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Dahlström, C., López Durán, V., Keene, S. T., Salleo, A., Norgren, M. & Wågberg, L. (2020). Ion conductivity through TEMPO-mediated oxidated and periodate oxidated cellulose membranes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 233, Article ID 115829.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion conductivity through TEMPO-mediated oxidated and periodate oxidated cellulose membranes
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2020 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 233, article id 115829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose in different forms is increasingly used due to sustainability aspects. Even though cellulose itself is an isolating material, it might affect ion transport in electronic applications. This effect is important to understand for instance in the design of cellulose-based supercapacitors. To test the ion conductivity through membranes made from cellulose nanofibril (CNF) materials, different electrolytes chosen with respect to the Hofmeister series were studied. The CNF samples were oxidised to three different surface charge levels via 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), and a second batch was further cross-linked by periodate oxidation to increase wet strength and stability. The outcome showed that the CNF pre-treatment and choice of electrolyte are both crucial to the ion conductivity through the membranes. Significant specific ion effects were observed for the TEMPO-oxidised CNF. Periodate oxidated CNF showed low ion conductivity for all electrolytes tested due to an inhibited swelling caused by the crosslinking reaction. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords
Cellulose nanofibrils, Ion conductivity, Periodate oxidation, Specific ion effects, Structure-property relationship, TEMPO oxidation
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38283 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115829 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077916225 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-27 Created: 2020-01-27 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Yang, J., Zasadowski, D., Edlund, H. & Norgren, M. (2019). Biorefining of Spruce TMP Process Water: Selective Fractionation of Lipophilic Extractives with Induced Air Flotation and Surface Active Additive. BioResources, 14(2), 4124-4135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biorefining of Spruce TMP Process Water: Selective Fractionation of Lipophilic Extractives with Induced Air Flotation and Surface Active Additive
2019 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 4124-4135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignocellulose biomass plays an important role in reducing thedependency on fossil fuels and ameliorating the dire consequences ofclimate change. It is therefore important that all the components oflignocellulose biomass are exploited. These components includehemicelluloses and extractives that are liberated and sterically stabilizedduring the thermomechanical pulping and that form the dissolved andcolloidal substance (DCS) in the process water. Biorefining of this processwater can extract these substances, which have a number of promisingapplications and can contribute to the full exploitation of lignocellulosebiomass. This paper presents a simple treatment of unbleached Norwayspruce (Picea abies) process water from TMP (thermomechanical pulping)production using induced air flotation (IAF) and cationic surfactant,dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride (DoTAC) to refine the extractivesand prepare the waters so that hemicellulose could be easily harvested ata later stage. By applying 80 ppm of DoTAC at a pH of 3.5 and 50 °Cbefore induced air flotation, 94% of the lipophilic extractives wererecovered from process water. Dissolved hemicellulose polysaccharideswere cleansed and left in the treated process water. The process enabledefficient biorefining of lipophilic extractives and purification of the processwater to enable more selective harvesting of hemicelluloses in subsequentsteps.

Keywords
Biorefining; Lipophilic extractives; Thermomechanical pulping; Induced air flotation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35955 (URN)10.15376/biores.14.2.4124-4135 (DOI)000466449000115 ()2-s2.0-85071077339 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EU Reginal fund 2
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Magalhães, S., Alves, L., Medronho, B., Fonseca, A. C., Romano, A., Coelho, J. F. & Norgren, M. (2019). Brief overview on bio-based adhesives and sealants. Polymers, 11(10), Article ID 1685.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brief overview on bio-based adhesives and sealants
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adhesives and sealants (AS) are materials with excellent properties, versatility, and simple curing mechanisms, being widely used in different areas ranging from the construction to the medical sectors. Due to the fast-growing demand for petroleum-based products and the consequent negative environmental impact, there is an increasing need to develop novel and more sustainable sources to obtain raw materials (monomers). This reality is particularly relevant for AS industries, which are generally dependent on non-sustainable fossil raw materials. In this respect, biopolymers, such as cellulose, starch, lignin, or proteins, emerge as important alternatives. Nevertheless, substantial improvements and developments are still required in order to simplify the synthetic routes, as well as to improve the biopolymer stability and performance of these new bio-based AS formulations. This environmentally friendly strategy will hopefully lead to the future partial or even total replacement of non-renewable petroleum-based feedstock. In this brief overview, the general features of typical AS are reviewed and critically discussed regarding their drawbacks and advantages. Moreover, the challenges faced by novel and more ecological alternatives, in particular lignocellulose-based solutions, are highlighted. 

Keywords
Adhesion, Adhesives, Cellulose, Lignin, Sealants, Silicone
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37706 (URN)10.3390/polym11101685 (DOI)000495382700154 ()31618916 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074462579 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
El Miri, N. & Norgren, M. (2019). Cellulose nanocrystals: a new route towards strong nature-based and barrier materials. In: EPNOE2019 Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at The 6th EPNOE International Polysaccharide Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 21st– 25th of October, 2019 (pp. 97).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose nanocrystals: a new route towards strong nature-based and barrier materials
2019 (English)In: EPNOE2019 Book of Abstracts, 2019, p. 97-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An increasing consciousness toward the reduction of the environmental impact producedby plastic waste, has driven research and industry to focus on using biodegradable materials. Among those biodegradable materials, polysaccharides are regarded to have great potential in packaging applications, because of their outstanding performance with biocompatibility, biodegradability, and good processability. Naturally, most of the polysaccharides do not exhibit desired barrier properties, due to their hydrophilic nature, which hinder their application in packaging field. The incorporation of reinforcing structures such as cellulosenanocrystals (CNCs) in these polysaccharides is promising approach to produce new materials for food packaging application with specific properties and high performances. CNCs have been mostly used as reinforcing phase in matrices for a variety of materials, and thus given to their outstanding properties such as exceptional mechanical strength, biocompatibility, broadchemical modification, and large surface area. The aim of this study is the development of biodegradable films based on polysaccharides and CNCs from different ressources using agreen method such as the evaporation casting method and focusing on the final produced material properties related to food packaging applications (mechanical properties, thermal properties, antibacterial properties, optical transparency and resistance to water vapor and oxygen transmission).

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37813 (URN)
Conference
The 6th EPNOE International Polysaccharide Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 21st– 25th of October, 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-251
Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, A., Renström, P., Nilsson, S., Norgren, M., Syverud, K. & Heggset, E. B. (2019). Cellulose replaces plastic in future packaging materials: Formation of cellulose-based foams with reinforcement of cellulose nanocrystals for porous architecture and thermal insulation. In: EPNOE2019 Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at The 6th EPNOE International Polysaccharide Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 21st– 25th of October, 2019 (pp. 232).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose replaces plastic in future packaging materials: Formation of cellulose-based foams with reinforcement of cellulose nanocrystals for porous architecture and thermal insulation
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2019 (English)In: EPNOE2019 Book of Abstracts, 2019, p. 232-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with the production of reinforced and highly porous cellulose/nanocellulosebased foams with excellent mechanical properties, aiming to replace fossil based materials for barrier against air, water and thermal insulation. A lab concept has been developed to produce porous solid foams via convective drying of wet foams. The ambition has been to produce solid foams of low density, in the same regions as expandable polystyrene (EPS) and polypropylene (EPP). Foams have been produced by varying the pulp fiber source and by varying the added amount of foaming agent and stabilizing/reinforcement agents. The wet foams have been characterized by the foam ability, foam stability, drainage capacity and drying behavior. The dried solid foams have been characterized both mechanically and structurally but also with respect to barrier properties and thermal insulation.

The results demonstrate that cellulosic foams reinforced with cellulosic nanocrystals can be produced with superior foam stability and excellent mechanical properties, in densities similar to foamed materials based on EPS and EPP. The choice of pulp fiber and reinforcement agent, along with the foaming technology, is decisive for the foam stability, processability and mechanical properties of the solid foam. During the presentation, our experience on this will be highlighted.

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37814 (URN)
Conference
The 6th EPNOE International Polysaccharide Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 21st– 25th of October, 2019
Funder
Interreg Sweden-Norway
Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, V., Mašlík, J. & Norgren, M. (2019). Electronic performance of printed PEDOT:PSS lines correlated to the physical and chemical properties of coated inkjet papers. RSC Advances, 9(41), 23925-23938
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic performance of printed PEDOT:PSS lines correlated to the physical and chemical properties of coated inkjet papers
2019 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 41, p. 23925-23938Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PEDOT:PSS organic printed electronics chemical interactions with the ink-receiving layer (IRL) of monopolar inkjet paper substrates and coating color composition were evaluated through Raman spectroscopy mapping in Z (depth) and (XY) direction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Other evaluated properties of the IRLs were pore size distribution (PSD), surface roughness, ink de-wetting, surface energy and the impact of such characteristics on the electronics performance of the printed layers. Resin-coated inkjet papers were compared to a multilayer coated paper substrate that also contained an IRL but did not contain the plastic polyethylene (PE) resin layer. This substrate showed better electronic performance (i.e., lower sheet resistance), which we attributed to the inert coating composition, higher surface roughness and higher polarity of the surface which influenced the de-wetting of the ink. The novelty is that this substrate was rougher and with somewhat lower printing quality but with better electronic performance and the advantage of not having PE in their composite structure, which favors recycling. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36895 (URN)10.1039/c9ra03801a (DOI)000478947000054 ()2-s2.0-85070373982 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Costa, C., Medronho, B., Filipe, A., Mira, I., Lindman, B., Edlund, H. & Norgren, M. (2019). Emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules: The leading role of cellulose. Polymers, 11(10), Article ID 1570.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules: The leading role of cellulose
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emulsion stabilization by native cellulose has been mainly hampered because of its insolubility in water. Chemical modification is normally needed to obtain water-soluble cellulose derivatives. These modified celluloses have been widely used for a range of applications by the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutic, paint and construction industries. In most cases, the modified celluloses are used as rheology modifiers (thickeners) or as emulsifying agents. In the last decade, the structural features of cellulose have been revisited, with particular focus on its structural anisotropy (amphiphilicity) and the molecular interactions leading to its resistance to dissolution. The amphiphilic behavior of native cellulose is evidenced by its capacity to adsorb at the interface between oil and aqueous solvent solutions, thus being capable of stabilizing emulsions. In this overview, the fundamentals of emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules are briefly revisited before different aspects around the emerging role of cellulose as emulsion stabilizer are addressed in detail. Particular focus is given to systems stabilized by native cellulose, either molecularly-dissolved or not (Pickering-like effect). 

Keywords
Adsorption, Amphiphilicity, Cellulose, Emulsion stability, Oil-water interface
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37680 (URN)10.3390/polym11101570 (DOI)000495382700039 ()31561633 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073478887 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Costa, C., Mira, I., Benjamins, J.-W., Lindman, B., Edlund, H. & Norgren, M. (2019). Interfacial activity and emulsion stabilization of dissolved cellulose. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 292, Article ID 111325.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfacial activity and emulsion stabilization of dissolved cellulose
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 292, article id 111325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some aspects of the interfacial behavior of cellulose dissolved in an aqueous solvent were investigated. Cellulose was found to significantly decrease the interfacial tension (IFT) between paraffin oil and 85 wt% phosphoric acid aqueous solutions. This decrease was similar in magnitude to that displayed by non-ionic cellulose derivatives. Cellulose's interfacial activity indicated a significant amphiphilic character and that the interfacial activity of cellulose derivatives is not only related to the derivatization but inherent in the cellulose backbone. This finding suggests that cellulose would have the ability of stabilizing dispersions, like oil-in-water emulsions in a similar way as a large number of cellulose derivatives. In its molecularly dissolved state, cellulose proved to be able to stabilize emulsions of paraffin in the polar solvent on a short-term. However, long-term stability against drop-coalescence was possible to achieve by a slight change in the amphiphilicity of cellulose, effected by a slight increase in pH. These emulsions exhibited excellent stability against coalescence/oiling-off over a period of one year. Ageing of the cellulose solution before emulsification (resulting in molecular weight reduction) was found to favour the creation of smaller droplets. 

Keywords
Adsorption, Amphiphilicity, Cellulose molecules, Emulsions, Interfacial activity, Oil-water interface
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36838 (URN)10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111325 (DOI)000488658900015 ()2-s2.0-85069688256 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available under a Creative Commons license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Eivazihollagh, A., Svanedal, I., Edlund, H. & Norgren, M. (2019). On chelating surfactants: Molecular perspectives and application prospects. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 278, 688-705
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On chelating surfactants: Molecular perspectives and application prospects
2019 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 278, p. 688-705Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chelating agents, molecules that very strongly coordinates certain metal ions, are used industrially as well as in consumer products to minimize disturbances and increase performance of reactions and applications. The widely used sequestering agents, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) belong to this branch of readily water-soluble compounds. When these chemical structures also have hydrophobic parts, they are prone to adsorb at air-water interfaces and to self-assemble. Such bifunctional molecules can be called chelating surfactants and will have more extended utilization prospects than common chelating agents or ordinary ionic surfactants. The present review attempts to highlight the fundamental behavior of chelating surfactants in solution and at interfaces, and their very specific interactions with metal ions. Methods to recover chelating surfactants from metal chelates are also described. Moreover, utilization of chelating surfactants in applications for metal removal in environmental engineering and mineral processing, as well as for metal control in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics, is exemplified and discussed.

Keywords
Chelating surfactants, Metallosurfactants, Amphiphiles, Self-assembly, Metal-coordination, Sequestering agents, Complexing agents, Remediation, Flotation, Metal recovery, Recovery, Catalysis, Metalloenzymes, Contrast agents, Nanoparticle synthesis, Applications
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Nano Technology Bioremediation Water Treatment Environmental Management Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Bio Materials Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology Chemical Engineering Other Chemical Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35610 (URN)10.1016/j.molliq.2019.01.076 (DOI)000461526600074 ()2-s2.0-85061119211 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Yang, J., Dahlström, C., Edlund, H., Lindman, B. & Norgren, M. (2019). pH-responsive cellulose–chitosan nanocomposite films with slow release of chitosan. Cellulose (London), 26(6), 3763-3776
Open this publication in new window or tab >>pH-responsive cellulose–chitosan nanocomposite films with slow release of chitosan
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2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 3763-3776Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cellulose–chitosan films were preparedusing a physical method in which cellulose andchitosan were separately dissolved via freeze thawingin LiOH/urea and mixed in different proportions, theresulting films being cast and regenerated in water/ethanol. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transforminfrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy verifiedthe composition changes in the nanocomposites due todifferent mixing ratios between the polymers. Tensilestress–strain measurements indicated that the mechan-ical performance of the cellulose–chitosan nanocom-posites slightly worsened with increasing chitosancontent compared with that of films comprisingcellulose alone. Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy revealed the spontaneous formation ofnanofibers in the films; these nanofibers were subse-quently ordered into lamellar structures. Water uptakeand microscopy analysis of film thickness changesindicated that the swelling dramatically increased atlower pH and with increasing chitosan content, thisbeing ascribed to the Gibbs–Donnan effect. Slowmaterial loss appeared at acidic pH, as indicated by aloss of weight, and quantitative FT-IR analysisconfirmed that chitosan was the main componentreleased.Asample containing 75% chitosan reached amaximum swelling ratio and weight loss of 1500%and 55 wt%, respectively, after 12 h at pH 3. Thestudy presents a novel way of preparing pH-responsivecellulose–chitosan nanocomposites with slow-releasecharacteristics using an environmentally friendlyprocedure and without any chemical reactions.

Keywords
Cellulose dissolution, Chitosan dissolution, pH responsive, Gibbs–Donnan equilibrium, Nanocomposite, Slow release
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35778 (URN)10.1007/s10570-019-02357-5 (DOI)000464849500011 ()2-s2.0-85062686323 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-251
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3407-7973

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