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Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
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Publications (10 of 137) Show all publications
Jonsson, B.-G., Svensson, J., Mikusiński, G., Manton, M. & Angelstam, P. (2019). European Union's last intact forest landscapes are at a value chain crossroad between multiple use and intensified wood production. Forests, 10(7), Article ID 564.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European Union's last intact forest landscapes are at a value chain crossroad between multiple use and intensified wood production
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2019 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research Highlights: The European Union's last large intact forest landscapes along the Scandinavian Mountain range in Sweden offer unique opportunities for conservation of biodiversity, ecological integrity and resilience. However, these forests are at a crossroad between intensified wood production aimed at bio-economy, and rural development based on multi-functional forest landscapes for future-oriented forest value chains. Background and Objectives:We (1) estimate the area of near-natural forests potentially remaining for forest harvesting and wood production, or as green infrastructure for biodiversity conservation and human well-being in rural areas, (2) review how forest and conservation policies have so far succeeded to reduce the loss of mountain forests, and (3) discuss what economic, socio-cultural and ecological values that are at stake, as well as different governance and management solutions.Materials andMethods: First, we estimated the remaining amount of intact mountain forests using (1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory, (2) protected area statistics, (3) forest harvest permit applications and actually harvested forests, (4) remote sensing wall-to-wall data on forests not subject to clear-felling since the mid-1950s, (5) mapping of productive and non-productive forestland, and (6) estimates of mean annual final felling rate. Second, we review policy documents related to the emergence of land use regulation in north Sweden, including the mountain forest border, and illustrate this with an actual case that has had significant policy implementation importance. Results: There is a clear difference between the proportions of formally protected productive forestland above the mountain forest border (52.5%) and north Sweden in general (6.3%). A total of 300,000 ha of previously not clear-felled mountain forest outside protected areas remain, which can support novel value chains that are not achievable elsewhere. Conclusions: The mountain forests in Sweden provide unique conservation values in the European Union. Since the beginning of the 1990s, policy regulations have been successful in limiting forest harvesting. Currently, however, mountain forests are a battle ground regarding intensification of forest use, including logging of forests that have never been subject to clear-felling systems vs. nature conservation and wilderness as a base for rural development. The ability of mountain municipalities to encourage sustainable rural forest landscapes must be strengthened. 

Keywords
Amenity values, Biodiversity conservation, Bioeconomy, Comprehensive planning, Continuous cover forestry, Forest policy, Green belt, Landscape stewardship, Rural development, Sustainability
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36834 (URN)10.3390/f10070564 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068580279 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sandström, J., Bernes, C., Junninen, K., Lõhmus, A., Macdonald, E., Müller, J. & Jonsson, B.-G. (2019). Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56(7), 1770-1781
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 1770-1781Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Dead wood (DW) provides critical habitat for thousands of species in forests, but its amount, quality and diversity have been heavily reduced by forestry. Therefore, interventions aiming to increase DW might be necessary to support its associated biodiversity, even in protected forests, which may be former production forests. Our aim was to synthesize the current state of knowledge drawn from replicated experimental studies into solid quantitative evidence of the effects of DW manipulation on forest biodiversity, with a focus on protected forests.

We conducted a full systematic review of effects of DW manipulation on forest biodiversity in boreal and temperate regions. We included three intervention types: creation of DW from live trees at the site, addition of DW from outside the site and prescribed burning. Outcomes included abundance and species richness of saproxylic insects, ground insects, wood-inhabiting fungi, lichens, reptiles and cavity-nesting birds. In total, we included 91 studies, 37 of which were used in meta-analyses. Although meta-analysis outcomes were heterogeneous, they showed that increasing the amount of DW (“DW enrichment”) has positive effects on the abundance and richness of saproxylic insects and fungi. The positive effect on saproxylic pest insect abundance tended to be less than that on saproxylic insects in general. No significant effects were found for ground insects or cavity-nesting birds.

Although reviewed studies were mainly short term, our results support that management that increases DW amounts has the potential to increase the abundance of DW-dependent species and, in most cases, also their species richness. Studies of burning showed positive effects on the abundance of saproxylic insects similar to those of other interventions, even though burning on average resulted in a smaller enrichment of DW amounts.

Policy implications. The findings of the review suggest that manipulating dead wood (DW) can be an effective part of conservation management to support biodiversity in protected areas. The findings also indicate that the diversity of DW types is important, a mix of DW qualities should be favoured. Burning seems to be an effective method to increase biodiversity but to benefit cavity-nesting birds, snag losses need to be minimized.

Keywords
coarse woody debris, dead wood, diversity, forest conservation, forest restoration, habitat management, prescribed burning, saproxylic species
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34829 (URN)10.1111/1365-2664.13395 (DOI)000474270200023 ()2-s2.0-85066074163 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Svensson, J., Andersson, J., Sandström, P., Mikusiński, G. & Jonsson, B. G. (2019). Landscape trajectory of natural boreal forest loss as an impediment to green infrastructure. Conservation Biology, 33(1), 152-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landscape trajectory of natural boreal forest loss as an impediment to green infrastructure
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2019 (English)In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 152-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Loss of natural forests by forest clearcutting has been identified as a critical conservation challenge worldwide. This study addressed forest fragmentation and loss in the context of the establishment of a functional green infrastructure as a spatiotemporally connected landscape-scale network of habitats enhancing biodiversity, favorable conservation status, and ecosystem services. Through retrospective analysis of satellite images, we assessed a 50- to 60-year spatiotemporal clearcutting impact trajectory on natural and near-natural boreal forests across a sizable and representative region from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Scandinavian Mountain Range in northern Fennoscandia. This period broadly covers the whole forest clearcutting period; thus, our approach and results can be applied to comprehensive impact assessment of industrial forest management. The entire study region covers close to 46,000 km2 of forest-dominated landscape in a late phase of transition from a natural or near-natural to a land-use modified state. We found a substantial loss of intact forest, in particular of large, contiguous areas, a spatial polarization of remaining forest on regional scale where the inland has been more severely affected than the mountain and coastal zones, and a pronounced impact on interior forest core areas. Salient results were a decrease in area of the largest intact forest patch from 225,853 to 68,714 ha in the mountain zone and from 257,715 to 38,668 ha in the foothills zone, a decrease from 75% to 38% intact forest in the inland zones, a decrease in largest patch core area (assessed by considering 100-m patch edge disturbance) from 6114 to 351 ha in the coastal zone, and a geographic imbalance in protected forest with an evident predominance in the mountain zone. These results demonstrate profound disturbance of configuration of the natural forest landscape and disrupted connectivity, which challenges the establishment of functional green infrastructure. Our approach supports the identification of forests for expanded protection and conservation-oriented forest landscape restoration. 

Keywords
change detection, clearcutting, cobertura continua de bosque, configuración de paisaje, continuidad del bosque, continuity forest, continuous cover forest, detección de cambios, forest core areas, forest fragmentation, fragmentación de bosque, imagen satelital, landscape configuration, satellite image, Suecia, Sweden, tala uniforme de árboles, áreas nucleares de bosque
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35143 (URN)10.1111/cobi.13148 (DOI)000455121500016 ()29882221 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Grafström, A., Ekström, M., Jonsson, B.-G., Esseen, P.-A. & Stahl, G. (2019). On combining independent probability samples. Survey Methodology, 45(2), 349-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On combining independent probability samples
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2019 (English)In: Survey Methodology, ISSN 0714-0045, E-ISSN 1492-0921, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 349-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Merging available sources of information is becoming increasingly important for improving estimates of population characteristics in a variety of fields. In presence of several independent probability samples from a finite population we investigate options for a combined estimator of the population total, based on either a linear combination of the separate estimators or on the combined sample approach. A linear combination estimator based on estimated variances can be biased as the separate estimators of the population total can be highly correlated to their respective variance estimators. We illustrate the possibility to use the combined sample to estimate the variances of the separate estimators, which results in general pooled variance estimators. These pooled variance estimators use all available information and have potential to significantly reduce bias of a linear combination of separate estimators.

Keywords
Horvitz-Thompson estimator, Inclusion probabilities, Linear combination estimator, Variance estimation
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36809 (URN)000473107900009 ()
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Grafström, A., Ekström, M., Jonsson, B.-G., Esseen, P.-A. & Ståhl, G. (2019). On combining independent probability samples. Survey Methodology, 45(2), 371-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On combining independent probability samples
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2019 (English)In: Survey Methodology, ISSN 0714-0045, E-ISSN 1492-0921, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 371-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Merging available sources of information is becoming increasingly important for improving estimates ofpopulation characteristics in a variety of fields. In presence of several independent probability samples from afinite population we investigate options for a combined estimator of the population total, based on either a linearcombination of the separate estimators or on the combined sample approach. A linear combination estimatorbased on estimated variances can be biased as the separate estimators of the population total can be highlycorrelated to their respective variance estimators. We illustrate the possibility to use the combined sample toestimate the variances of the separate estimators, which results in general pooled variance estimators. Thesepooled variance estimators use all available information and have potential to significantly reduce bias of a linearcombination of separate estimators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statistics Canada, 2019
Keywords
Horvitz-Thompson estimator, Inclusion probabilities, Linear combination estimator, Variance estimation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36835 (URN)2-s2.0-85068768578 (Scopus ID)
Note

In French: Combinaison d’échantillons probabilistes indépendants

Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Zhang, R., Carlsson, F., Edman, M., Hummelgård, M., Jonsson, B.-G., Bylund, D. & Olin, H. (2018). Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles. Advanced Biosystem, 2(5), Article ID 1800019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Escherichia coli Bacteria Develop Adaptive Resistance to Antibacterial ZnO Nanoparticles
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Biosystem, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 1800019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibacterial agents based on nanoparticles (NPs) have many important applications, e.g., for the textile industry, surface disinfection, wound dressing, water treatment, and food preservation. Because of their prevalent use it is important to understand whether bacteria could develop resistance to such antibacterial NPs similarly to the resistance that bacteria are known to develop to antibiotics. Here, it is reported that Escherichia coli(E. coli) develops adaptive resistance to antibacterial ZnO NPs after several days' exposure to the NPs. But, in contrast to antibiotics‐resistance, the observed resistance to ZnO NPs is not stable—after several days without exposure to the NPs, the bacteria regain their sensitivity to the NPs' antibacterial properties. Based on the analyses it is suggested that the observed resistance is caused by changes in the shape of the bacteria and the expressions of membrane proteins. The findings provide insights into the response of bacteria to antibacterial NPs, which is important to elucidate for designing and evaluating the risk of applications based on antibacterial NPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34436 (URN)10.1002/adbi.201800019 (DOI)000446970000008 ()2-s2.0-85065053901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Ekström, M., Esseen, P.-A. -., Westerlund, B., Grafström, A., Jonsson, B.-G. & Ståhl, G. (2018). Logistic regression for clustered data from environmental monitoring programs. Ecological Informatics, 43, 165-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logistic regression for clustered data from environmental monitoring programs
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2018 (English)In: Ecological Informatics, ISSN 1574-9541, E-ISSN 1878-0512, Vol. 43, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large-scale surveys, such as national forest inventories and vegetation monitoring programs, usually have complex sampling designs that include geographical stratification and units organized in clusters. When models are developed using data from such programs, a key question is whether or not to utilize design information when analyzing the relationship between a response variable and a set of covariates. Standard statistical regression methods often fail to account for complex sampling designs, which may lead to severely biased estimators of model coefficients. Furthermore, ignoring that data are spatially correlated within clusters may underestimate the standard errors of regression coefficient estimates, with a risk for drawing wrong conclusions. We first review general approaches that account for complex sampling designs, e.g. methods using probability weighting, and stress the need to explore the effects of the sampling design when applying logistic regression models. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to compare the performance of the standard logistic regression model with two approaches to model correlated binary responses, i.e. cluster-specific and population-averaged logistic regression models. As an example, we analyze the occurrence of epiphytic hair lichens in the genus Bryoria; an indicator of forest ecosystem integrity. Based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) for the period 1993–2014 we generated a data set on hair lichen occurrence on >100,000 Picea abies trees distributed throughout Sweden. The NFI data included ten covariates representing forest structure and climate variables potentially affecting lichen occurrence. Our analyses show the importance of taking complex sampling designs and correlated binary responses into account in logistic regression modeling to avoid the risk of obtaining notably biased parameter estimators and standard errors, and erroneous interpretations about factors affecting e.g. hair lichen occurrence. We recommend comparisons of unweighted and weighted logistic regression analyses as an essential step in development of models based on data from large-scale surveys. 

Keywords
Bryoria, Cluster-specific model, Complex sampling design, Correlated data, Logistic regression, National forest inventory, Population-averaged model
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32718 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoinf.2017.10.006 (DOI)000424721000015 ()2-s2.0-85038109792 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Bernes, C., Macura, B., Jonsson, B.-G., Junninen, K., Müller, J., Sandström, J., . . . Macdonald, E. (2018). Manipulating ungulate herbivory in temperate and boreal forests: Effects on vegetation and invertebrates. A systematic review. Environmental Evidence, 7(1), Article ID 13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manipulating ungulate herbivory in temperate and boreal forests: Effects on vegetation and invertebrates. A systematic review
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 13Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Livestock grazing and 'overabundance' of large wild herbivores in forested areas have long been perceived as conflicting with the aims of both silviculture and forest conservation; however, certain kinds of herbivory can help to maintain habitat values in forest ecosystems. Management of mammalian herbivory in protected forests can, therefore, be a critical tool for biodiversity conservation. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine how forest vegetation and invertebrates are affected by manipulation of the grazing/browsing pressure by livestock or wild ungulates. The ultimate purpose was to investigate whether such manipulation is useful for conserving or restoring biodiversity in forest set-asides. Methods: We considered studies of manipulated ungulate herbivory in forests anywhere within the boreal and temperate zones, not only in protected areas but also in production forest. Non-intervention or alternative levels of intervention were used as comparators. Relevant outcomes included abundance, diversity and composition of plants and invertebrates, tree regeneration, and performance of focal/target species. Studies were mainly selected from a recent systematic map of the evidence on biodiversity effects of forest management relevant to protected areas. Additional studies were identified through updated searches online and in bibliographies of existing reviews. Relevant studies were critically appraised, and studies with low or unclear validity were excluded from the review. Quantitative outcomes were extracted from 103 articles, and summary effect sizes were derived by meta-analysis. Results: Most of the 144 studies included in the review had been conducted in North America, Europe or Australia/New Zealand. The intervention most commonly studied was experimental exclusion (or enclosure) of wild and/or domestic ungulates by fencing. Other studies examined culling of wild ungulates or compared forests long grazed by livestock to ungrazed forests. Effects on vegetation and invertebrates were reported in 135 and 23 of the studies, respectively. We found negative responses to herbivory in the abundance of understorey vegetation as a whole, woody understorey and bryophytes, and also in the species richness of woody understorey vegetation, whereas the richness of forbs and bryophytes responded positively. Several effects depended on ungulate origins: Understorey abundance responded negatively to livestock and to ungulates introduced into the wild, but not to native ones. In contrast, understorey species richness responded positively to livestock but not to wild ungulates. The duration and intensity of herbivory had few significant effects on vegetation - exceptions included woody understorey abundance and richness, which decreased with increasing duration and intensity, respectively. Among invertebrates we found negative responses to herbivory in the abundance of lepidopterans and spiders, but no significant effects on species richness. Conclusions: Our review revealed a large body of high-validity experimental studies on impacts of ungulate herbivory in forests. This evidence confirmed that manipulation of such herbivory is often highly influential on tree regeneration and on the abundance, diversity and composition of understorey vegetation. Nevertheless, we also identified important knowledge gaps - we found few studies of boreal areas, long-term herbivory effects, impacts on bryophytes, lichens and invertebrates, and effects of manipulation less radical than total exclusion of ungulates. 

Keywords
Biodiversity, Deer, Forest conservation, Forest restoration, Forest set-aside, Herbivory, Livestock, Natural regeneration, Silvopastoral system, Wood-pasture
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33695 (URN)10.1186/s13750-018-0125-3 (DOI)000446168000001 ()2-s2.0-85046121337 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Eales, J., Haddaway, N. R., Bernes, C., Cooke, S. J., Jonsson, B.-G., Kouki, J., . . . Taylor, J. J. (2018). What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond pyrophilous and saproxylic species?: A systematic review. Environmental Evidence, 7(1), Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond pyrophilous and saproxylic species?: A systematic review
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: While the effects of prescribed burning on tree regeneration and on pyrophilous and/or saproxylic species are relatively well known, effects on other organisms are less clear. The primary aim of this systematic review was to clarify how biodiversity is affected by prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forests, and whether burning may be useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity, beyond that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species. Methods: The review examined primary field studies of the effects of prescribed burning on biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests in protected areas or under commercial management. Non-intervention or alternate levels of intervention were comparators. Relevant outcomes were species richness and diversity, excluding that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species. Relevant studies were extracted from a recent systematic map of the evidence on biodiversity impacts of active management in forests set aside for conservation or restoration. Additional searches and a search update were undertaken using a strategy targeted to identify studies focused on prescribed burning interventions. Grey literature and bibliographies of relevant published reviews were also searched for evidence. Studies were assessed for internal and external validity and data were extracted, using validity assessment and data extraction tools specifically designed for this review. Studies were presented in a narrative synthesis and interactive map, and those which were suitable were quantitatively synthesised using meta-analyses, subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results: Searches generated a total of 12,971 unique records. After screening for relevance, 244 studies (from 235 articles) were included in this review. Most studied forests were located in the USA (172/244), with the rest located in Canada, Europe and Australia. Eighty-two studies reporting 219 comparisons were included in the quantitative synthesis. Within the meta-analyses for each group of taxa, we identified a small to moderate volume of evidence, and heterogeneity was ubiquitous. Prescribed burning had significant positive effects on vascular plant richness, non-native vascular plant richness, and in broadleaf forests, herbaceous plant richness. Time since the burn, forest type and climate zone were significant moderators predicting the effect of burning on herbaceous plant richness. No other significant relationships were identified. Conclusions: Knowledge gaps exist for studies outside North America, in mixed forests and for non-plant organism outcomes. We identify a need to apply study designs consistently and appropriately, minimising the impact of confounding factors wherever possible, and to provide extensive detail in study reports. We recommend that researchers build long-term datasets charting the impacts of prescribed burning on succession. The lack of consistent findings was likely due to high inter-study heterogeneity, and low numbers of comparable studies in each quantitative synthesis. We found no consistent effects of moderators, and were unable to test the effect of many potential moderators, due to a lack of reporting. Rather than making any general recommendations on the use of prescribed burning for biodiversity restoration, we provide an evidence atlas of previous studies for researchers and practitioners to use. We observe that outcomes are still difficult to predict, and any restoration project should include a component of monitoring to build a stronger evidence base for recommendations and guidelines on how to best achieve conservation targets. Prescribed burning may have harmful effects on taxa that are conservation-dependent and careful planning is needed. 

Keywords
Controlled burn, Disturbance, Fire regime, Forest conservation, Forest reserve, Forest set-aside, Habitat management, Prescribed burn
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34573 (URN)10.1186/s13750-018-0131-5 (DOI)000446169200001 ()2-s2.0-85052055619 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Ruete, A., Snäll, T., Jonsson, B.-G. & Jönsson, M. (2017). Contrasting long-term effects of transient anthropogenic edges and forest fragment size on generalist and specialist deadwood-dwelling fungi. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(4), 1142-1151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contrasting long-term effects of transient anthropogenic edges and forest fragment size on generalist and specialist deadwood-dwelling fungi
2017 (English)In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1142-1151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forests are becoming increasingly fragmented world-wide, creating forest patches with reduced area and greater exposure to human land uses along fragment edges. In this study, we predict the future impacts of anthropogenic edges and fragment size on the future occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in boreal old-growth forest fragments. We used Bayesian models fitted to empirical data to predict 40years of occupancy dynamics of logs by a group of old-growth forest indicator fungi and two common fungi under different scenarios of clear-cutting in adjacent forest (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) and fragment sizes (1-20ha). Small fragment size (1-3<bold></bold>14ha) and intensified forestry with 50-100% clear-cutting of forest around old-growth forest fragments lead to lower predicted occupancy of old-growth indicator fungi while common generalist species like Fomitopsis pinicola increased. There was a trade-off between fragment size and management, where increasing fragment size buffered the negative long-term effects from increased adjacent clear-cutting. These changes in fungal occupancy at the edge should be accounted for when working towards conservation targets for protected areas, such as the Aichi target 11.Synthesis and applications. Preserve what is left - but buffer for change. Small forest fragments often represent the last vestiges of high habitat quality (i.e. species, structures) in managed forest landscapes. As effective area-based conservation measures for the long-term occupancy of old-growth fungi, small fragments need to be managed to protect species from degrading transient edge effects. Management should focus on increasing the size of conservation areas with permanent buffer zones. Alternatively, non-simultaneous adjacent clear-cutting in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e. dynamic buffers) may increase the effective area and improve performance of set-asides in protecting species of special concern for conservation. Preserve what is left - but buffer for change. Small forest fragments often represent the last vestiges of high habitat quality (i.e. species, structures) in managed forest landscapes. As effective area-based conservation measures for the long-term occupancy of old-growth fungi, small fragments need to be managed to protect species from degrading transient edge effects. Management should focus on increasing the size of conservation areas with permanent buffer zones. Alternatively, non-simultaneous adjacent clear-cutting in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e. dynamic buffers) may increase the effective area and improve performance of set-asides in protecting species of special concern for conservation.

Keywords
boreal forests, common and indicator species, core:edge ratio, deadwood, edge effect, fragment size, projection scenarios, protected areas, set-asides
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31364 (URN)10.1111/1365-2664.12835 (DOI)000405534500014 ()2-s2.0-85023643280 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
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