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Farag, H., Gidlund, M. & Österberg, P. (2018). A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(6), 2607-2616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2607-2616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) designedfor mission- and time-critical applications require timelyand deterministic data delivery within stringent deadline bounds.Exceeding delay limits for such applications can lead to system malfunction or ultimately dangerous situations that can threaten human safety. In this paper, we propose SS-MAC, an efficient slot stealing MAC protocol to guarantee predictable and timely channel access for time-critical data in IWSNs. In the proposed SS-MAC, aperiodic time-critical traffic opportunistically steals time slots assigned to periodic non-critical traffic. Additionally, a dynamic deadline-based scheduling is introduced to provide guaranteed channel access in emergency and event-based situations where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic. Performance comparisons are carried out between the proposed SS-MAC and WirelessHARTstandard and they show that, for the time-critical traffic, theproposed SS-MAC can achieve, at least, a reduction of almost 30% in the worst-case delay with a significant channel utilization efficiency.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32771 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2793946 (DOI)000425981100048 ()
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Ma, J., Yang, D., Wang, H. & Gidlund, M. (2018). An Efficient Retransmission Scheme for Reliable End-to-End Wireless Communication over WSANs. IEEE Access, 6, 49838-49849
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Efficient Retransmission Scheme for Reliable End-to-End Wireless Communication over WSANs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 49838-49849Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) is increasingly recognized as an important technology in the realization of the future Internet of Things (IoT). The ability to cater to the demands of real-time, reliable and resource-constraint communication in industrial areas is highly dependent on efficient scheduling of communication links. Harsh industrial environments make packet retransmission inevitable, which causes the waste of link resource and deteriorates the reliability. Most of researches that focus on real-time and reliable performance underestimate the complexity of packet retransmission. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient retransmission scheme to guarantee deterministic communication and decrease the resource utilization. We combine deterministic communication with a novel reliable method by proposing a flow-based slot scheduling with a concession timeslot assistant. The proposed concession slot works by using the CCA and the pre-signal to avoid the contention of one channel during the communication on shared links. Furthermore, we use the theory of discrete-time Markov chain to analyze another two randomly backoff-based and flow-based shared link schedules. This study demonstrates that the proposed retransmission scheme can significantly improve the reliability of end-to-end packets delivery and the efficiency of slot utilization, as well as decrease energy consumption. The proposed scheduling is applied in a real factory, where the efficiency of the slot is significantly improved, and a flow reliability of 95.3% under a 12% packet error rate is guaranteed. 

Keywords
Job shop scheduling, Monitoring, Reliability, reliable wireless communication, Schedules, Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH), Wireless communication, Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs), Wireless sensor networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34601 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2868099 (DOI)000446496600001 ()
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L., Gidlund, M. & Li, F. Y. (2018). An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5(4), 2868-2879, Article ID 8390912.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 2868-2879, article id 8390912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting (EH) delivers a unique technique for replenishing batteries in Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Equipped with an energy harvesting accessory, EH-enabled sensor nodes/IoT devices extract energy from ambient resources such as solar or radio frequency (RF) signals. Relying on residual battery or/and harvested energy, sensor nodes in an IoT network perform data exchange activities. Otherwise, the delivery of sensed data would be delayed until sufficient energy is harvested. In this paper, we propose an on-demand energy requesting (OER) mechanism for improving the delay performance of a wireless EH-powered IoT network. The proposed scheme acquires energy when necessary from an energy transmitter that is capable of transmitting energy via directed RF signals. Furthermore we develop two associated discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) models to analyze the performance of the OER scheme, targeting at a generic synchronous medium access control (MAC) protocol. Using the proposed DTMC models, we evaluate OER with respect to average packet delay, network throughput, packet loss probability, and packet reliability ratio by employing a specific synchronous MAC protocol. Numerical results obtained from both analysis and discrete-event simulations coincide with each other, indicating the accuracy of the models and revealing the behavior of EH based packet transmissions.

Keywords
IoT network, energy harvesting, on-demand energy requesting, DTMC modeling, performance evaluation
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33891 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2849069 (DOI)000441428700057 ()2-s2.0-85048892149 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMART
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Butun, I., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18).: . Paper presented at 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.. ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, security, vulnerability
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33675 (URN)10.1145/3213299.3213304 (DOI)978-1-4503-5857-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.
Projects
DAWNSMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Forsström, S., Butun, I., Eldefrawy, M., Jennehag, U. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain. In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018, Brescia, Italy, 16 April 2018 through 18 April 2018 (pp. 218-223). IEEE, Article ID 8428344.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain
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2018 (English)In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, p. 218-223, article id 8428344Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Security, IoT, IIoT, Industry 4.0, vulnerabilities, trust, metering, metrology, application, end-device
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33653 (URN)10.1109/METROI4.2018.8428344 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052506472 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2497-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2498-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018, Brescia, Italy, 16 April 2018 through 18 April 2018
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Mahmood, A., Hossain, M. M. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC: . Paper presented at IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018. New York: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints
2018 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The vision of connecting billions of battery operated devices to be used for diverse emerging applications calls for a wireless communication system that can support stringent reliability and latency requirements. Both reliability and energy efficiency are critical for many of these applications that involve communication with short packets which undermine the coding gain achievable from large packets. In this paper, we study a cross-layer approach to optimize the performance of low-power wireless links. At first, we derive a simple and accurate packet error rate (PER) expression for uncoded schemes in block fading channels based on a new proposition that shows that the waterfall threshold in the PER upper bound in Nakagami-m fading channels is tightly approximated by the m-th moment of an asymptotic distribution of PER in AWGN channel. The proposed PER approximation establishes an explicit connection between the physical and link layers parameters, and the packet error rate. We exploit this connection for cross-layer design and optimization of communication links. To this end, we propose a semi-analytic framework to jointly optimize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modulation order at physical layer, and the packet length and number of retransmissions at link layer with respect to distance under the prescribed delay and reliability constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 1525-3511
Keywords
Wireless sensor networks, Packet error rate, Fading channels, Cross-layer optimization, Energy efficient communication
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32449 (URN)000435542401068 ()2-s2.0-85049232011 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1734-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018
Projects
Timeliness
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L., Ghose, D., Li, F. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Energy Efficient Consecutive Packet Transmissions in Receiver-initiated Wake-up Radio Enabled WSNs. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(11), 4733-4745
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Consecutive Packet Transmissions in Receiver-initiated Wake-up Radio Enabled WSNs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 4733-4745Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In wake-up radio (WuR)-enabled wireless sensor networks, data communication among nodes is triggered in an on-demand manner, by either a sender or a receiver. For receiver-initiated WuR (RI-WuR), a~receiving node wakes up sending nodes through a wake-up call. Correspondingly sending nodes transmit packets in a traditional way by competing with one another multiple times in a single operational cycle. In~this paper, we propose a receiver-initiated consecutive packet transmission WuR (RI-CPT-WuR) medium access control (MAC) protocol, which eliminates multiple competitions to achieve higher energy efficiency. Furthermore, we develop two associated discrete time Markov chains (DTMCs) for evaluating the performance of RI-CPT-WuR and an existing RI-WuR MAC protocol. Using the solutions from the DTMC models, closed-form expressions for network throughput, average delay, packet reliability ratio, energy consumption and lifetime, and energy efficiency for both protocols are obtained. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the RI-CPT-WuR protocol.

Keywords
WSNs, IoT, wake-up radio, consecutive packet transmissions, DTMC modeling, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33529 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2825540 (DOI)000432017100045 ()
Projects
SMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Gidlund, M., Han, S., Sisinni, E., Saifullah, A. & Jennehag, U. (2018). Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 4(5), 2194-2198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 2194-2198Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Special issues and sections, Production facilities, Manufacturing automation, Informatics, Wireless sensor networks, Actuators, Internet of Things, Industrial engineering, Industrial communication
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33893 (URN)10.1109/TII.2018.2815957 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046798123 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Sisinni, E., Saifullah, A., Han, S., Jennehag, U. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Industrial Internet of Things: Challenges, Opportunities, and Directions. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 14(11), 4724-4734
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Internet of Things: Challenges, Opportunities, and Directions
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 4724-4734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging domain that promises ubiquitous connection to the Internet, turning common objects into connected devices. The IoT paradigm is changing the way people interact with things around them. It paves the way to creating pervasively connected infrastructures to support innovative services and promises better flexibility and efficiency. Such advantages are attractive not only for consumer applications, but also for the industrial domain. Over the last few years, we have been witnessing the IoT paradigm making its way into the industry marketplace with purposely designed solutions. In this paper, we clarify the concepts of IoT, Industrial IoT, and Industry 4.0. We highlight the opportunities brought in by this paradigm shift as well as the challenges for its realization. In particular, we focus on the challenges associated with the need of energy efficiency, real-time performance, coexistence, interoperability, and security and privacy. We also provide a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art research efforts and potential research directions to solve Industrial IoT challenges.

Keywords
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Real-time communication, Reliability, Security
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34277 (URN)10.1109/TII.2018.2852491 (DOI)000450168500001 ()
Projects
TIMLINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Beltramelli, L., Mahmood, A., Gidlund, M., Österberg, P. & Jennehag, U. (2018). Interference Modelling in a Multi-Cell LoRa System. In: The 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Limassol, Cyprus, during October, 2018.: . Paper presented at The 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Limassol, Cyprus, during October, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference Modelling in a Multi-Cell LoRa System
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2018 (English)In: The 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Limassol, Cyprus, during October, 2018., 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the market for low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies expands and the number of connected devices increases, it is becoming important to investigate the performance of LPWAN candidate technologies in dense deployment scenarios. In dense deployments, where the networks usually exhibit the traits of an interference-limited system, a detailed intra- and inter-cell interference analysis of LPWANs is required. In this paper, we model and analyze the performance of uplink communication of a LoRa link in a multi-cell LoRa system. To such end, we use mathematical tools from stochastic geometry and geometric probability to model the spatial distribution of LoRa devices. The model captures the effects of the density of LoRa cells and the allocation of quasi-orthogonal spreading factors (SF) on the success probability of the LoRa transmissions. To account for practical deployment of LoRa gateways, we model the spatial distribution of the gateways with a Poisson point process (PPP) and Matèrn hard-core point process (MHC). Using our analytical formulation, we find the uplink performance in terms of success probability and potential throughput for each of the available SF in LoRa’s physical layer. Our results show that in dense multi-cell LoRa deployment with uplink traffic, the intercell interference noticeably degrades the system performance.

Keywords
stochastic geometry, interference modelling, LoRa
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34715 (URN)
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Limassol, Cyprus, during October, 2018.
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-10-12
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0873-7827

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