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Farag, H., Gidlund, M. & Österberg, P. (2018). A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(6), 2607-2616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2607-2616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) designedfor mission- and time-critical applications require timelyand deterministic data delivery within stringent deadline bounds.Exceeding delay limits for such applications can lead to system malfunction or ultimately dangerous situations that can threaten human safety. In this paper, we propose SS-MAC, an efficient slot stealing MAC protocol to guarantee predictable and timely channel access for time-critical data in IWSNs. In the proposed SS-MAC, aperiodic time-critical traffic opportunistically steals time slots assigned to periodic non-critical traffic. Additionally, a dynamic deadline-based scheduling is introduced to provide guaranteed channel access in emergency and event-based situations where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic. Performance comparisons are carried out between the proposed SS-MAC and WirelessHARTstandard and they show that, for the time-critical traffic, theproposed SS-MAC can achieve, at least, a reduction of almost 30% in the worst-case delay with a significant channel utilization efficiency.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32771 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2793946 (DOI)000425981100048 ()
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L., Gidlund, M. & Li, F. Y. (2018). An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5(4), 2868-2879
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 2868-2879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting (EH) delivers a unique technique for replenishing batteries in Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Equipped with an energy harvesting accessory, EH-enabled sensor nodes/IoT devices extract energy from ambient resources such as solar or radio frequency (RF) signals. Relying on residual battery or/and harvested energy, sensor nodes in an IoT network perform data exchange activities. Otherwise, the delivery of sensed data would be delayed until sufficient energy is harvested. In this paper, we propose an on-demand energy requesting (OER) mechanism for improving the delay performance of a wireless EH-powered IoT network. The proposed scheme acquires energy when necessary from an energy transmitter that is capable of transmitting energy via directed RF signals. Furthermore we develop two associated discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) models to analyze the performance of the OER scheme, targeting at a generic synchronous medium access control (MAC) protocol. Using the proposed DTMC models, we evaluate OER with respect to average packet delay, network throughput, packet loss probability, and packet reliability ratio by employing a specific synchronous MAC protocol. Numerical results obtained from both analysis and discrete-event simulations coincide with each other, indicating the accuracy of the models and revealing the behavior of EH based packet transmissions.

Keywords
IoT network, energy harvesting, on-demand energy requesting, DTMC modeling, performance evaluation
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33891 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2849069 (DOI)
Projects
SMART
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Butun, I., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18).: . Paper presented at 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.. ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, security, vulnerability
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33675 (URN)10.1145/3213299.3213304 (DOI)978-1-4503-5857-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.
Projects
DAWNSMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Forsström, S., Buton, I., Eldefrawy, M., Jennehag, U. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain. In: In proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT: . Paper presented at Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain
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2018 (English)In: In proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

Keywords
Security, IoT, IIoT, Industry 4.0, vulnerabilities, trust, metering, metrology, application, end-device
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33653 (URN)
Conference
Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-05-22
Mahmood, A., Hossain, M. M. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018. New York: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The vision of connecting billions of battery operated devices to be used for diverse emerging applications calls for a wireless communication system that can support stringent reliability and latency requirements. Both reliability and energy efficiency are critical for many of these applications that involve communication with short packets which undermine the coding gain achievable from large packets. In this paper, we study a cross-layer approach to optimize the performance of low-power wireless links. At first, we derive a simple and accurate packet error rate (PER) expression for uncoded schemes in block fading channels based on a new proposition that shows that the waterfall threshold in the PER upper bound in Nakagami-m fading channels is tightly approximated by the m-th moment of an asymptotic distribution of PER in AWGN channel. The proposed PER approximation establishes an explicit connection between the physical and link layers parameters, and the packet error rate. We exploit this connection for cross-layer design and optimization of communication links. To this end, we propose a semi-analytic framework to jointly optimize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modulation order at physical layer, and the packet length and number of retransmissions at link layer with respect to distance under the prescribed delay and reliability constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 1525-3511
Keywords
Wireless sensor networks, Packet error rate, Fading channels, Cross-layer optimization, Energy efficient communication
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32449 (URN)000435542401068 ()978-1-5386-1734-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018
Projects
Timeliness
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L., Ghose, D., Li, F. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Energy Efficient Consecutive Packet Transmissions in Receiver-initiated Wake-up Radio Enabled WSNs. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(11), 4733-4745
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Consecutive Packet Transmissions in Receiver-initiated Wake-up Radio Enabled WSNs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 4733-4745Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In wake-up radio (WuR)-enabled wireless sensor networks, data communication among nodes is triggered in an on-demand manner, by either a sender or a receiver. For receiver-initiated WuR (RI-WuR), a~receiving node wakes up sending nodes through a wake-up call. Correspondingly sending nodes transmit packets in a traditional way by competing with one another multiple times in a single operational cycle. In~this paper, we propose a receiver-initiated consecutive packet transmission WuR (RI-CPT-WuR) medium access control (MAC) protocol, which eliminates multiple competitions to achieve higher energy efficiency. Furthermore, we develop two associated discrete time Markov chains (DTMCs) for evaluating the performance of RI-CPT-WuR and an existing RI-WuR MAC protocol. Using the solutions from the DTMC models, closed-form expressions for network throughput, average delay, packet reliability ratio, energy consumption and lifetime, and energy efficiency for both protocols are obtained. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the RI-CPT-WuR protocol.

Keywords
WSNs, IoT, wake-up radio, consecutive packet transmissions, DTMC modeling, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33529 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2825540 (DOI)000432017100045 ()
Projects
SMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Gidlund, M., Han, S., Sisinni, E., Saifullah, A. & Jennehag, U. (2018). Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 4(5), 2194-2198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 2194-2198Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Special issues and sections, Production facilities, Manufacturing automation, Informatics, Wireless sensor networks, Actuators, Internet of Things, Industrial engineering, Industrial communication
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33893 (URN)10.1109/TII.2018.2815957 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046798123 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Multiple Packet Transmissions in Duty Cycling WSNs: A DTMC Based Throughput Analysis. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 7(3), 480-483
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple Packet Transmissions in Duty Cycling WSNs: A DTMC Based Throughput Analysis
2018 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 480-483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple packet transmissions (MPT) improve performance by transmitting multiple packets in a single operational cycle. Asynchronous duty cycling (DC) medium access control (MAC) protocols such as receiver initiated MAC protocol (RI-MAC) transmit multiple packets in one cycle. In this paper, we develop two associated discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) models to model MPT that can be achieved via multiple node competitions. Furthermore, we present the way of incorporating those developed models with each other for evaluating performance of RI-MAC with MPT. Using the solution of DTMC models, network throughput of MPT is calculated and compared with the one achieved by single packet transmission MAC (e.g., S-MAC) protocol. Validation of analytical results through discrete-event simulations confirms the accuracy of modeling and discloses the operation of MPT in RI-MAC protocol. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Analytical models, duty-cycled MAC protocols, Media Access Protocol, multiple packet transmissions, performance analysis, Probability, Receivers, Throughput, throughput., Wireless sensor networks, WSNs
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32763 (URN)10.1109/LWC.2017.2787560 (DOI)000436010400050 ()
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Nikonowicz, J., Mahmood, A., Sisinni, E. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Noise Power Estimators in ISM Radio Environments: Performance Comparison and Enhancement Using a Novel Samples Separation Technique. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Power Estimators in ISM Radio Environments: Performance Comparison and Enhancement Using a Novel Samples Separation Technique
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Noise power estimation is central to efficient radio resource allocation in modern wireless communication systems. In the literature, there exist many noise power estimation methods that can be classified based on underlying theoretical principle; the most common are spectral averaging, eigenvalues of sample covariance matrix, information theory, and statistical signal analysis. However, how these estimation methods compare against each other in terms of accuracy, stability, and complexity is not well studied, and the focus instead remains on the enhancement of individual methods. In this paper, we adopt a common simulation methodology to perform a detailed performance evaluation of the prominent estimation techniques. The basis of our comparison is the signal-to-noise ratio estimation in the simulated industrial, scientific and medical band transmission, while the reference noise signal is acquired from an industrial production plant using a software-defined radio platform, USRP-2932. In addition, we analyze the impact of different techniques for noise-samples' separation on the estimation process. As a response to defects in the existing techniques, we propose a novel noise-samples' separation algorithm based on the adaptation of rank-order filtering. Our analysis shows that the proposed solution, apart from its low complexity, has a very good root-mean-squared error of 0.5 dB and smaller than 0.1-dB resolution, thus  achieving a performance comparable with the methods exploiting information theory concepts.

Keywords
Blind noise separation, noise power estimation, rank-order filtering (ROF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation.
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33731 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2018.2833998 (DOI)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-10Bibliographically approved
Ma, J., Yang, D., Zhang, H. & Gidlund, M. (2017). A Reliable Handoff Mechanism for Mobile Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 17(8), Article ID 1797.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Reliable Handoff Mechanism for Mobile Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2017 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 8, article id 1797Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the prevalence of low-power wireless devices in industrial applications, concerns about timeliness and reliability are bound to continue despite the best efforts of researchers to design Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) to improve the performance of monitoring and control systems. As mobile devices have a major role to play in industrial production, IWSNs should support mobility. However, research on mobile IWSNs and practical tests have been limited due to the complicated resource scheduling and rescheduling compared with traditional wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes an effective mechanism to guarantee the performance of handoff, including a mobility-aware scheme, temporary connection and quick registration. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed mechanism is implemented not only in our testbed but in a real industrial environment. The results indicate that our mechanism not only improves the accuracy of handoff triggering, but also solves the problem of ping-pong effect during handoff. Compared with the WirelessHART standard and the RSSI-based approach, our mechanism facilitates real-time communication while being more reliable, which can help end-to-end packet delivery remain an average of 98.5% in the scenario of mobile IWSNs.

Keywords
Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), handoff triggering, reliable communication, mobility aware
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31359 (URN)10.3390/s17081797 (DOI)000408576900100 ()2-s2.0-85026900900 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Timeliness
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0873-7827

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