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Mahmood, A., Hossain, M. M., Cavdar, C. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Energy-Reliability Aware Link Optimization for Battery-Powered IoT Devices with Non-Ideal Power Amplifiers. IEEE Internet of Things Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Reliability Aware Link Optimization for Battery-Powered IoT Devices with Non-Ideal Power Amplifiers
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study cross-layer optimization of low-power wireless links for reliability-aware applications while considering both the constraints and the non-ideal characteristics of the hardware in Internet-of-things (IoT) devices. Specifically, we define an energy consumption (EC) model that captures the energy cost—of transceiver circuitry, power amplifier, packet error statistics, packet overhead, etc.—in delivering a useful data bit. We derive the EC models for an ideal and two realistic non-linear power amplifier models. To incorporate packet error statistics, we develop a simple, in the form of elementary functions, and accurate closed-form packet error rate (PER) approximation in Rayleigh block-fading. Using the EC models, we derive energy optimal yet reliability and hardware compliant conditions for limiting unconstrained optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and payload size. Together with these conditions, we develop a semi-analytic algorithm for resource-constrained IoT devices to jointly optimize parameters on physical (modulation size, SNR) and medium access control (payload size and the number of retransmissions) layers in relation to link distance. Our results show that despite reliability constraints, the common notion—higher-order M-ary modulations (MQAM) are energy optimal for short-range communication—prevails, and can provide up to 180% lifetime extension as compared to often used OQPSK modulation in IoT devices. However, the reliability constraints reduce both their range and the energy efficiency, while non-ideal traditional PA reduces the range further by 50% and diminishes the energy gains unless a better PA is used.

Keywords
Energy-efficiency, reliability, short-range communication, cross-layer design, IoT, non-linear power amplifiers
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35507 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2019.2895228 (DOI)
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Date of Publication: 24 January 2019

Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eldefrawy, M., Butun, I., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN. Computer Networks, 148, 328-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN
2019 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, p. 328-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols are receiving increased attention from industry and academia to offer accessibility for Internet of Things (IoT) connected remote sensors and actuators. In this work, we present a formal study of LoRaWAN security, an increasingly popular technology, which defines the structure and operation of LPWAN networks based on the LoRa physical layer. There are previously known security vulnerabilities in LoRaWAN that lead to the proposal of several improvements, some already incorporated into the latest protocol specification. Our analysis of LoRaWAN security uses Scyther, a formal security analysis tool and focuses on the key exchange portion of versions 1.0 (released in 2015) and 1.1 (the latest, released in 2017). For version 1.0, which is still the most widely deployed version of LoRaWAN, we show that our formal model allowed to uncover weaknesses that can be related to previously reported vulnerabilities. Our model did not find weaknesses in the latest version of the protocol (v1.1), and we discuss what this means in practice for the security of LoRaWAN as well as important aspects of our model and tools employed that should be considered. The Scyther model developed provides realistic models for LoRaWAN v1.0 and v1.1 that can be used and extended to formally analyze, inspect, and explore the security features of the protocols. This, in turn, can clarify the methodology for achieving secrecy, integrity, and authentication for designers and developers interested in these LPWAN standards. We believe that our model and discussion of the protocols security properties are beneficial for both researchers and practitioners. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a formal security analysis of LoRaWAN.

Keywords
IoT, LoRaWANS, cyther verification
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35145 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2018.11.017 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Nikonowicz, J., Mahmood, A., Sisinni, E. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Noise Power Estimators in ISM Radio Environments: Performance Comparison and Enhancement Using a Novel Samples Separation Technique. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68(1), 105-115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Power Estimators in ISM Radio Environments: Performance Comparison and Enhancement Using a Novel Samples Separation Technique
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noise power estimation is central to efficient radio resource allocation in modern wireless communication systems. In the literature, there exist many noise power estimation methods that can be classified based on underlying theoretical principle; the most common are spectral averaging, eigenvalues of sample covariance matrix, information theory, and statistical signal analysis. However, how these estimation methods compare against each other in terms of accuracy, stability, and complexity is not well studied, and the focus instead remains on the enhancement of individual methods. In this paper, we adopt a common simulation methodology to perform a detailed performance evaluation of the prominent estimation techniques. The basis of our comparison is the signal-to-noise ratio estimation in the simulated industrial, scientific and medical band transmission, while the reference noise signal is acquired from an industrial production plant using a software-defined radio platform, USRP-2932. In addition, we analyze the impact of different techniques for noise-samples' separation on the estimation process. As a response to defects in the existing techniques, we propose a novel noise-samples' separation algorithm based on the adaptation of rank-order filtering. Our analysis shows that the proposed solution, apart from its low complexity, has a very good root-mean-squared error of 0.5 dB and smaller than 0.1-dB resolution, thus  achieving a performance comparable with the methods exploiting information theory concepts.

Keywords
Blind noise separation, noise power estimation, rank-order filtering (ROF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation.
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33731 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2018.2833998 (DOI)000452611600009 ()
Projects
TIMELINESS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Grimaldi, S., Mahmood, A. & Gidlund, M. (2019). Real-time Interference Identification via Supervised Learning: Embedding Coexistence Awareness in IoT Devices. IEEE Access, 7, 835-850
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time Interference Identification via Supervised Learning: Embedding Coexistence Awareness in IoT Devices
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 835-850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy sampling-based interference detection and identification (IDI) methods collide with the limitations of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) IoT hardware. Moreover, long sensing times, complexity and inability to track concurrent interference strongly inhibit their applicability in most IoT deployments. Motivated by the increasing need for on-device IDI for wireless coexistence, we develop a lightweight and efficient method targeting interference identification already at the level of single interference bursts. Our method exploits real-time extraction of envelope and model-aided spectral features, specifically designed considering the physical properties of signals captured with COTS hardware. We adopt manifold supervised-learning (SL) classifiers ensuring suitable performance and complexity trade-off for IoT platforms with different computational capabilities. The proposed IDI method is capable of real-time identification of IEEE 802.11b/g/n, 802.15.4, 802.15.1 and Bluetooth Low Energy wireless standards, enabling isolation and extraction of standard-specific traffic statistics even in the case of heavy concurrent interference. We perform an experimental study in real environments with heterogeneous interference scenarios, showing 90%–97% burst identification accuracy. Meanwhile, the lightweight SL methods, running online on wireless sensor networks-COTS hardware, ensure sub-ms identification time and limited performance gap from machine-learning approaches.

Keywords
Bluetooth; interference detection and identification, IoT, machine learning, wireless coexistence, wireless sensor networks, WLAN
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35184 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2885893 (DOI)000455177700001 ()
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Farag, H., Gidlund, M. & Österberg, P. (2018). A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(6), 2607-2616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2607-2616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) designedfor mission- and time-critical applications require timelyand deterministic data delivery within stringent deadline bounds.Exceeding delay limits for such applications can lead to system malfunction or ultimately dangerous situations that can threaten human safety. In this paper, we propose SS-MAC, an efficient slot stealing MAC protocol to guarantee predictable and timely channel access for time-critical data in IWSNs. In the proposed SS-MAC, aperiodic time-critical traffic opportunistically steals time slots assigned to periodic non-critical traffic. Additionally, a dynamic deadline-based scheduling is introduced to provide guaranteed channel access in emergency and event-based situations where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic. Performance comparisons are carried out between the proposed SS-MAC and WirelessHARTstandard and they show that, for the time-critical traffic, theproposed SS-MAC can achieve, at least, a reduction of almost 30% in the worst-case delay with a significant channel utilization efficiency.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32771 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2018.2793946 (DOI)000425981100048 ()
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Ma, J., Yang, D., Wang, H. & Gidlund, M. (2018). An Efficient Retransmission Scheme for Reliable End-to-End Wireless Communication over WSANs. IEEE Access, 6, 49838-49849
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Efficient Retransmission Scheme for Reliable End-to-End Wireless Communication over WSANs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 49838-49849Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) is increasingly recognized as an important technology in the realization of the future Internet of Things (IoT). The ability to cater to the demands of real-time, reliable and resource-constraint communication in industrial areas is highly dependent on efficient scheduling of communication links. Harsh industrial environments make packet retransmission inevitable, which causes the waste of link resource and deteriorates the reliability. Most of researches that focus on real-time and reliable performance underestimate the complexity of packet retransmission. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient retransmission scheme to guarantee deterministic communication and decrease the resource utilization. We combine deterministic communication with a novel reliable method by proposing a flow-based slot scheduling with a concession timeslot assistant. The proposed concession slot works by using the CCA and the pre-signal to avoid the contention of one channel during the communication on shared links. Furthermore, we use the theory of discrete-time Markov chain to analyze another two randomly backoff-based and flow-based shared link schedules. This study demonstrates that the proposed retransmission scheme can significantly improve the reliability of end-to-end packets delivery and the efficiency of slot utilization, as well as decrease energy consumption. The proposed scheduling is applied in a real factory, where the efficiency of the slot is significantly improved, and a flow reliability of 95.3% under a 12% packet error rate is guaranteed. 

Keywords
Job shop scheduling, Monitoring, Reliability, reliable wireless communication, Schedules, Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH), Wireless communication, Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs), Wireless sensor networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34601 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2868099 (DOI)000446496600001 ()
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Guntupalli, L., Gidlund, M. & Li, F. Y. (2018). An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5(4), 2868-2879, Article ID 8390912.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An On-Demand Energy Requesting Scheme for Wireless Energy Harvesting Powered IoT Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 2868-2879, article id 8390912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting (EH) delivers a unique technique for replenishing batteries in Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Equipped with an energy harvesting accessory, EH-enabled sensor nodes/IoT devices extract energy from ambient resources such as solar or radio frequency (RF) signals. Relying on residual battery or/and harvested energy, sensor nodes in an IoT network perform data exchange activities. Otherwise, the delivery of sensed data would be delayed until sufficient energy is harvested. In this paper, we propose an on-demand energy requesting (OER) mechanism for improving the delay performance of a wireless EH-powered IoT network. The proposed scheme acquires energy when necessary from an energy transmitter that is capable of transmitting energy via directed RF signals. Furthermore we develop two associated discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) models to analyze the performance of the OER scheme, targeting at a generic synchronous medium access control (MAC) protocol. Using the proposed DTMC models, we evaluate OER with respect to average packet delay, network throughput, packet loss probability, and packet reliability ratio by employing a specific synchronous MAC protocol. Numerical results obtained from both analysis and discrete-event simulations coincide with each other, indicating the accuracy of the models and revealing the behavior of EH based packet transmissions.

Keywords
IoT network, energy harvesting, on-demand energy requesting, DTMC modeling, performance evaluation
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33891 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2849069 (DOI)000441428700057 ()2-s2.0-85048892149 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMART
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Butun, I., Pereira, N. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18).: . Paper presented at 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.. ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, security, vulnerability
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33675 (URN)10.1145/3213299.3213304 (DOI)978-1-4503-5857-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18), Los Angeles, USA, June 2018.
Projects
DAWNSMARTTIMELINESS
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Forsström, S., Butun, I., Eldefrawy, M., Jennehag, U. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain. In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018, Brescia, Italy, 16 April 2018 through 18 April 2018 (pp. 218-223). IEEE, Article ID 8428344.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain
Show others...
2018 (English)In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, p. 218-223, article id 8428344Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Security, IoT, IIoT, Industry 4.0, vulnerabilities, trust, metering, metrology, application, end-device
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33653 (URN)10.1109/METROI4.2018.8428344 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052506472 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2497-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2498-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018, Brescia, Italy, 16 April 2018 through 18 April 2018
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Mahmood, A., Hossain, M. M. & Gidlund, M. (2018). Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC: . Paper presented at IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018. New York: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Layer Optimization of Wireless Links under Reliability and Energy Constraints
2018 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The vision of connecting billions of battery operated devices to be used for diverse emerging applications calls for a wireless communication system that can support stringent reliability and latency requirements. Both reliability and energy efficiency are critical for many of these applications that involve communication with short packets which undermine the coding gain achievable from large packets. In this paper, we study a cross-layer approach to optimize the performance of low-power wireless links. At first, we derive a simple and accurate packet error rate (PER) expression for uncoded schemes in block fading channels based on a new proposition that shows that the waterfall threshold in the PER upper bound in Nakagami-m fading channels is tightly approximated by the m-th moment of an asymptotic distribution of PER in AWGN channel. The proposed PER approximation establishes an explicit connection between the physical and link layers parameters, and the packet error rate. We exploit this connection for cross-layer design and optimization of communication links. To this end, we propose a semi-analytic framework to jointly optimize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modulation order at physical layer, and the packet length and number of retransmissions at link layer with respect to distance under the prescribed delay and reliability constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 1525-3511
Keywords
Wireless sensor networks, Packet error rate, Fading channels, Cross-layer optimization, Energy efficient communication
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32449 (URN)000435542401068 ()2-s2.0-85049232011 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1734-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE WCNC'18 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 April 2018
Projects
Timeliness
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0873-7827

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