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Nordenmark, M., Hagqvist, E. & Vinberg, S. (2019). Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands. SH@W Safety and Health at Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands
2019 (English)In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job creation. It can be assumed that health and well-being among the self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises are particularly crucial in this enterprise group because the smallness of the enterprise makes its members vulnerable. Earlier studies have indicated that the self-employed have a high working pace and work for long and irregular hours, indicating that it can be difficult to stay at home because of sickness. The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of sickness presenteeism among the self-employed in relation to the organizationally employed and to analyze whether any differences can be explained by higher work demands among the self-employed. Methods: The study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (2010) and includes the northwestern European countries in the survey. The questions cover a wide range of topics designed to meet the European Union's political needs. The main variables in this study are sickness presenteeism and several indicators of time demands. Results: The results show that the self-employed report a higher level of sickness presenteeism than the employed: 52.4 versus 43.6%. All indicators of time demands are significantly related to the risk for sickness presenteeism, also when controlling for background characteristics. Conclusion: The results confirm that the level of sickness presenteeism is higher among the self-employed and that high time demands are a major explanation to this. 

Keywords
Northwestern Europe, Organizationally employed, Self-employed, Sickness presenteeism, Time demands
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35825 (URN)10.1016/j.shaw.2019.01.003 (DOI)
Note

Available online 11 January 2019

Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Warne, M., Wall, E., Carlerby, H. & Vinberg, S. (2018). Alcohol- and drug prevention among seasonal employees at a Swedish ski resort. In: Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes and Bjarne Bruun Jensen (Ed.), 10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research: Implementing Health Promotion in the Life Course - User Involvement in Practice and Research. Paper presented at The 10th IUHPE - Health Promotion in the Life Course Conference hosted by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 24 - 26 September 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol- and drug prevention among seasonal employees at a Swedish ski resort
2018 (English)In: 10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research: Implementing Health Promotion in the Life Course - User Involvement in Practice and Research / [ed] Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes and Bjarne Bruun Jensen, 2018Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Seasonal employees at ski resorts represent a high-risk population for the use of alcohol and drugs, as well as other negative lifestyle behaviours. These employees work and live in a context where the customers are on holiday and hence alcohol is used frequently. To our knowledge there is a gap in the literature regarding alcohol and drug consumption among seasonal employees. Particularly studies in the context of ski resorts are lacking. The overall purpose of our study was to evaluate a policy-based intervention at a ski resort area in Sweden. The intervention was led by a project leader together with managers from different tourism industries, the health sector, social service and police. Components in the intervention were e.g. policy development and implementation, education of managers and creation of a manager network.  In total, 48 enterprises participated. A questionnaire, concerning alcohol and drug use and social aspects, was distributed before and after the intervention. The firs questionnaire was answered by 611 (47%) respondents and 423 (34%) respondents the follow-up questionnaire after two years. In addition, five persons in the project group was interviewed after the intervention.  Based on survey data, comparisons before and after the intervention showed several positive results. The  results show a significant reduction of hazardous drinking and an  increased awareness of the companies’ alcohol- and drug policies among the employees. No significant effects on drug consumption were found. The project group reported better knowledge about alcohol and drugs. However, most important was the increased collaboration between managers in tourism industries. The intervention also resulted in new norm breaking ideas such as a sober end of the season instead of the traditional “drinking the bar dry” and managers taking employees out on hiking instead of going out for a beer.

 

The conclusion is that seasonal tourism industries need to work with hazardous alcohol- and drug consumption from a “whole village perspective”. Successful health promotion work among seasonal employees, needs collaboration between private and public sector and should be related to cultural norms as well as working- and living conditions in the particular context, in this case the tourist resort.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35287 (URN)
Conference
The 10th IUHPE - Health Promotion in the Life Course Conference hosted by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 24 - 26 September 2018.
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S. & Vinberg, S. (2018). Arbete och ojämlikhet i hälsa i vuxenlivet (2ed.). In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd (pp. 335-360). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbete och ojämlikhet i hälsa i vuxenlivet
2018 (Swedish)In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 2, p. 335-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2018 Edition: 2
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34233 (URN)9789147113545 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S. & Tjulin, Å. (2018). Arbetsplatsen som arena för hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete. In: : . Paper presented at Jubileum för Rehabiliteringsvetenskap, 4 oktober, 2018, Östersund.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbetsplatsen som arena för hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete
2018 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34650 (URN)
Conference
Jubileum för Rehabiliteringsvetenskap, 4 oktober, 2018, Östersund
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Björk, A., Rönngren, Y., Selander, J., Vinberg, S., Hellzén, O. & Olofsson, N. (2018). Health, lifestyle habits, and physical fitness among adults with ADHD compared with a random sample of a Swedish general population. Society, health and vulnerability, 9(1), Article ID UNSP 1553916.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health, lifestyle habits, and physical fitness among adults with ADHD compared with a random sample of a Swedish general population
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2018 (English)In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 9, no 1, article id UNSP 1553916Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Persons with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) represent a high-risk population according to health and lifestyles. In the present study, 48 adults with ADHD were recruited to a forthcoming lifestyle intervention. The ADHD sample was matched to a random sample of 42 persons from a Swedish general population that was selected from LIV (a Lifestyle-Performance-Health project).

Objective: To identify potential differences in health, lifestyle habits, and physical fitness between adults with and without ADHD.

Method: Self-reported questionnaires and physical fitness tests.

Results: The ADHD group show worse health outcomes with higher odds ratios for bad general health (OR;13 CI; (3,4–50)), and poorer lifestyle habits with higher odds ratios for low weekly exercise (OR; 3,8 CI; (1,2–13)). When adjusting for education, employment status, and cash margin, the ADHD sample did not show decreased aerobic fitness (OR; 0,9 CI; (0,8–1,0), but lower odds ratios for doing less sit-ups (OR; 0,6 CI; (0,4–0,9)) compared to the general population group.

Conclusion: It is not possible to prove that the ADHD diagnosis itself cause the worse health and lifestyle. Other lifestyle factors may have negative consequences of adult ADHD, such as lower levels of education, less succeed in working life, and minor financial margins.

Keywords
Adult ADHD, general health, lifestyle habits, mental health, fitness test, Swedish general population
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35207 (URN)10.1080/20021518.2018.1553916 (DOI)000453874400001 ()
Note

Published online: 18 Dec 2018

Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S., Härter Griep, R., Mellner, C., Nordenmark, M., Vinberg, S. & Eloranta, S. (2018). Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study. Small Business Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study
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2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between selfemployed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction,sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

Keywords
Self-employment, Cardiovascular disease, Hospitalization, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33522 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0051-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045440601 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0615
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Landstad, B., Hedlund, M. & Vinberg, S. (2018). How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – Small-scale enterprises are important for sustainable development in Europe and account for a significant proportion of private enterprises and their large contribution to employment. The overall research aim of the study is to explore workplace health management from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Norway and Sweden. Methodology – In-depth interviews with 18 managers in SSEs were conducted and a stepwise qualitative analysis was used. Findings – The findings are presented as two main patterns 1) Interorganisational dynamics and 2) Participative leadership. Managers iscussed opportunities for workplace health management to foster solidarity and flexibility in the workplace, the potential of employees for self-governance, and a cultural environment at the workplace characterized by safety, trust, care, loyalty and humour. The managers employed a process-oriented communicator style, were all-rounders, and demonstrated dedicated and distinct management. Managers in small-scale enterprises were lonely problem-solvers and experienced high and conflicting work demands and work-family conflicts. Research limitations – The findings should be interpreted with caution concerning representation of small-scale enterprises generally. The enterprises were recruited from an development project focusing on workplace health management and might therefore have a positive attitude. Originality – This study adds important knowledge regarding the preconditions for creating health-promoting workplaces in SSEs, an area for which limited research exists. The findings provide insights and knowledge about managers’ possibilities and obstacles in workplace health management. The findings could be transferrable to management in similar contexts if managers develop more awareness and knowledge. Practical implications – The managers obtain recommended information about what to do and how to address workplace health management in SSEs.

Keywords
Small-scale enterprises, workplace health management, managers, Sweden, Norway, qualitative explorative method design
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34230 (URN)
Conference
14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Vinberg, S., Landstad, B. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 11(1), 2-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

Findings

The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

Originality/value

This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

Keywords
Dissonance, Health, Public sector, Sweden, Working conditions
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33311 (URN)10.1108/IJWHM-08-2017-0067 (DOI)000427973300001 ()2-s2.0-85044208068 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Tjulin, Å., Hagqvist, E., Vinberg, S., Eriksson, A. & Landstad, B. (2018). Prerequisites and hindrance in a health-promoting leadership educational intervention: - learning experinces from first line public sector managers. In: Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes, Bjarne Bruun Jensen (Ed.), Implementing health promotion in the life course: - user involvement in practice and research. Paper presented at 10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research. Rapportserie Senter for helsefremmende forskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prerequisites and hindrance in a health-promoting leadership educational intervention: - learning experinces from first line public sector managers
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2018 (English)In: Implementing health promotion in the life course: - user involvement in practice and research / [ed] Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes, Bjarne Bruun Jensen, Rapportserie Senter for helsefremmende forskning , 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rapportserie Senter for helsefremmende forskning, 2018
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34565 (URN)978-82-93158-42-4 (ISBN)978-82-93158-43-1 (ISBN)
Conference
10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Hagqvist, E., Toivanen, S. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions. In: : . Paper presented at EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

 

Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34232 (URN)
Conference
EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5935-5688

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