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Sundberg, L. (2019). Electronic government: Towards e-democracy or democracy at risk?. Safety Science, 118, 22-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic government: Towards e-democracy or democracy at risk?
2019 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic government (e-Government) is a research field that studies the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the public sector. Such initiatives are often associated with promises of transformational government, which is more efficient and utilizes modern technology to increase democratic engagement. However, research shows that several e-Government initiatives fail to deliver the promised benefits and attract a large portion of citizens. Some researchers argue that many initiatives have been driven by technology rather than by the core values of government, which has resulted in weakened democracy. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to achieve a greater understanding of risk in the e-Government field. Through a literature study, research papers were analyzed and divided into categories based on their unit of analysis, and ontological and epistemological properties. Four themes were identified in the material: IT security, user adoption, implementation barriers, and policy and democracy. This paper concludes by suggesting these themes would provide a suitable point of departure for a risk management framework in e-Government. Thus, future research should explore ways to converge these different strands of literature in multi-disciplinary research.

Keywords
Risk, e-Government, Digital government
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36122 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2019.04.030 (DOI)000475999000003 ()2-s2.0-85065401750 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2019). From Automatic Data Processing to Digitalization: What is Past is Prologue. In: Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro, Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris (Ed.), Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings. Paper presented at 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings (pp. 31-42).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Automatic Data Processing to Digitalization: What is Past is Prologue
2019 (English)In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro, Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, 2019, p. 31-42Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Governments across the world are intensifying their use of digital technology. One way to generate an understanding of the effects of technology in the public sector is to study values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how values in the Swedish national e-Government have developed over time. This research studies Swedish government documents between 1961 and 2018 during three periods of computerization: Automatic Data Processing, Information Technology, and Digitalization. A theoretical framework that consists of four value positions (i.e. professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement) is utilized. The findings suggest that technological paradigms tend to generate value congruence in policy documents, followed by value divergence in evaluations. Currently, digitalization is perceived as the enabler of several values. While both IT and digitalization are referred to as tools or means, the development towards an information, knowledge, or data-driven society is also described as inevitable. The service ideal became dominant through the use of internet-based technology, while efficiency is often prioritized in large-scale projects. Engagement values are associated with a futuristic form of democracy in government documents, but rarely converted into practice. The role of professionalism is two-fold: it acts both as an enabler and as a constraint to the other values. The paper concludes with suggesting that the current development of adapting laws and regulations to enable digitalization might lead to an eroded bureaucracy, with uncertain value.

Keywords
e-Government, values, digitalization, automatic data processing, IT, digital government
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36892 (URN)978-3-030-27325-5 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2019). Value Positions and Relationships in the Swedish Digital Government. Administrative Sciences, 9(1), Article ID 24.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value Positions and Relationships in the Swedish Digital Government
2019 (English)In: Administrative Sciences, ISSN 2076-3387, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Governments across the world spend vast resources on implementing digital technology. Electronic, or digital, government is the use and study of Internet-based information and communication technology in the public sector. A point of departure in this study is that investments in technology are not value-free; they require allocation of limited resources and trade-offs between values. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how values are prioritized in the Swedish digital government. This research was conducted by using quantitative data from a survey administered to Swedish municipalities and national agencies. In addition, qualitative data from a database was used to exemplify value operationalization. The research utilized a theoretical framework based on four value positions: professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement. The findings reveal that service and quality, and productivity and legality have a high priority, while engagement values are less prioritized. Differences based on organization type and size are also discussed. Moreover, the study suggests that professionalism and efficiency are distinct value positions, while service and engagement are closely related through citizen centricity. The qualitative material suggests that citizen centricity can manifest itself as a form of service logic, but also in the form of educational digital inclusion activities for vulnerable groups. The paper concludes by suggesting that future research should further refine the concept of citizen centricity in relation to digital government values, since its current meaning is ambiguous.

Keywords
digitalization, e-Government, public values
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35779 (URN)10.3390/admsci9010024 (DOI)000464109100001 ()
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2018). Enablers for Interoperability in Decentralized e-Government Settings. In: Anneke Zuiderwijk and Charles C. Hinnant (Ed.), Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (dgo '18), Delft, Netherlands.: . Paper presented at dgo '18, 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age Delft, The Netherlands — May 30 - June 01, 2018. ACM Digital Library, Article ID 29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enablers for Interoperability in Decentralized e-Government Settings
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (dgo '18), Delft, Netherlands. / [ed] Anneke Zuiderwijk and Charles C. Hinnant, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 29Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Interoperability is considered a success factor to effectively implement electronic government. Interoperability can conceptually be understood as properties of a system and its context. The properties of democratic systems are often ill-suited for interoperability and, as such, enablers for interoperability might disrupt a country's constitutional design. Hence, there is a need to advance our knowledge on how to achieve 'democratic interoperability'. The purpose of this paper is to identify interoperability enablers that minimally interfere with a country's democratic constitution. Qualitative data has been collected via interviews and documents from a Swedish case study that involves several organizations and systems. The findings include four enablers: open source software, legal interpretations, tailored resource allocation, and a dedicated agency to manage national infrastructure. These enablers managed to balance demands on increased efficiency and effectiveness with respect for privacy and security of the individual and the jurisdiction and autonomy of government agencies. The results contribute to current discussions about governance related to the implementation of technology in the public sector. The paper concludes by suggesting that interoperability in the public sector must be subject to careful multi-disciplinary decision making to ensure balance within the constitutional setting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
e-Government, Interoperability, Constraints, Challenges, Enablers, Democracy
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33691 (URN)10.1145/3209281.3209303 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049032006 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6526-0 (ISBN)
Conference
dgo '18, 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age Delft, The Netherlands — May 30 - June 01, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2018). Shaping up e-Participation Evaluation: A Multi-criteria Analysis. In: Edelmann, N., Parycek, P., Misuraca, G., Panagiotopoulos, P., Charalabidis, Y., Virkar, S. (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018. Paper presented at 10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference on Electronic Participation, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018 (pp. 3-12). Springer, 11021
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shaping up e-Participation Evaluation: A Multi-criteria Analysis
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018 / [ed] Edelmann, N., Parycek, P., Misuraca, G., Panagiotopoulos, P., Charalabidis, Y., Virkar, S., Springer, 2018, Vol. 11021, p. 3-12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

E-Participation is the use of internet-based technology to empower and include citizens in government decision making processes. The United Nations has evaluated e-Participation around the globe on a regular basis. This evaluation has been criticized for not corresponding to reality, thus allowing non-democratic regimes to gain high positions simply by offering web services. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper was to develop a method for evaluating e-Participation, which takes into account a nation’s democratic system. Multi-criteria decision analysis was utilized to create a new index by combining datasets of democracy and equality with the UN e-Participation Index 2016. In the new index, authoritarian regimes have lower ranks, and it performed better than UN’s index when testing it towards perceived corruption. The paper concludes by suggesting that the proposed method should be accompanied by indicators of the actual use and impact of e-Participation processes. The results of this study contribute to the improvement of e-Participation evaluation practice by introducing normative criteria of good governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
e-Participation, evaluation, democracy, equality, multi-criteria analysis
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34258 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98578-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052923466 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-98578-7 (ISBN)
Conference
10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference on Electronic Participation, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. & Olsson, A. (2017). Mitt - Ditt - Vårt universitet. In: Katarina Giritli Nygren & Katarina L. Gidlund (Ed.), Mitt, ditt och vårt universitet: Att förstå något gemensamt (pp. 17-30). Sundsvall / Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitt - Ditt - Vårt universitet
2017 (Swedish)In: Mitt, ditt och vårt universitet: Att förstå något gemensamt / [ed] Katarina Giritli Nygren & Katarina L. Gidlund, Sundsvall / Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall / Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2017
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30519 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2017). Public Values and Decision Making in the Swedish e-Government Context. (Licentiate dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Values and Decision Making in the Swedish e-Government Context
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses topics of public values and decision making in relation to the use of technology in the public sector. The research is conducted in the Swedish government context. A range of values that is specific to the public sector has been defined and classified in prior research. These public values can be defined as normative agreements of how a government should act. The Swedish government spends SEK 46.5 billion on information technology every year. Some of these funds are invested in improvements that are intended to increase efficiency and openness, as well as to make it easier for citizens to use government services. Such ambitions are studied in the e-Government research field. The literature suggests that reasons to question the promised values of implementing technology in the public sector exist and that many initiatives ultimately fail. The public sector has some unique features that may increase complexity, such as the variety of stakeholders and multitude of organizations that are both involved in the development process and affected by the outcomes. The purpose of this thesis is to explore public values and decision making in the Swedish e-Government context by posing three research questions. 1: How can public values be utilized in decision making? 2: Under what conditions are decisions made in the studied context? 3: How can value-based decision making be adopted by e-Government practice? The thesis is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from case studies and a survey. Its theoretical contribution is a comparison of theoretical concepts from decision theory and public values, which are then applied to e-Government. Several fragmented concepts from e-Government can be tied together under decision theory. The study’s results show that many decisions are taken under a great deal of uncertainty due to the absence of formal support mechanisms. The Swedish public administration leans toward a variety of project models in its work with e-Government, and these models constitute the arena in which decisions are made and risk analysis is performed. However, many risks as well as opportunities reside beyond the studied projects’ control. Holistic stakeholder inclusion and risk analysis are suggested as practices beneficial for increasing value and reducing uncertainty. The thesis concludes by suggesting that further research should continue to apply concepts from decision theory on e-Government. This includes revealing the motivations and values behind digitalization of the public sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2017. p. 41
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 130
Keywords
decision making, public values, e-Government, beslutsteori, värdeteori, nyttorealisering, digitalisering, e-förvaltning, offentlig sektor
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30661 (URN)978-91-88527-14-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-22, C310, Sundsvall, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för försvar av avhandlingen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 3 och 4 accepterade.

At the time of the defence the following papers were accepted, but unpublished: Paper 3 and Paper 4.

Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. & Larsson, A. (2017). The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects. Administrative Sciences, 7(2), Article ID UNSP 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects
2017 (English)In: Administrative Sciences, ISSN 2076-3387, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 7, no 2, article id UNSP 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration. Data were collected using a survey conducted among Swedish national government agencies and municipalities. Variables that have been investigated are the defining and weighting of objectives, resource allocation and assessment of whether objectives are met, as well as to what extent risk analysis was conducted. The results reveal that successful projects distinguish themselves by involving more activities related to formal decision-making procedures, especially with respect to stakeholder inclusion and weighting of objectives. These initiatives also manage more types of risks, including organizational issues. Future research should continue to explore the possible benefits of formal decision-making and risk analysis in e-Government.

Keywords
e-Government, decision-making, decision theory, public values, risk analysis, information systems, public management, public administration
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-30774 (URN)10.3390/admsci7020014 (DOI)000418117900007 ()
Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. & Lindblad-Gidlund, K. (2017). Value-Based Decision Making: Decision Theory Meets e-Government. In: Janssen, M., Axelsson, K., Glassey, O., Klievink, B., Krimmer, R., Lindgren, I., Parycek, P., Scholl, H.J., Trutnev, D. (Ed.), Electronic Government: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference (pp. 351-358). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value-Based Decision Making: Decision Theory Meets e-Government
2017 (English)In: Electronic Government: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M., Axelsson, K., Glassey, O., Klievink, B., Krimmer, R., Lindgren, I., Parycek, P., Scholl, H.J., Trutnev, D., Springer, 2017, p. 351-358Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electronic government, or e-Government, is the use of information and communication technology in the public sector. As a research field, it is characterized as multi-disciplinary with heritage from both the information systems and public administration fields. This diverse background may be beneficial, but it may also result in a fragmented theoretical base and conceptual vagueness. This paper applies decision theory to e-Government to tie a number of theoretical and practical concepts together. In particular, five concepts from decision theory (i.e. objectives, stakeholder inclusion, weighting and resource allocation, risk analysis, and outcomes assessment) are compared with counterparts in e-Government. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications. First, they add to and unite e-Government theory. Second, practical methods for operationalizing the theoretical concepts are proposed. This operationalization includes using a holistic approach to e-participation throughout decision processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Public Values, Decision Making, e-Government
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31331 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-64677-0_29 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029422261 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-64677-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-64676-3 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference
Available from: 2017-08-05 Created: 2017-08-05 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, L. (2016). Decision Making and Value Realization in Multi-Actor e-Government Contexts. In: Hans Jochen Scholl (Ed.), The IOS conference proceedings for the Dual IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016: . Paper presented at Dual IFIP EGOV and ePart Conference 2016 (pp. 147-154). , 23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision Making and Value Realization in Multi-Actor e-Government Contexts
2016 (English)In: The IOS conference proceedings for the Dual IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016 / [ed] Hans Jochen Scholl, 2016, Vol. 23, p. 147-154Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the last two decades, governments around the world have been implementing electronic services in order to create a range of public values and meet new demands from a variety of stakeholders. Such activities fall within the scope of the e-Government research field. Developing large-scale information systems has proven to be a challenging task and many initiatives have ended in failure. This paper explores uncertainty in the e-Government context. How is it related to the various actors in the public sector, and how can decision making be adapted here to improve value realization? Using actor-network theory as an analytical lens, the collaboration of five Swedish municipalities in creating common e-services is examined as a case study. The results indicate that factors beyond decision makers’ control, such as relations outside of a project, create a high degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty can be reduced by creating durable relations between local and global socio-technical actors. Inscribing values into generic software that has a high grade of interoperability should help to strengthen these networks beyond projects and regional borders.

Keywords
e-government, egov, electronic government, decision making, value realization, public values, e-Government, actor network theory, ANT
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28730 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-670-5-147 (DOI)000383380900015 ()978-1-61499-670-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Dual IFIP EGOV and ePart Conference 2016
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1337-0479

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