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Wadbring, Ingela
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Weibull, L., Wadbring, I. & Ohlsson, J. (2018). Det svenska medielandskapet: traditionella och sociala medier i samspel och konkurrens. Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Det svenska medielandskapet: traditionella och sociala medier i samspel och konkurrens
2018 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2018. p. 314
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35374 (URN)9789147113354 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. (2018). News avoiders: Do they exist or not?. In: : . Paper presented at ECREA, 7th European Communication Conference, Lugano, Switzerland, Oct 31 - Nov 3, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>News avoiders: Do they exist or not?
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35483 (URN)
Conference
ECREA, 7th European Communication Conference, Lugano, Switzerland, Oct 31 - Nov 3, 2018.
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. & Nilsson, M. (2016). En bild säger mer är tusen ord? Bildjournalistikens förändring i svensk dagspress 1995-2013. Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En bild säger mer är tusen ord? Bildjournalistikens förändring i svensk dagspress 1995-2013
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapports syfte är att kartlägga den journalistiska bildens uttryck, funktion och förändring mellan 1995 och 2013, en period som utmärks av digitalisering och paradigmatiska förändringar i mediebranschen. Projektet är det första i sitt slag i svenskt kontext och fyller därmed en vit fläck på forskningskartan eftersom forskning om journalistik i den digitala eran huvudsakligen fokuserat på skrivande journalistik. Kapitel ett introducerar syfte och studiens tre frågeställningar som behandlar: bildernas omfång, form och tilltal; bildernas innehåll; samt vem som har tagit bilden. I kapitel två ges en bakgrund till dagens bildjournalistik som lyfter fram magasinens historiskt framträdande roll, tekniska, kulturella och ekonomiska faktorer bakom nyhetsbildens framväxt, samt mediekonvergensen där journalistiken sägs bli alltmer visuell samtidigt som yrkesrollen förändras. Kapitel tre presenterar tre teoretiska perspektiv som använts i studien: kritiska perspektiv på tabloidisering där bilden anses ha ett lågt värde som företrädesvis ”mjuk,” det vill säga mindre viktig journalistik; perspektiv på bildens nyhetsvärde, visuell gestaltning samt bildjournalistiska ideal och normer; och teoretiska perspektiv på bildens trovärdighet, den förändrade yrkesrollen i dagens journalistik och framväxten av amatörbilder i journalistiken. Avgränsning och metoder presenteras i kapitel fyra. Studien undersöker bilden i fyra dagstidningar: Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet och Helsingborgs Dagblad. Kvantitativ innehållsanalys har använts för kartläggningen, en kvalitativ innehållsanalys har gjorts av tidningarnas förstasidor, och redaktörer har intervjuats för att besvara frågan om bildernas upphovsperson. I kapitel fem besvaras frågeställningarna genom en deskriptiv genomgång av resultaten. Antalet bilder har ökat markant, speciellt i kvällstidningen Aftonbladet, medan det är främst featurematerial snarare än nyhetsbilder som står för ökningen i de övriga tidningarna. Övergången till tabloidformat för morgontidningarna har påverkat bildanvändningen, vilket var speciellt tydligt på förstasidorna. Det är främst de mycket små, frimärksstora bilderna som står för den största ökningen i tidningen som helhet. Människor är i fokus i bildens innehåll men förändringen över tid är måttlig. En märkbar förändring är dock ett ökat antal porträtt och poserade bilder och bilder med ögonkontakt, speciellt på förstasidorna. En stor andel av bilderna tas av fotograf med byline. Amatörbilder lyser med sin nästan totala frånvaro och deras närvaro i det allmänna nyhetsflödet har inte ökat. Dock har andelen bildbyråbilder ökat, och i den digitala upplagan återfinns också generiska genrebilder.  Samtliga tre frågeställningar kan således besvaras med att det råder både förändring och stabilitet över tid. Avslutningsvis, i kapitel sex, kopplas resultaten till de teoretiska perspektiv som använts i studien. Resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning i så måtto att antalet bilder har ökat kraftigt. Däremot emotsäger resultaten den utbredda uppfattningen om att journalistiken blivit alltmer visuell, eftersom det är de mycket små, ofta generiska och svårlästa bilderna som står för den största ökningen i de fyra dagstidningarna. En ökad grad av visualisering och en ökad användning av ett formspråk där bilden ingår i grafik, vilket enligt tidigare forskning kan vara ett mått på tabloidisering, återfanns på sida ett. Den kvalitativa analysen av förstasidorna visade att morgontidningarna satsar alltmer på features, ett tecken på förskjutningen av nyhetsvärderingen där händelsenyheter numera främst återfinns i den digitala upplagan medan analys och reportage publiceras i papperstidningen. I så måtto överensstämmer resultaten med tidigare forskning. Inuti tidningen visade det sig att det är features som främst bildsätts och att det är just featurebilder som ökat mest övertid.  Denna utveckling, samt en stor andel porträtt och poserade bilder och få ögonblicksbilder, kan ses som ett intimt och personifierat tilltal vilket i sin tur kan vara tecken på en mjuk journalistik. Dock har inte andelen ögonblicksbilder minskat markant över tid. Förändringar i upphovsperson var förväntade, med tanke på att litteraturen förutspår att amatörbilder kommer att bli alltmer framträdande i journalistiken. Här motbevisar dock resultaten tidigare forskning, eftersom amatörbilder har en marginell betydelse i det allmänna nyhetsflödet i de undersökta tidningarna. Sammanfattningsvis har tidigare forskning påvisat att antalet bilder i journalistiken har ökat. Denna studie ger en mer komplex bild av bildjournalistikens omfång, funktion och innehåll. Således ger studien kunskap om den journalistiska bildens utveckling och förutsättnin

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this report is to analyze the development of the journalistic image over time. The study starts in 1995 and ends in 2013; a period characterized by digitalization and paradigmatic changes in the media industry. This project is the first of its kind studying a Swedish context and thus fills a blank spot on the research map, as research on journalism in the digital age has primarily focused on text journalism.

In chapter one, we introduce the purpose and the three research questions of the study: (1) the amount, form and appeal of the images; (2) the content of the images; and (3) who has taken the picture. In chapter two, we provide a background to today’s photojournalism, and here we bring up the historically prominent role of the magazines, as well as technological, cultural and economic factors behind the emergence of the news image and also media convergence, where journalism is said to become increasingly visual while the professional role is undergoing changes.

Chapter three presents three theoretical perspectives used in the study. The first represents critical perspectives on tabloidization, where the image is considered having low value as a less important form of journalism compared to texts. The second perspective concerns visual framing, the news value of the image and photojournalistic ideals and norms, whereas the third theoretical perspective brings up the credibility of the image, the changed professional role in today’s journalism and the emergence of amateur images in journalism.

Methods and limitations are presented in chapter four. In the study, we analyze photojournalism in four newspapers: Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet and Helsingborgs Dagblad. In 2013, we also analyze the digital editions of each newspaper. A quantitative content analysis has been used for the overall survey (a total 17,400 images), whereas a qualitative content analysis has been carried out with regard to the front pages of newspapers, both in printed and digital form. In addition, we have interviewed editors to complement the content studies.

In chapter five, we answer the research questions using a descriptive rundown of the results. The main findings are the following: The number of images has increased significantly, especially in the evening paper Aftonbladet, whereas feature material rather than news images account for the increase in the other newspapers. The morning papers’ transition to the tabloid format has affected the use of images, which was particularly noticeable on the front pages. However, mainly the very small, stamp-sized images account for the largest increase in the newspapers as a whole. People are the focus of the images, but the change over time is moderate. A noticeable change, however, is an increased number of portraits and posed images, as well as images with eye contact, in particular on the front pages. A large proportion of the pictures are taken by a photographer with a byline. Amateur images are almost entirely absent, and their presence in the general news flow has not increased. All three questions may therefore be answered by there being both changes and continuity over time.

Finally, in chapter six, the results are linked to the theoretical perspectives used in the study. The results are in line with previous research in the sense that the number of images has increased significantly. On the other hand, the results contradict the widespread perception that journalism has become increasingly visual, due to the fact that the very small, frequently generic and hard-to-read images are what account for the largest increase in the four newspapers.

A higher degree of visualization and an increase in the use of a visual design where the image forms a part of graphics, which according to previous studies may be an indication of tabloidization, was found on the front pages, but not inside the newspapers in the same way. The qualitative analysis of the front pages showed that the morning papers are focusing more and more on feature material, which is possibly a sign of a shift in news value, where news events are no longer the most important on the front pages as they are already “old” by the time the newspapers are printed.

Inside the newspapers, feature images have increased the most over time. This development, in addition to a large proportion of portraits and posed images but few unposed images, may be seen as an intimate and personified appeal, which in turn may be a sign of soft journalism. However, the proportion of unposed images has not dropped significantly over time.

The literature has continuously predicted that amateur images will play an increasingly important role in journalism. This has not happened. Amateur images are only marginally important in the general news flow in the studied newspapers. They may, however, be very important for individual news events, but that is an entirely different matter.

In conclusion, previous studies have shown that the number of images in journalism has increased. This study provides a more complex picture of the scope, function and content of photojournalism, and thus provides additional knowledge concerning the development and conditions for the journalistic image in Swedish daily press over the past two decades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2016. p. 112
Series
DEMICOM rapport ; 30
Keywords
Photojournalism News photograph Newspapers Sweden Content analysis, Bildjournalistik Nyhetsbild Dagspress Sverige Innehållsanalys
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28713 (URN)DEMICOM (Local ID)978-91-88025-17-3 (ISBN)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Projects
Nyhetsbilden i förändring: En studie om bildjournalistikens utveckling och förutsättningar 1995-2015
Note

Forskningsrapporten helfinansieras av Ann-Marie och Gustaf Anders Stiftelse för Medieforskning

Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. & Ödmark, S. (2016). Going Viral: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media. OBS - Observatorio, 10(4), 132-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going Viral: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media
2016 (English)In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 132-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Through the advent of social media, news achieves a life of its own online. The media organisations partly lose control over the diffusion process, and simultaneously individuals gain power over the process, and become opinion leaders for others. This study focuses on news sharers and news shared (or rather, interacted), and has three RQ:s: 1) What characterizes the people who share news in social media, 2) Have the characteristics of interacted news changed over time? and 3) Are there differences between news content interacted by ordinary people and news highlighted by media organisations? Two different studies have been conducted: A representative survey and a quantitative content analysis.The main results are that the opinion leaders differ from the majority by being younger, with a greater political interest, single and more digital in their general lifestyle, both concerning news consumption and other aspects. The content analysis shows that the most interacted news on social media follow the traditional news values rather well, with a few exceptions. Most apparent is that interacted news is more positive over time and compared to print front-page news. Accidents and crime dominate print front-pages, while politics is more prominent in interacted news.

Keywords
opinion leaders, news value, online news, offline news, Quantitative content analysis, Survey
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29570 (URN)10.7458/obs1042016936 (DOI)2-s2.0-85007441226 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Bergström, A. & Wadbring, I. (2015). Beneficial yet crappy: Journalists and audiences on obstacles and opportunities in reader comments. European Journal of Communication, 30(2), 137-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beneficial yet crappy: Journalists and audiences on obstacles and opportunities in reader comments
2015 (English)In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reader comments have been a growing part of user-generated content on news sites for some 10years now. Although activity is still relatively low, interest among the public is generally high; however, journalists still show a general resistance to audience participation. The aim of our study is to examine attitudes to reader comments from two different perspectives: the public's and the journalists'. The findings derive from one Swedish survey from each group, both of which had a response rate of about 60%. The main result shows that a large proportion of the public does not have any opinion on reader comments, but when they do, support is widespread. Furthermore, journalists have stronger opinions and are rather critical towards reader comments.

Keywords
Journalism, online participation, reader comments, surveys, user-generated content
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25650 (URN)10.1177/0267323114559378 (DOI)000352783500002 ()2-s2.0-84926650394 (Scopus ID)DEMICOM (Local ID)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. & Ödmark, S. (2015). From Kittens to Racism: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media. In: : . Paper presented at The 22nd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research, Copenhagen, August 13-15, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Kittens to Racism: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35366 (URN)
Conference
The 22nd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research, Copenhagen, August 13-15, 2015
Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. & Nilsson, M. (2015). Människor tycker om bilder. In: Annika Bergström Bengt Johansson Henrik Oscarsson & Maria Oskarson (Ed.), Fragment: SOM-undersökningen 2014: SOM-rapport nr 63 (pp. 451-462). Förlag Göteborgs Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Människor tycker om bilder
2015 (Swedish)In: Fragment: SOM-undersökningen 2014: SOM-rapport nr 63 / [ed] Annika Bergström Bengt Johansson Henrik Oscarsson & Maria Oskarson, Förlag Göteborgs Universitet, 2015, p. 451-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Förlag Göteborgs Universitet, 2015
Keywords
newspapers photographs audiences survey
National Category
Other Social Sciences Social Sciences Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25834 (URN)978-91-89673-32-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Nyhetsbilden i förändring: En studie om bildjournalistikens utveckling och förutsättningar 1995-2015
Available from: 2015-09-05 Created: 2015-09-05 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M. & Wadbring, I. (2015). Not Good Enough?: Amateur Images in Print and Online Mainstream News Media. Journalism Practice, 9(4), 484-501
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Not Good Enough?: Amateur Images in Print and Online Mainstream News Media
2015 (English)In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 484-501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An increasing flow of amateur images of global crises presents challenges and opportunities for mainstream news media. Furthermore, many news organizations now solicit eyewitness reports for near-instant upload to Web editions. Yet, there is a lack of empirical research on amateur images in the regular news flow, in particular in newspapers. Thus, this case study examines the general frequency of amateur content, the gatekeeping process and the opinions of editors making decisions about images for publication in the online and print editions of four Swedish newspapers. Our findings, based on quantitative content analyses and interviews, indicate that a majority of the content falls in the hard-news category in contrast to findings in previous research about user-generated text content. Moreover, it appears regularly but in small numbers in a tabloid-content daily and a regional paper but hardly ever in broadsheet-content papers, and that opinions in the newsroom about amateur images vary from a lack of interest to a stated need for them in the regular news coverage. The low impact of amateur content may be due to the gatekeeping process and professional standards of photography, as well as a lack of audience interest and difficulties in implementing new structures in the newsrooms. In sum, the findings disprove predictions in the literature of a near-paradigmatic rise of amateur content in the mainstream news media. 

Keywords
amateur images, gatekeeping, interviews, newspapers, online news, photojournalism, quantitative content analysis, Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24904 (URN)10.1080/17512786.2015.1030135 (DOI)2-s2.0-85011029478 (Scopus ID)
Projects
News image in transformation: A study of the changes in Swedish photojournalism, 1995-2015
Note

Published online 20 April 2015

Available from: 2015-05-02 Created: 2015-05-02 Last updated: 2017-07-03Bibliographically approved
Nord, L. (2015). "Vi kan inte lita på maskinernas statistik".
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Vi kan inte lita på maskinernas statistik"
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2015 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25036 (URN)DEMICOM (Local ID)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Note

Även publicerad i Gefle Dagblad.

Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2015-11-20Bibliographically approved
Wadbring, I. & Bergström, A. (2014). A print crisis or a local crisis? Local news use over 27 years.. In: : . Paper presented at Local journalism around the world: professional practices, economic foundations, and political implications in Oxford, UK, February 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A print crisis or a local crisis? Local news use over 27 years.
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23376 (URN)DEMICOM (Local ID)DEMICOM (Archive number)DEMICOM (OAI)
Conference
Local journalism around the world: professional practices, economic foundations, and political implications in Oxford, UK, February 2014.
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2014-12-30Bibliographically approved
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