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Toivanen, S. & Vinberg, S. (2018). Arbete och ojämlikhet i hälsa i vuxenlivet (2ed.). In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd (pp. 335-360). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbete och ojämlikhet i hälsa i vuxenlivet
2018 (Swedish)In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 2, p. 335-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2018 Edition: 2
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34233 (URN)9789147113545 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S., Härter Griep, R., Mellner, C., Nordenmark, M., Vinberg, S. & Eloranta, S. (2018). Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study. Small Business Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study
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2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between selfemployed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction,sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

Keywords
Self-employment, Cardiovascular disease, Hospitalization, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33522 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0051-3 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0615
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Landstad, B., Hedlund, M. & Vinberg, S. (2018). How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How managers of small-scale enterprises can create a health promoting corporate culture
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – Small-scale enterprises are important for sustainable development in Europe and account for a significant proportion of private enterprises and their large contribution to employment. The overall research aim of the study is to explore workplace health management from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Norway and Sweden. Methodology – In-depth interviews with 18 managers in SSEs were conducted and a stepwise qualitative analysis was used. Findings – The findings are presented as two main patterns 1) Interorganisational dynamics and 2) Participative leadership. Managers iscussed opportunities for workplace health management to foster solidarity and flexibility in the workplace, the potential of employees for self-governance, and a cultural environment at the workplace characterized by safety, trust, care, loyalty and humour. The managers employed a process-oriented communicator style, were all-rounders, and demonstrated dedicated and distinct management. Managers in small-scale enterprises were lonely problem-solvers and experienced high and conflicting work demands and work-family conflicts. Research limitations – The findings should be interpreted with caution concerning representation of small-scale enterprises generally. The enterprises were recruited from an development project focusing on workplace health management and might therefore have a positive attitude. Originality – This study adds important knowledge regarding the preconditions for creating health-promoting workplaces in SSEs, an area for which limited research exists. The findings provide insights and knowledge about managers’ possibilities and obstacles in workplace health management. The findings could be transferrable to management in similar contexts if managers develop more awareness and knowledge. Practical implications – The managers obtain recommended information about what to do and how to address workplace health management in SSEs.

Keywords
Small-scale enterprises, workplace health management, managers, Sweden, Norway, qualitative explorative method design
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34230 (URN)
Conference
14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Vinberg, S., Landstad, B. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 11(1), 2-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

Findings

The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

Originality/value

This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

Keywords
Dissonance, Health, Public sector, Sweden, Working conditions
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33311 (URN)10.1108/IJWHM-08-2017-0067 (DOI)000427973300001 ()2-s2.0-85044208068 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Hagqvist, E., Toivanen, S. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions. In: : . Paper presented at EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

 

Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34232 (URN)
Conference
EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Vinberg, S. & Landstad, B. (2018). The leader identity - a means to experience conflict and constructing balance. In: Gender, Work and Organisation International Interdisciplinary Conference ABSTRACTS BOOKLET, 13-16 JUNE 2018: . Paper presented at 10th Biennial Gender, Work & Organisation Conference 2018, Sydney,13-16 June, 2018 (pp. 120-120).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The leader identity - a means to experience conflict and constructing balance
2018 (English)In: Gender, Work and Organisation International Interdisciplinary Conference ABSTRACTS BOOKLET, 13-16 JUNE 2018, 2018, p. 120-120Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Literature shows that self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family demands than employees but variation is great, especially among self-employed men and women. For instance, studies suggest that women chooses self-employment as a strategy to balance work and family while men uses self-employment as a way to find employment and earnings. Many self-employed individuals describe a feeling of being always on. Self-employment is closely related to masculine values giving emphasis to long work hours and high job demands. Self-employment is an identity and impede men and women to draw a line between work and private life. It is often argued that this is not a problem in the Nordic countries because of high gender equality. However, quantitative data shows rather the opposite.Sparse literature suggest that both men and women use self-employment as a way to ease conflict between work and family. In recent years the concept of work-life enrichment has grown as an explanation how one role can improve quality in other roles easing conflicts. Research suggest that high job control for self-employed men and women eases conflict demand and perhaps create enrichment.In this study, we analyzed interview data from managers in 18 small scale enterprises (SSE), of which 8 were women and 10 men, in the central regions of Norway and Sweden aiming to gain a deeper understanding of how they men and women construct and relate to work and private life in their role as managers of SSEs.Preliminary results show that self-employed men and women narrate a strong identification in their leader identity resulting in a duality in relation to work and family. We identify that interviewees describe that conflict seams to part of the deal of being a leader. They describe how the strong leader identity legitimate a high level of conflict among both men and women. This is in line with the notion that self-employment builds on masculine values and women, though being the main responsible of the home, seem to construct these male values. Meanwhile, the strong leader identity is used as a way to construct balance. In their role as managers and leaders they are allowed to be flexible, more flexible than their employees. However, this flexibility is often used as a way to fit work around family. Lastly, interviewees describe how managerial identity contribute to a work-life enrichment. High job identification gave the leader self-esteem, skills and perspectives which produced a positive affect in relation to work.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34231 (URN)
Conference
10th Biennial Gender, Work & Organisation Conference 2018, Sydney,13-16 June, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hedlund, M., Landstad, B. & Vinberg, S. (2018). Tightrope walking - external impact factors on workplace health management in small-scale enterprises. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tightrope walking - external impact factors on workplace health management in small-scale enterprises
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) are important for ensuring growth, innovation, job creation, in addition to social integration in working life. Research shows that SSEs pay little attention to and have insufficient competence in workplace health management. From the perspective of managers, this study explores how external factors influence the development of this management. The article refers to a case study between eight Norwegian and ten Swedish managers of SSEs in the middle part of Norway and Sweden. We used a stepwise qualitative approach to analyse data, using an interpretive indexing of main categories. Two main categories were found to have an influence on the development of workplace health- management: (1) Restricted leeway and (2) Commitments. Concerning the first main category, areas that managers highlight as important comprise the legal framework and regulations; workforce and market situation, production, finances; and occupational safety and health issues. Areas related to the second main category were advice from the board, guidance from mentors, work-related networks, and family and friends as buffers. One conclusion is that despite limited scope for developing workplace health anagement, managers find supportive guidance and inspiration from environments that are committed to helping them and their enterprise.

Keywords
Small-scale enterprises, workplace health management, qualitative methods, management
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34227 (URN)
Conference
14th Annual Norwegian Health Sociology Conference, April 19-20, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Hansen, E., Hedlund, M. & Landstad, B. (2017). Ambiguity among Managers in Small-Scale Enterprises: How to Handle Business and Workplace Health Management. Societies, 7(4), 1-17, Article ID 31.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambiguity among Managers in Small-Scale Enterprises: How to Handle Business and Workplace Health Management
2017 (English)In: Societies, ISSN 1090-9389, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-17, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite extensive research on health in working life, few studies focus on this issue from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs). To gain deeper knowledge of managers’ perceptions and strategies for dealing with workplace health management, 13 Norwegian and Swedish SSE managers were interviewed after participating in a workplace health development project. The methodical approach was based on Grounded Theory with a constructivist orientation. The main theme that emerged was ‘ambiguity in workplace health management and maintaining the business’, which was related to the categories ‘internal workplace settings’, ‘workplace surroundings’,and ‘leadership strategies’. The managers experienced ambiguity due to internal and external demands. These requirements were linked to the core challenges in dealing with multitasking leadership, financial decision-making, labour legislation, staff development and maintaining business. However, the managers developed new skills and competence and thereby a more reflexive approach and readiness to create a health-promoting workplace from being part of a development project. The implications are that managers in SSEs need to exchange experiences and discuss workplace health issues with other managers in networks. It is also important that occupational health services and social and welfare organizations use tailor-made models and strategies for supporting SSEs.

Keywords
small-scale enterprises; managers; workplace health management; interviews; Grounded Theory
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32043 (URN)10.3390/soc7040031 (DOI)000419182300004 ()
Projects
Modeller för företagshälsovård i mindre företag
Funder
AFA Insurance, Dnr 130190
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Torsdatter Markussen, L. & Landstad, B. (2017). Cooperation Between Occupational Health Services and Small-Scale Enterprises in Norway and Sweden: A Provider Perspective. Workplace Health & Safety, 65(8), 355-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperation Between Occupational Health Services and Small-Scale Enterprises in Norway and Sweden: A Provider Perspective
2017 (English)In: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although small-scale enterprises (SSEs) dominate the private enterprise sector, knowledge about support for these organizations from occupational health services (OHSs) is insufficient. The aim of this research was to study OHS services provided and staff cooperation with SSEs in Norway and Sweden. In total, 87 Norwegian and 51 Swedish OHS providers answered a survey on their experiences providing requested services from and cooperation with SSEs. Based on survey questions and constructed indices, providers in the two countries were compared using independent sample t tests and non-parametric tests. Open-ended questions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that SSEs, particularly in industrial, construction, and trade sectors, commonly contract for Norwegian and Swedish OHSs, and these contracts have increased in the last 12 months. Norwegian providers state that SSEs request broader organizationallybased services; their Swedish counterparts request more individual-based health-related services. Improvements concerning specific strategies for OHS collaboration with SSEs may be needed.

Keywords
health promotion, management, occupational
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29829 (URN)10.1177/2165079916668527 (DOI)000406598900006 ()28056210 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019155599 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 130190
Available from: 2017-01-06 Created: 2017-01-06 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Warne, M. & Vinberg, S. (2017). Elefanten i rummet – ett interventionsprojekt med utmaningar. In: : . Paper presented at NORDISKE FOLKESUNDHEDSKONFERENCE, AALBORG, 22-25 augusti 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elefanten i rummet – ett interventionsprojekt med utmaningar
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Baggrund (kontekst, problembeskrivelse, problemstilling og formål)Alkohol och droger bland säsongsanställda på skidturistorter är ett problem som beskrivits i ringa omfattning. Studier visar att förekomsten av alkohol och droger är högre i denna grupp än i befolkningen generellt. Många säsongsanställda är unga och i dessa år är risken stor att en riskfylld konsumtion av alkohol och droger leder till hälsoproblem i framtiden. Arbetsgivare och företrädare för kommun och landsting uppmärksammade problemet och erhöll finansiering av Folkhälsomyndigheten 2014-2016 för att genomföra en intervention i syfte att minska alkohol och droger bland säsongsanställda. Till projektet knöts forskare på ett universitet som genom följeforskning skulle följa och utvärdera projektet. 

Teoretisk ramme og metodeMed utgångspunkt i systemteoretiskt perspektiv, observationer och samtal under en intervention om alkohol och droger bland anställda, diskuteras aspekter av problemägande, makt, kommunikation och samarbete mellan forskare och projektägare. Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns för sammabete mellan forskning och praktik när en intervention genomförs inom ett område som också är en del av projektägarnas näringsverksamhet? 

Hovedresultater og konklusionerProjektets olika aktörer har olika bakomliggande syften vilka ställs på sin spets när projektresultat kommuniceras externt. Forskningens akademiska frihet, att vara oberoende gentemot marknaden, kan skapa konflikt med andra aktörer som har ett ekonomiskt intresse vilket kan äventyras av att resultat publiceras. Tät kontakt mellan universitet och praktik kan till viss del minska konflikten men metoder behöver utvecklas för att i ett tidigt skede tydliggöra roller, ansvarsområden samt forskarnas akademiska frihet. 

Betydning for videre forskning, policy eller praksisI allt större utsträckning sker en samverkan mellan forskning och praktik och universiteten får uppdrag från det omgivande samhället. Fördelen är att forskningen når ut snabbare i samhället och kan komma till användning men det behövs fler studier som visar de problem som detta samarbete också kan leda till.

Keywords
Alkohol; kommunikation; samarbete; systemteori; uppdrags forskning
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31531 (URN)
Conference
NORDISKE FOLKESUNDHEDSKONFERENCE, AALBORG, 22-25 augusti 2017
Available from: 2017-09-03 Created: 2017-09-03 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5935-5688

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