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Johansson, C., Grandien, C. & Strandh, K. (2019). Roadmap for a communication maturity index for organizations—Theorizing, analyzing and developing communication value. Public Relations Review, Article ID 101791.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roadmap for a communication maturity index for organizations—Theorizing, analyzing and developing communication value
2019 (English)In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, article id 101791Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study employed a constitutive (CCO) communication approach to advance the dynamic concept of communication maturity for the purpose of theorizing, analyzing, and developing communication value on an organizational level. A literature review resulted in six theoretical areas related to communication maturity: understanding, function, organization, prerequisites, competence and practices including assessments of communication. These were analyzed in a qualitative comparative case study including 85 key stakeholders from eleven organizations. Findings illustrated the relevance of the theoretical areas to stakeholders’ perceptions of their respective organizations’ communication maturity. A first version of a Communication Maturity Index including four levels of maturity; immature, emerging, established, and mature is proposed. Based on the qualitative analysis, organizations’ communication maturity levels varied from emerging to mature. Findings of this study are limited to participating organizations and interviewed stakeholders. The CMI can be further developed in quantitative studies to investigate the constitutive role of communication in organizations and to be used in practice to develop higher levels of communication maturity. 

Keywords
CCO theory, Communication index, Communication maturity, Communication value, Organizational development, Stakeholder perceptions
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36676 (URN)10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.05.012 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. (2018). Leadership Communication (1ed.). In: R. L. Heath & W. Johansen (Ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication: (pp. 1-16). Online: John Wiley & Sons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leadership Communication
2018 (English)In: The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication / [ed] R. L. Heath & W. Johansen, Online: John Wiley & Sons, 2018, 1, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Leadership communication research has denoted communication as a tool for performing leadership, a socially constructed interactive process in which leadership is formed, and as a process constitutive of leadership. It has embraced three main perspectives on communication: communication as transmission of messages, communication as sensemaking, and communication as discourses. Research traditions that focus on the communicative aspects of leadership are those of leader–member relationships, transformational leadership, leaders' framing, sensemaking and discourse, and communicative leadership. Contexts for leadership communication include dyads, teams, organizations, and networks. Leadership communication occurs continuously between leaders and followers but can be trained, planned, and used with strategic intent. Strategic communication tools for leaders are framing, sensemaking, storytelling, and dialogue. Several outcomes of leadership communication are established in the literature: trust, engagement, empowerment, health, change, and effectiveness. Leadership is confirmed as occurring through leadership communication, since communication constructs and constitutes leadership.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Online: John Wiley & Sons, 2018 Edition: 1
Keywords
Leadership communication
National Category
Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34839 (URN)10.1002/9781119010722.iesc0099 (DOI)9781119010722 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. (2018). Lång väg till hållbart ledarskap för klimatet. In: Nord, L., Grusell, M., Bolin, N. & Falalsca, K. (Ed.), Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare. Sundsvall: Demicom, Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lång väg till hållbart ledarskap för klimatet
2018 (Swedish)In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, L., Grusell, M., Bolin, N. & Falalsca, K., Sundsvall: Demicom, Mittuniversitetet , 2018Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Demicom, Mittuniversitetet, 2018
Series
DEMICOM rapport ; 38
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35479 (URN)978-91-88025-99-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. (2018). Managing chaos through crisis communication leadership. In: : . Paper presented at 104th Annual Convention, National Communication Association, Salt Lake City, USA, November 8-11, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing chaos through crisis communication leadership
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During crises, people turn to the government for leadership, including what actions to take and how to return to stability (Christensen, Laegreid, & Rykkja, 2013). Leaders are responsible for and expected to minimize the impact of crises, enhance crisis management capacity, and coordinate crisis management efforts. In essence, crisis leadership is a communicative process, in which individuals verbalize and make sense of contingencies and objectives, establish a common purpose, and take action. Leadership communication is defined as a process in which leadership actors communicate to fulfill a common goal (Johansson, 2018). Empirical studies of leaders and managers outside of crisis contexts illustrate that they spend most of their time communicating with individuals, teams and stakeholders in a variety of ways: face to face or through digital communication channels. However, existing crisis communication research focuses on organizational leaders’ communicative management of the organization’s reputation (e.g., Coombs, 2016; Littlefield & Quenette, 2007; Ngai & Falkheimer, 2017; Waymer & Heath, 

2007). Hence, the research record predominantly reduces crisis leadership to managing organizations’ images, with the notable exception of discourse of renewal research (Seeger, Ulmer, Novak, & Sellnow, 2005; Ulmer, Seeger, & Sellnow, 2007). 

Our study expands crisis leadership research using an explorative study of 40 interviews with Swedish and U.S. government officials. We address the following questions: (1) How do crisis leaders communicatively create resources that help them prepare for crisis communication? (2) How do crisis leaders develop communicative strategies for crisis management with internal and external stakeholders? (3) How do crisis leaders communicatively enable inter-organizational collaboration on crisis management in communities? 

As Wouter, Dückers, and van der Velden (2016) noted, “much remains to be clarified in terms of how actual leadership tasks are undertaken and balanced by way of crisis management” (p. 56). This study answers that call, and develops a new framework for effective crisis communication leadership.

National Category
Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35478 (URN)
Conference
104th Annual Convention, National Communication Association, Salt Lake City, USA, November 8-11, 2018.
Projects
Changing crises, changing media: Re-assessing and Extending the Knowledge Base on Effective Crisis Communication in Digital, Social and Visual Media Environments
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2017-2538
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. (2018). On Goffman: Researching relations with Erving Goffman as pathfinder (2ed.). In: Ihlen, Øyvind and Fredriksson, Magnus (Ed.), Public relations and social theory: Key figures, concepts and developments (pp. 252-271). New York, NY: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Goffman: Researching relations with Erving Goffman as pathfinder
2018 (English)In: Public relations and social theory: Key figures, concepts and developments / [ed] Ihlen, Øyvind and Fredriksson, Magnus, New York, NY: Routledge, 2018, 2, p. 252-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Routledge, 2018 Edition: 2
National Category
Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33651 (URN)10.4324/9781315271231 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049610895 (Scopus ID)9781138281301 (ISBN)9781315271231 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Jahn, J. L. S. & Johansson, C. (2018). The communicative constitution of adaptive capacity during Sweden’s Västmanland wildfire. Corporate Communications. An International Journal, 23(2), 162-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The communicative constitution of adaptive capacity during Sweden’s Västmanland wildfire
2018 (English)In: Corporate Communications. An International Journal, ISSN 1356-3289, E-ISSN 1758-6046, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 162-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain how adaptive capacity is accomplished through communication processes and can contribute to enhancing disaster resilience. The authors adopt a structurational “four flows” explanation of communication processes. Design/methodology/approach: The authors observed and analyzed discourse in meetings of a crisis communication network consisting of representatives of municipalities and public authorities involved in crisis communication management during the Västmanland wildfire in Sweden. Findings: Adaptive capacity during the wildfire was principally accomplished through the structurational communication processes or “flows” of self-structuring, activity coordination, and institutional positioning. These flows intersected demonstrating how communication accomplishes the development of a responsive affiliation, organizes stabilizing structuring practices, and enables adaptive structuring practices. Research limitations/implications: The main contribution of this study is a communicative explanation for adaptive capacity, which draws from a structurational model of constitutive communication, and lends further understanding to improvisation during disasters. Practical implications: The authors discuss the findings in relation to improvisation, suggesting how the findings can inform future coordinated crisis communication for the public and news media. The recommendations address how practitioners might build a responsive affiliation, use minimal structures (e.g. communication practices), and maintain flexibility by introducing group reflexivity behaviors. Originality/value: The authors provide new theoretical and empirical knowledge of the communicative constitution of adaptive capacity during a disaster. 

Keywords
Adaptive capacity, Communicative constitution of organization, Four flows CCO, Resilience
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33391 (URN)10.1108/CCIJ-04-2017-0031 (DOI)000428167500002 ()2-s2.0-85044278454 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Nord, L. (2018). The Simple Truth: Ambiguity Works: Discursive Strategies by Swedish Public Authorities during the 2008 Financial Crisis. International Journal of Business Communication, 55(2), 220-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Simple Truth: Ambiguity Works: Discursive Strategies by Swedish Public Authorities during the 2008 Financial Crisis
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Business Communication, ISSN 2329-4884, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 220-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global financial crisis that broke out in 2008 affected a large number of governmental, public, and private organizations. This article explores communication of public authorities in Sweden during the crisis, and highlights their discursive strategies between 2008 and 2010, analyzing press releases. As an analytical point of departure, complexity theory is combined with theory on strategic ambiguity in order to analyze which communication strategies were employed by the authorities. Results show that the public authorities embraced complexity and ambiguity differently in their communication, and consequences of their different approaches are discussed. The study also confirms that the different roles of significant actors during a crisis influence the selection of possible message strategies.

Keywords
financial communication, financial crisis, complexity theory, strategic ambiguity, discourse analysis, Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32411 (URN)10.1177/2329488417710439 (DOI)000429832300005 ()2-s2.0-85044417897 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Bäck, E. (2017). Strategic Leadership Communication for Crisis Network Coordination. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 11(4), 324-343
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic Leadership Communication for Crisis Network Coordination
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Strategic Communication, ISSN 1553-118X, E-ISSN 1553-1198, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 324-343Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In large-scale societal crises, organizations involved in saving lives and protecting the public need to collaborate and coordinate their crisis communication to minimize damage and increase resilience. This study analyzed strategic leadership communication fostering such coordination in a network consisting of 24 members representing a variety of authorities, organizations and units established during a large forest fire in Sweden. As the crisis unfolded over a two-week period, 10 network meetings were observed and audio recorded. Discourse analysis was employed to analyze network leaders’ and members’ communication during the meetings. Findings illustrate that leadership communication strategies that fostered networked coordination of organizations’ crisis communication differ in significant ways from leadership communication in noncrisis and team contexts. Salient leadership communication strategies of directing/structuring and encouraging/facilitating were employed during crisis network meetings and functioned to coordinate involved organizations’ crisis communication efforts during time pressure. The study contributes with new knowledge of strategic leadership communication for crisis network coordination, which is important to crisis management and can be used in crisis preparation to enhance resilience.

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31918 (URN)10.1080/1553118X.2017.1341889 (DOI)2-s2.0-85024388826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Hamrin, S., Johansson, C. & Jahn, J. L. (2016). Communicative Leadership: Fostering co-worker agency in two Swedish business organizations. Corporate Communications. An International Journal, 21(2), 213-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicative Leadership: Fostering co-worker agency in two Swedish business organizations
2016 (English)In: Corporate Communications. An International Journal, ISSN 1356-3289, E-ISSN 1758-6046, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 213-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to enhance the knowledge of how leadership concepts are embraced by leadership actors and perceived to influence relationships between leaders and co-workers. Specifically, the authors aim to investigate how leaders and co-workers discursively construct the concept of “communicative leadership” and its practices and perceive that communicative leadership influences relationships, work processes, and agency.Design/methodology/approach– The authors analyzed interviews with leaders and co-workers in two Swedish business organizations about their understandings and experiences of leadership.Findings– Communicative processes that enhance co-worker agency, defined as a capacity to act; include: facilitating autonomy, sharing responsibility, and mutual participation. Relational and discursive leadership processes such as responsiveness and dialogue were seen to enhance mutual participation in both organizations. Broader Swedish cultural macro discourses shaped the leader/co-worker relationship, making agency a relational accomplishment rather than an individual phenomenon.Research limitations/implications– This study relies on data from individual and focus group interviews, rather than direct observation of leadership processes.Practical implications– Findings suggest that organizations would benefit from making explicit their goals and expectations for communicative leadership in their respective social and cultural contexts.Originality/value– The authors provide new theoretical and empirical knowledge of leaders’ and co-workers’ discursive construction of a leadership concept; leadership communication research in the Swedish context; empirical research on communicative leadership as an empowering form of leadership communication; and how leadership communication discourse on a micro level is connected to organizational and macro-social cultural levels.

Keywords
Communication, Leadership, Discourse, Co-worker agency, Communicative leadership, Discursive leadership
National Category
Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26776 (URN)10.1108/CCIJ-05-2015-0025 (DOI)000381979500005 ()2-s2.0-84961999704 (Scopus ID)DEMICOM (Local ID)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2010-0226
Available from: 2015-12-30 Created: 2015-12-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, I., Ingelsson, P. & Johansson, C. (2016). How Communicative Leadership influences co-workers’ health: A Quality Management perspective. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 8(2), 143-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Communicative Leadership influences co-workers’ health: A Quality Management perspective
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 143-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe leaders’ views on how Communicative Leadership influences co-worker health by comparing their opinions with the health-related values within Quality Management.

Design/methodology/approach - A multinational manufacturing organization that has been working with Communicative Leadership for several years was investigated. 21 managers trained in Communicative Leadership were interviewed and asked about their views on how their communication influences both the well-being of their co-workers and the working environment. Various communication behaviors and communication methodologies emerged from the interviews and were then analyzed versus the health-related Quality Management dimensions.

Findings - The result shows concrete communication behavior and methodologies that influence co-worker well-being and the working environment positively and negatively. Another result is a description of the prerequisites for managers to be able to communicate in a way that influences co-worker well-being and the working environment. The analysis of the communication behaviors and communication methodologies versus the health-related Quality Management values shows that several of the health-related Quality Management dimensions were present.

Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this research is that it is just managers’ view that has been investigated and analyzed.

Practical implications – Managers acting and behaving in accordance with the communicative behaviors and methodologies described in the results can influence co-worker health and the working environment in a positive way. The level of awareness of the prerequisites could help managers to influence co-worker well-being and create a good working environment.

Originality/value – The connection between Communicative Leadership and health-related Quality Management values is rarely made. This research can contribute to greater understanding in both areas.

Keywords Health-related Quality Management, co-worker health, Communicative Leadership, well-being, working environment.

Paper type Research paper. 

Keywords
Well-being, Communicative leadership, Co-worker health, Health-related quality management, Leadership behaviors, Working environment
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28353 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-08-2015-0059 (DOI)000413090200002 ()2-s2.0-85010645232 (Scopus ID)DEMICOM (Local ID)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Available from: 2016-07-06 Created: 2016-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6645-2980

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