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Toivanen, S., Härter Griep, R., Mellner, C., Nordenmark, M., Vinberg, S. & Eloranta, S. (2019). Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study. Small Business Economics, 53(2), 343-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study
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2019 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between selfemployed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction,sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

Keywords
Self-employment, Cardiovascular disease, Hospitalization, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33522 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0051-3 (DOI)000482385700003 ()2-s2.0-85045440601 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-0615
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S., Hagqvist, E., Landstad, B., Nordenmark, M., Östergren, P.-O. & Vinberg, S. (2019). Mikroföretagares arbetsmiljö och hälsa med fokus på genus och etnicitet - innovationer för tillsyn. In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: Uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamheten (pp. 43-55). Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mikroföretagares arbetsmiljö och hälsa med fokus på genus och etnicitet - innovationer för tillsyn
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2019 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: Uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamheten, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, , p. 43-59p. 43-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket, 2019. p. 43-59
Series
Rapport 2019:7: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv. Arbetsmiljöverket, ISSN 1650-3717
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37317 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Nordenmark, M., Hagqvist, E. & Toivanen, S. (2019). Sickness presenteeism among self-employed in Europe. In: : . Paper presented at FALF KONFERENS 2019 Hållbar utveckling i organisationer, Norrköping, 10-12 juni, 2019 (pp. 89-90).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness presenteeism among self-employed in Europe
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Health incidents often result in sickness absenteeism, i.e. the failure to report for work as scheduled. However, there is increasing evidence that workers more and more decide for another option: sickness presenteeism, defined as attending work while ill. This can be problematic for the individual and presenteeism creates costs for organizations and the society as well. European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation. The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around 20 percent of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular hours, indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. It can be assumed that health and well-being among self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises is particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable. Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presenteeism. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presenteeism among self-employed.AimThe aim of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among different groups of self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyze if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure. Method: This study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the description and regression analysis. Results: Results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presenteeism than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees. Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are90clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presenteeism and time pressure among self-employed. The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presenteeism because they experience more time pressure. Other results are that sickness presenteeism differ between groups of self-employed related to gender, company size, motives for self-employment and country groups.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36301 (URN)
Conference
FALF KONFERENS 2019 Hållbar utveckling i organisationer, Norrköping, 10-12 juni, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Nordenmark, M., Hagqvist, E. & Vinberg, S. (2019). Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands. SH@W Safety and Health at Work, 10(2), 224-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness Presenteeism among the Self-employed and Employed in Northwestern Europe—The Importance of Time Demands
2019 (English)In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 224-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job creation. It can be assumed that health and well-being among the self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises are particularly crucial in this enterprise group because the smallness of the enterprise makes its members vulnerable. Earlier studies have indicated that the self-employed have a high working pace and work for long and irregular hours, indicating that it can be difficult to stay at home because of sickness. The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of sickness presenteeism among the self-employed in relation to the organizationally employed and to analyze whether any differences can be explained by higher work demands among the self-employed. Methods: The study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (2010) and includes the northwestern European countries in the survey. The questions cover a wide range of topics designed to meet the European Union's political needs. The main variables in this study are sickness presenteeism and several indicators of time demands. Results: The results show that the self-employed report a higher level of sickness presenteeism than the employed: 52.4 versus 43.6%. All indicators of time demands are significantly related to the risk for sickness presenteeism, also when controlling for background characteristics. Conclusion: The results confirm that the level of sickness presenteeism is higher among the self-employed and that high time demands are a major explanation to this. 

Keywords
Northwestern Europe, Organizationally employed, Self-employed, Sickness presenteeism, Time demands
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35825 (URN)10.1016/j.shaw.2019.01.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Vinberg, S., Landstad, B. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 11(1), 2-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

Findings

The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

Originality/value

This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

Keywords
Dissonance, Health, Public sector, Sweden, Working conditions
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33311 (URN)10.1108/IJWHM-08-2017-0067 (DOI)000427973300001 ()2-s2.0-85044208068 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Vinberg, S., Hagqvist, E., Toivanen, S. & Nordenmark, M. (2018). Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions. In: : . Paper presented at EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

 

Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34232 (URN)
Conference
EAWOP Small Group Meeting,"To work, or not to work (when sick), that is the question", Klagenfurt, Austria, July 27-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Nordenmark, M. (2018). The importance of job and family satisfaction for happiness among women and men in different gender regimes. Societies, 8(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of job and family satisfaction for happiness among women and men in different gender regimes
2018 (English)In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The family and the work place are two arenas of central importance for most adult people. Consequently, one can assume that the level of satisfaction with one’s family life and job may be critical to one’s level of happiness in general. However, there are reasons to believe that there are variations according to gender and gender regime. The general aim of this study is to analyse the relative importance of job satisfaction and satisfaction with family life for happiness among women and men in different gender regimes. Analyses are based on comparative data from the International Social Survey Program 2012. Results show that the level of satisfaction with family life appears more important to the general level of happiness than the level of job satisfaction. This is true for both women and men and in different gender regimes. However, the level of satisfaction with family life appears less important to men’s level of happiness in countries representing a conservative gender regime. Another interesting related result is that the level of happiness appears generally lower among women living in a conservative gender regime.

Keywords
gender, gender regime, happiness, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, satisfaction with family life
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32803 (URN)10.3390/soc8010001 (DOI)000428564500001 ()
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Nordenmark, M., Pérez, G., Trujillo Alemán, S. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2017). Parental leave policies and time use for mothers and fathers: A case study of Spain and Sweden. Society, health and vulnerability, 8(1), 2-12, Article ID 1374103.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental leave policies and time use for mothers and fathers: A case study of Spain and Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 2-12, article id 1374103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

States play an important role in gender equality through policy structuring. In this case study, the aim is to explore whether changes in parental leave policies over two decades trickle down to changes in gendered time use in two polarised countries: Sweden and Spain, represented by the Basque Country. Sweden represents dual-earner countries with high relative gender equality, whereas Spain represents a south European policy model supporting a breadwinning/homemaker ideal. The results show that changes in the gendered time use among mothers and fathers in both countries are associated with changes in parental leave policies. Changes in policies directed towards increasing gender equality reduce the gender gap in time use among mothers and fathers and seem to increase gender equality within a country. From these results, the conclusion is that parental leave policies that are structured to promote or enable gender equality could reduce the gender time gap in work among mothers and fathers.

Keywords
case study, dual-earner policy model, gender, south European policy model, parental leave policy, time use
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31644 (URN)10.1080/20021518.2017.1374103 (DOI)000412370700001 ()
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Hagqvist, E., Gillander Gådin, K. & Nordenmark, M. (2017). Work-family conflict and well-being across Europe: The role of gender context. Social Indicators Research, 132(2), 785-797
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-family conflict and well-being across Europe: The role of gender context
2017 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 785-797Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analysed whether gender context is important to differences in therelationship between work–family conflict (WFC) and well-being across Europe. Wehypothesised that in countries that support equality in work life and where norms supportwomen’s employment, the relationship between WFC and low well-being is weaker than incountries with less support for gender equality. Cohabiting men and women aged18–65 years from 25 European countries were selected from the European Social Survey.A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between well-being andWFC, and two measurements were used to represent gender context: gender equality inwork life and norms regarding women’s employment. Contrary to the hypothesis, theresults showed that the negative relationship was stronger in countries with high levels ofgender equality in work life and support for women’s employment than in countries with arelatively low level of gender equality in work life and support for traditional genderrelations. The context in which gender is constructed may be important when studying therelationship between WFC and well-being. In addition, emphasis should be placed onpolicies that equalise both the labour market and the work performed at home.

Keywords
Gender context, Europe, Gender relations, Multilevel analysis, Well-being, Work–family conflict
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27386 (URN)10.1007/s11205-016-1301-x (DOI)000402092200013 ()2-s2.0-84961199387 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-04-12 Created: 2016-04-12 Last updated: 2017-08-08Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S., Harter Griep, R., Mellner, C., Nordenmark, M., Vinberg, S. & Eloranta, S. (2016). Hospitalization due to stroke or myocardial infarction – are there any differences between self-employed individuals and employees?. In: : . Paper presented at Health of small business owners & entrepreneurs - 1st international workshop, Montpellier, France, September 29 and 30, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospitalization due to stroke or myocardial infarction – are there any differences between self-employed individuals and employees?
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim was to examine hospitalization due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction, respectively, and to analyze differences between the self-employed and paid employees in the same industries. Data and methods: Data from Statistics Sweden's population register (2003) was linked to National Board of Health and Welfare’s hospital admission register and cause of death register (2004-2008). More than 4.7 million people (7% self-employed) were included in the analyses. Individuals were classified on the basis of their occupational status as self-employed persons or employees. The self-employed were further classified as sole proprietors or limited liability company owners according to the legal form of self-employment. Based on the Swedish Standard Industrial Classification (SNI 2002) eight industries were distinguished. Diagnoses of hospitalization were classified as stroke (intracerebral hemorrhage I61, cerebral infarction I63, and unspecified acute cerebrovascular disease I64) and acute myocardial infarction (I21) based on the international classification of diseases (ICD-10). Stroke and Myocardial Infarction (MI) hospitalization incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using negative binomial regression models adjusted for pre-specified potential confounding covariates. Effect modification by occupational status, industrial sector, and gender was investigated with two and three-way interaction terms. 

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29009 (URN)
Conference
Health of small business owners & entrepreneurs - 1st international workshop, Montpellier, France, September 29 and 30, 2016
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2016-10-02 Created: 2016-10-02 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2867-8537

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