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Aydogan, E., Yilmaz, S., Sen, S., Butun, I., Forsström, S. & Gidlund, M. (2019). A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things. In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): . Paper presented at 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS'19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.. IEEE, Article ID 8758024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things
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2019 (English)In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8758024Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although Internet-of-Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the IT sector, it is not mature yet as several technologies are  still being offered to be candidates for supporting the backbone of this system. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of those promising candidate technologies to be adopted by IoT and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Attacks against RPL have shown to be possible, as the attackers utilize the unauthorized parent selection system of the RLP protocol. In this work, we are proposing a methodology and architecture to detect intrusions against IIoT. Especially, we are targeting to detect attacks against RPL by using genetic programming. Our results indicate that the developed framework can successfully (with high accuracy, along with high true positive and low false positive rates) detect routing attacks in RPL-based Industrial IoT networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Industrial IoT (IIoT), Security, Intusion Detection, RPL Networks
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36736 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2019.8758024 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070092698 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-1268-8 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS'19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.
Projects
SMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., Yang, D., Wang, H., Huang, X. & Gidlund, M. (2019). CarNet: A Dual Correlation Method for Health Perception of Rotating Machinery. IEEE Sensors Journal, 19(16), 7095-7106, Article ID 8695784.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CarNet: A Dual Correlation Method for Health Perception of Rotating Machinery
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 16, p. 7095-7106, article id 8695784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a key component of rotating machinery, the health perception of hearings is essential to ensure the safe and reliable operation of industrial equipment. In recent years, research on equipment health perception based on data-driven methods has received extensive attention. Overall, most studies focus on several public datasets to verify the effectiveness of their algorithms. However, the scale of these datasets cannot completely satisfy the representation learning of deep models. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel method, called CarNet, to obtain a more robust model and ensure that the model is sufficiently trained on a limited dataset. Specifically, it is composed of a data augmentation method named equitable sliding stride segmentation (ESSS) and a hybrid-stacked deep model (HSDM). The ESSS not only amplifies the scale of the original dataset but also enables newly generated data with both spatial and temporal correlations. The HSDM can, therefore, extract shallow spatial features and deep temporal information from the strongly correlated 2-dimensional (2-D) sensor array using a CNN and a bi-GRU, respectively. Moreover, the integrated attention mechanism contributes to focusing limited resources on informative areas. The effectiveness of CarNet is evaluated on the CWRU dataset, and an optimal diagnostic accuracy of 99.92% is achieved.

Keywords
Health perception, convolutional neural network, gated recurrent unit, attention mechanism, temporal and spatial correlation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36821 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2019.2912934 (DOI)000476795500059 ()2-s2.0-85069780589 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Ansari, R. I., Pervaiz, H., Chrysostomou, C., Hassan, S. A., Mahmood, A. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Control-Data Separation Architecture for Dual-Band mmWave Networks: A New Dimension to Spectrum Management. IEEE Access, 7, 34925-34937, Article ID 8663278.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control-Data Separation Architecture for Dual-Band mmWave Networks: A New Dimension to Spectrum Management
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 34925-34937, article id 8663278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The exponential growth in global mobile data traffic, especially with regards to the massive deployment of devices envisioned for the fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, has given impetus to exploring new spectrum opportunities to support the new traffic demands. The millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band is considered as a potential candidate for alleviating the spectrum scarcity. Moreover, the concept of multi-tier networks has gained popularity, especially for dense network environments. In this article, we deviate from the conventional multi-tier networks and employ the concept of control-data separation architecture (CDSA), which comprises of a control base station (CBS) overlaying the data base station (DBS). We assume that the CBS operates on the sub-6 GHz single band, while the DBS possesses a dual-band mmWave capability, i.e., 26 GHz unlicensed band and 60 GHz licensed band. We formulate a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem, which jointly optimizes conflicting objectives: the spectral efficiency (SE) and the energy efficiency (EE). The unique aspect of this work includes the analysis of a joint radio resource allocation algorithm based on Lagrangian Dual Decomposition (LDD) and we compare the proposed algorithm with the maximal-rate (maxRx), dynamic sub-carrier allocation (DSA) and joint power and rate adaptation (JPRA) algorithms to show the performance gains achieved by the proposed algorithm.

Keywords
Control-data separation architecture, resource allocation, dual-band millimeter wave, energy efficiency, spectral efficiency, multi-objective optimization
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35739 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2903901 (DOI)000463262800001 ()2-s2.0-85063890617 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Farag, H., Gidlund, M. & Österberg, P. (2019). DeP-D: A Decentralized Primal-Dual Optimization Algorithm for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): . Paper presented at 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), Sundsvall, 27-29 May, 2019. IEEE, Article ID 8757934.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DeP-D: A Decentralized Primal-Dual Optimization Algorithm for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2019 (English)In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757934Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) are emerged as flexible and cost-efficient alternatives to the traditional wired networks in various monitoring and control applications within the industrial domain. Low delay is a key feature of delay-sensitive applications as the data is typically valid for a short interval of time. If data arrives too late it is of limited use which may lead to performance drops or even system outages which can create significant economical losses. In this paper, we propose a decentralized optimization algorithm to minimize the End-to-End (E2E) delay of multi-hop IWSNs. Firstly, we formulate the optimization problem by considering the objective function as the network delay where the constraint is the stability criteria based on the total arrival rate and the total service rate. The objective function is proved to be strictly convex for the entire network, then a Decentralized Primal-Dual (DeP-D) algorithm is proposed based on the sub-gradient method to solve the formulated optimization problem. The performance of the proposed DeP-D is evaluated through simulations and compared with WirelessHART network and the results show that the proposed DeP-D can achieve at least 40% reduction in the average E2E delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
IWSN, Optimization, Sheduling, Protocol, Delay
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36761 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2019.8757934 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070111073 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-1268-8 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), Sundsvall, 27-29 May, 2019
Projects
SMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Eldefrawy, M., Ferrari, N. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Dynamic User Authentication Protocol for Industrial IoT without Timestamping. In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): . Paper presented at 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS´19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.. IEEE, Article ID 8757984.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic User Authentication Protocol for Industrial IoT without Timestamping
2019 (English)In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757984Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) technology has succeed ingetting a great attention in the industry where it has been ableand still can solve many industrial intractable issues. The emergingtechnology is suffering from severe security shortcomings.Authentication is a cornerstone of IoT security as it presents the measures of checking the legitimacy of communication’s entities.The Industrial IoT (IIoT) technology has special conditions, resulting from a lack of resources and a shortage of security skills. As far as we can tell, from the literature, IIoT user authentication has not been studied extensively. In 2017 Tai et al. presented an authenticated key agreement for IoT networks. Here we prove that Tai et al. is susceptible to sever security weaknesses, such as;i. stolen smart card attack, ii. unknown key share attack, iii. node capturing attack. In this research article, we offer an innovative IIoT user authentication scheme that can achieve secure remote user authentication without timestamping that requires precise synchronization, it only needs Hashing and Xor-ing. We examine the efficiency of our presented scheme using Tmote Sky node over an MSP430 microcontroller using COOJA simulator as well aswe show its correctness using Scyther verification tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Industrial IoT, Security, Authentication, Timestamp
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36732 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2019.8757984 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070082936 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-1268-8 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS´19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.
Projects
SMART
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Mahmood, A., Hossain, M. M., Cavdar, C. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Energy-Reliability Aware Link Optimization for Battery-Powered IoT Devices with Non-Ideal Power Amplifiers. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(3), 5058-5067, Article ID 8625460.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Reliability Aware Link Optimization for Battery-Powered IoT Devices with Non-Ideal Power Amplifiers
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 5058-5067, article id 8625460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study cross-layer optimization of low-power wireless links for reliability-aware applications while considering both the constraints and the non-ideal characteristics of the hardware in Internet-of-things (IoT) devices. Specifically, we define an energy consumption (EC) model that captures the energy cost—of transceiver circuitry, power amplifier, packet error statistics, packet overhead, etc.—in delivering a useful data bit. We derive the EC models for an ideal and two realistic non-linear power amplifier models. To incorporate packet error statistics, we develop a simple, in the form of elementary functions, and accurate closed-form packet error rate (PER) approximation in Rayleigh block-fading. Using the EC models, we derive energy optimal yet reliability and hardware compliant conditions for limiting unconstrained optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and payload size. Together with these conditions, we develop a semi-analytic algorithm for resource-constrained IoT devices to jointly optimize parameters on physical (modulation size, SNR) and medium access control (payload size and the number of retransmissions) layers in relation to link distance. Our results show that despite reliability constraints, the common notion—higher-order M-ary modulations (MQAM) are energy optimal for short-range communication—prevails, and can provide up to 180% lifetime extension as compared to often used OQPSK modulation in IoT devices. However, the reliability constraints reduce both their range and the energy efficiency, while non-ideal traditional PA reduces the range further by 50% and diminishes the energy gains unless a better PA is used.

Keywords
Energy-efficiency, reliability, short-range communication, cross-layer design, IoT, non-linear power amplifiers
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35507 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2019.2895228 (DOI)000472596200092 ()2-s2.0-85067841416 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Bonafini, F., Depari, A., Ferrari, P., Flammini, A., Pasetti, M., Rinaldo, S., . . . Gidlund, M. (2019). Exploiting localization systems for LoRaWAN transmission scheduling in industrial applications. In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): . Paper presented at 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS'19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.. IEEE, Article ID 8757999.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting localization systems for LoRaWAN transmission scheduling in industrial applications
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2019 (English)In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757999Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm contaminated industrial world, allowing for innovative services. The wireless communications seem to be particularly attracting, especially when complement indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) for geo-referencing smart objects (e.g. for asset tracking). In this paper, the LoRaWAN solution is considered for transmitting RTLS data. LoRaWAN is an example of Low Power Wide Area Network: it tradeoffs throughput with coverage and power consumption. However, performance can be greatly improved with limited changes to the standard specifications. In this work, a scheduling layer is suggested above the regular stack for allocating communication resources in a time slot channel hopping medium access strategy. The main innovation is the time synchronization, which is obtained opportunistically from the ranging devices belonging to the RTLSs. The experimental testbed, based on commercially available solutions, demonstrates the affordability and feasibility of the proposed approach. When low-cost GPS (outdoor) and UWB (indoor) ranging devices are considered, synchronization error of few microseconds can be easily obtained. The experimental results show the that time reference pulses disciplined by GPS have a maximum jitter of 180 ns and a standard deviation of 40 ns whereas, if time reference pulses disciplined by UWB are considered, the maximum jitter is 3.3 μs and the standard deviation is 0.7 μs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Localization, LoRaWAN, Synchronization, Industrial IoT
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36735 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2019.8757999 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070104144 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-1268-8 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS'19), Sundsvall, Sweden, May 27-29, 2019.
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Eldefrawy, M., Butun, I., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN. Computer Networks, 148, 328-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN
2019 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, p. 328-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols are receiving increased attention from industry and academia to offer accessibility for Internet of Things (IoT) connected remote sensors and actuators. In this work, we present a formal study of LoRaWAN security, an increasingly popular technology, which defines the structure and operation of LPWAN networks based on the LoRa physical layer. There are previously known security vulnerabilities in LoRaWAN that lead to the proposal of several improvements, some already incorporated into the latest protocol specification. Our analysis of LoRaWAN security uses Scyther, a formal security analysis tool and focuses on the key exchange portion of versions 1.0 (released in 2015) and 1.1 (the latest, released in 2017). For version 1.0, which is still the most widely deployed version of LoRaWAN, we show that our formal model allowed to uncover weaknesses that can be related to previously reported vulnerabilities. Our model did not find weaknesses in the latest version of the protocol (v1.1), and we discuss what this means in practice for the security of LoRaWAN as well as important aspects of our model and tools employed that should be considered. The Scyther model developed provides realistic models for LoRaWAN v1.0 and v1.1 that can be used and extended to formally analyze, inspect, and explore the security features of the protocols. This, in turn, can clarify the methodology for achieving secrecy, integrity, and authentication for designers and developers interested in these LPWAN standards. We believe that our model and discussion of the protocols security properties are beneficial for both researchers and practitioners. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a formal security analysis of LoRaWAN.

Keywords
IoT, LoRaWANS, cyther verification
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35145 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2018.11.017 (DOI)000458345100027 ()
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Eldefrawy, M., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Key Distribution Protocol for Industrial Internet of Things without Implicit Certificates. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(1), 906-917
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key Distribution Protocol for Industrial Internet of Things without Implicit Certificates
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 906-917Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) in industry, called the Industrial IoT (IIoT), is supporting the introduction of very desirable improvements such as increasing production flexibility, self-organization and real-time and quick response to events. However, security and privacy challenges are still to be well addressed. The IIoT requires different properties to achieve secure and reliable systems and these requirements create extra challenges considering the limited processing and communication power available to IIoT field devices. In this research article, we present a key distribution protocol for IIoT that is computationally and communicationally lightweight (requires a single message exchange) and handles node addition and revocation, as well as fast re-keying. The scheme can also resist the consequences of node capture attacks (we assume that captured nodes can be detected by the Gateway and previous works have shown this assumption to be acceptable in practice), server impersonation attacks and provides forward/backward secrecy. We show formally the correctness of our protocol and evaluate its energy consumption under realistic scenarios using a real embedded platform compared to previous state-of-the-art key-exchange protocols, to show our protocol reliability for IIoT.

Keywords
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Cyber Assurance, Key Distribution Protocol.
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34278 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2865212 (DOI)000459709500077 ()
Projects
SMART, TIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Butun, I. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things. In: Paolo Mori, Steven Furnell and Olivier Camp (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy: . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP 2019), Prague, 23-25 February 2019 (pp. 623-630). Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy / [ed] Paolo Mori, Steven Furnell and Olivier Camp, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 623-630Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) is in the booming age of its growth, therefore a vast amount of applications, projects, hardware/software solutions, and customized concepts are being developed. The proliferation of IoT will enable location-based services to be available everywhere for everyone, and this will raise a large number of privacy issues related to the collection, usage, retention, and disclosure of the user’s location information. In order to provide a solution to this unique problem of IoT, this paper proposes Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things (LPA-IoT) scheme, which uses the concepts of Mix-Zone, location-obfuscation along with context-awareness. To the authors’ best knowledge, the proposed LPA-IoT scheme is the first location-based privacy-preserving scheme for IoT that provides flexible privacy levels associated with the present context of the user.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2019
Keywords
Security, Mix-Zone, Location Obfuscation, IoT, Preserving, Context-awareness, Vulnerabilities, Trust, End-device.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35762 (URN)10.5220/0007587906230630 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064644167 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-359-9 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP 2019), Prague, 23-25 February 2019
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0873-7827

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