modelling Global Conference 2019, 1st - 5th October 2019, Salzburg, Austria
Available from: 2019-10-27 Created: 2019-10-27 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, S. E. (2019). Indicators and methods to assess sustainability of wastewater sludge management in the perspective of two systems ecology models. Ecological Indicators, 100(May 2019), 45-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators and methods to assess sustainability of wastewater sludge management in the perspective of two systems ecology models
2019 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 100, no May 2019, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper, inspired by Sven Erik Jørgensen's academic life, takes a systems ecology perspective on sustainability in wastewater sludge management. First, an overview identifies the indicators and methods currently used to assess sustainability and sustainable development in the area of wastewater sludge. Second, two systems ecology conceptual models are presented. Third, the indicators and methods are discussed in the perspective of these systems ecology models. Four methods were found common in assessing wastewater sludge sustainability: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Exergy Analysis (ExA), Emergy Analysis (EmA), and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was added since it was found to be used in the larger wastewater treatment context, and complements the other four methods. When comparing the indicators and methods with the systems ecology models it was found that no method covered every aspect of the models. ExA, EmA and ERA covered the full extent of the models but not from every aspect interesting from a sustainability point of view. LCA and CBA had a lower reach at the ecosystem side of the models, but produced deeper knowledge regarding environmental impacts for LCA, and economic flows and storages for CBA. The investigation concludes that a complementary approach of methods and indicators is needed to assess sustainability, and they are suggested to be used in an integrated way, in the spirit of Sven Erik Jørgensen's findings. 

Keywords
Ecosystem ecology, Integrated assessment, Sewage, Sustainability tools, Sustainable development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34551 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.07.013 (DOI)000470961400006 ()2-s2.0-85049728948 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Zimmerman, J. K., Grönlund, E. & van den Brink, P. (2019). Is Astacology Environmental Science?. In: Book of abstracts.: IAA Gotland 2019 Crayfish Conference. Paper presented at IAA Gotland 2019 Crayfish Conference, Visby, Gotland, 27-30 August, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Astacology Environmental Science?
2019 (English)In: Book of abstracts.: IAA Gotland 2019 Crayfish Conference, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Environmental Science aims to study the relationships between human beings influence on and dependence of nature, the interaction and integration of ecological, social and technical systems as well as the strategies for sustainable use of natural resources. The linking of social, ecological and economical aspects in Environmental Science can provide useful tools for the study, management and conservation of freshwater crayfish from a broad social perspective. Therefore, it is of interest to explore the relationships between Environmental Science and Astacology. By analysing the aims of the International Association of Astacology and the content of some volumes of Freshwater Crayfish from an Environmental Science perspective we found that Astacology is operating within the field of Environmental Science. The focus is mainly on identifying underlying mechanisms of environmental issues. We will point out unexplored scientific perspectives and propose some advice of how to study freshwater crayfish from a broad systems perspective.

Keywords
Astacology, Environmental Science, Sustainable development, Environmental Issues, Ecosystem Service
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36957 (URN)978-952-61-3166-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IAA Gotland 2019 Crayfish Conference, Visby, Gotland, 27-30 August, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. & van den Brink, P. (2019). What to include in carbon budget models in Swedish forests?. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society for Ecological Modelling Global Conference 2019, 1st - 5th October 2019, Salzburg, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What to include in carbon budget models in Swedish forests?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish legislation regarding forestry, the Forestry Act from 1994, states that forestry should promote forests’ production and environmental values equally. Simultaneously extracting biomass resources for renewable materials and products while preserving and enhancing forest environments and biodiversity is a challenging task.

In this paper, the balancing question is problematized with focus on what items and relationships to include in forest models with a special focus on carbon budgets.

The results show that the biodiversity aspect is more difficult to capture in the models than the production data.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37587 (URN)
Conference
The International Society for Ecological Modelling Global Conference 2019, 1st - 5th October 2019, Salzburg, Austria
Available from: 2019-10-27 Created: 2019-10-27 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
van den Brink, P. & Grönlund, E. (2018). Differences in cultural context as an educational tool understanding differences in values of Ecosystem Services. In: : . Paper presented at 1st international Education with Sustainability conference, Sligo, Ireland, August 20-22, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in cultural context as an educational tool understanding differences in values of Ecosystem Services
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ecosystem services differ depending on how they are valued within a society. For instance, the value for recreational sites varies depending on the number of people that use them. People also give different values to different services depending on their background, for instance for aesthetic and ethical values.

Since 2016 Mid Sweden University (Sweden) and VIVES (Belgium) has an educational cooperation. We use the cultural differences between Belgium and Sweden as an educational tool. In the exchange program, the students have one field trip in Sweden and one field trip in Belgium. In Sweden one sparsely populated area is used in the Swedish archipelago and in Belgium a semi natural area, a constructed lake,. We also compare residential areas in Stockholm and in Ypres.

Some findings so far:

Cultural services are important in semi natural areas in Belgium. The Swedish students become aware of the popularity for semi natural land for recreational use in Belgium. In the area of the lake “Eau d” Heure the difference is well expressed. The lake, first constructed to provide secured water delivery to the waterways for transportation, is now a popular recreational area. Lakes of the same size in Sweden could not reach those recreational values.

Even if the access in Sweden to more natural habitats is possible, nature first is withdrawn, and then reconstructed to get a value in residential areas instead of using already existing natural habitats.

The Swedish archipelago, some inhabited only by single families are exotic to Belgian students. No light pollution and the silence are a new experience. At the same time, inhabitants at these islands tries their best to find a way of living on tourism. Not even forestry are economical reasonable.

By the exchange program, we believe that we widen the mindsets of both groups of students and their understanding of ecosystem services in different cultural contexts.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35310 (URN)
Conference
1st international Education with Sustainability conference, Sligo, Ireland, August 20-22, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2018). Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-2017. Östersund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-2017
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: , 2018. p. 8
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-3b
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology Energy Systems Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35173 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Brandén Klang, A., Vikman, P.-Å. & Carlman, I. (2018). Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological considerations from a wastewater treatment case study in Kenya
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emergy methodology questions were raised during a case study where a Sugar factory effluent were treated in a pond system in the Lake Victoria watershed, and evaluated from a performance, cost and resource use perspective. This paper focus on the methodological questions, which were the following: (1) how should the emergy systems diagram be drawn when dealing with a system that is in the recycle loop? Is the wastewater on top in the energy hierarchy (highest transformity) or should the treatment system be located somewhere between the sugar factory on the energy hierarchy top and the dispersed nutrients low down in the energy hierarchy? (2) Rain emergy dominated the local renewable inputs. But how do rain contribute to the wastewater treatment in a pond system, other than as minor dilution? And is evapotranspiration a relevant measure of rain emergy in an aquatic system? (3) Since the case study had a microeconomic focus, is the historical ecosystem work behind lime a relevant item to include from the company's perspective? (4) the wastewater can be considered as a treatment problem, but also as a nutrient and water resource for e.g. irrigation. How does emergy accounting deal with the dualism of a get-rid-of-view and a get-use-of-view? (5) Is the, among some people, controversial maximum empower theory needed for the evaluation of the system, or is the less controversial energy hierarchy theory sufficient for the interpretation? (6) Does the emergy evaluation add any information regarding the sustainability of the pond system?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2018
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-1a
Keywords
emergy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32695 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2018). Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my ecology and environmental science friends?. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why is emergy so difficult to explain to my ecology and environmental science friends?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Communication problems concerning the emergy concept, in an ecology/environmental science context are described. Problematic areas to communicate are identified, as 1) the different use of the energy concept, where adding up energies of different kinds are not accepted, 2) the size of tidal and deep heat emergy compared to solar energy, 3) the solar energy being represented by rainfall or land cycle, and 4) the view on value and connection to economics. Pedagogic experiences are shared regarding 1) how to communicate the energy hierarchy concept, 2) the communication benefits of decoupling the hypothesis' of energy hierarchy, maximum empower and pulsing, and 3) communication to economists regarding the emergy concepts relation to economics. Some larger contextual reasons influencing the communication are also identified as 1) the important paradigm shift in ecology during the 1970s, from a holistic ecosystem ecology to a reductionistic population and community ecology, and 2) the dualistic view of quantity and quality regarding the four main types of flows existing in systems (energy, mass, money and information), where useful qualitative measures seem to be missing as a complement to the quantitative measure of information in bits. The main recommendation from this paper is that even more carefulness is spent on explaining that the emergy concept relies on the theory of the energy hierarchy, with the implication that the energy concept is used in a slightly, but very important, different way than by most scientists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2018. p. 11
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2018-2a
Keywords
ecosystem ecology, emergy, tidal energy, deep heat energy, pedagogy, energy hierarchy, maximum empower, pulsing, paradigm shift
National Category
Environmental Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33513 (URN)10.13140/RG.2.2.36439.98725 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-21 Created: 2018-04-21 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2017). Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?. Östersund: Avd. Ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Avd. Ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Mittuniversitetet, 2017. p. 30
National Category
Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31454 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, . 2270-16-012
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E. (2017). Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen. Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 10
Series
Ecotechnology working paper ; 2a
National Category
Ecology Information Systems Environmental Sciences Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30675 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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