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Eivazihollagh, A., Bäckström, J., Norgren, M. & Edlund, H. (2018). Electrochemical recovery of copper complexed by DTPA and C12-DTPA from aqueous solution using a membrane cell. Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), 93(5), 1421-1431
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical recovery of copper complexed by DTPA and C12-DTPA from aqueous solution using a membrane cell
2018 (English)In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 1421-1431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

The electrochemical recovery of copper from DTPA and C12-DTPA (a surface-active derivative of DTPA) complex solutions was investigated in a membrane flow cell. Electrolysis time, solution flow rate, applied current density, and solution pH were evaluated.

RESULTS

The chelating surfactant C12-DTPA can promote the kinetics of copper electrodeposition more than DTPA depending on the experimental conditions. At a current density of 30 A m–2, a solution flow rate of 0.6 L min–1, and pH 10 after 180 min treatment, the copper recovery and current efficiency were 50% and 43.3%, respectively, in the Cu(II)-DTPA system and about 65% and 53.6%, respectively, in the Cu(II)-C12-DTPA system. The differences in the amount of recovery could be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of copper complexes with DTPA and C12-DTPA to the cathode, as well as their solution behavior and pH-dependent conditional stability constants (log10 K’CuDTPA3-).

CONCLUSION

Electrochemical methods could be effectively combined with foam flotation for the chelating surfactant C12-DTPA, to recover copper and C12-DTPA. This makes the overall treatment more sustainable, and can be helpful in complying with the increasingly stringent environmental regulations

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32251 (URN)10.1002/jctb.5510 (DOI)000429714500022 ()2-s2.0-85040192944 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Abbasi, M., Bäckström, J. & Cornell, A. (2018). Fabrication of Spin-Coated Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 Electrode: Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), H568-H574
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Spin-Coated Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 Electrode: Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. H568-H574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel three-layer anode having the composition Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 (Ti/TiHx/NATO) was successfully prepared by a spin-coating and pyrolysis process aiming at a long service lifetime and good electrocatalytic properties for ozone formation. The TiHx as an interlayer was produced by electrochemical cathodic reduction of a coated layer of the TiOx on the titanium substrate. Spin coating and thermal decomposition were used to deposit the Sn-Sb-Ni precursor on the surface of the prepared Ti/TiHx electrode. Cyclic and linear scanning voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to reveal the electrode performance and morphology. Results show that the onset potential for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Ti/TiHx /NATO is higher than for Ti/NATO. They also indicate that the service lifetime of the Ti/TiHx/NATO is twice as long as the Ti/NATO at a current density of 50 mA.cm(-2) at room temperature. Electrochemical ozone generation and degradation of the methylene blue were investigated to confirm selectivity and activity of the electrodes. After 5 min electrolysis, a current efficiency for ozone generation of 56% was obtained the electrode with TiHx while 38% was obtained on Ti/NATO under same conditions. The results also confirm that the Ti/TiH x /NATO has a higher kinetic rate constant and decolorization efficiency for removal of the methylene blue compare to the Ti/NATO. The rate constant for the pseudo-first ordered reaction of methylene blue degradation showed high values of 350 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/NATO and 440 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/TiHx/NATO. 

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34513 (URN)10.1149/2.1171809jes (DOI)000440924800150 ()2-s2.0-85049351439 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Sandin, S., Cheritat, A., Bäckström, J. & Cornell, A. (2017). Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 7(1), 51-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes
2017 (English)In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO) electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl45H2O, SnCl22H2O, SbCl3and NiCl26H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl45H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, theconcentration of Ni in the NATOcoating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATOcoating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl22H20 instead of SnCl45H2Ocan reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl45H2Owhere the tin loss occurs from 56–147°C causingthe composition to change both during the drying (80–110°C) and calcination (460 -550 °C) steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATObased on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

Keywords
NATO, ATO, tin chloride precursor, thermal decomposition, TGA, deposition, efficiency, dopant enrichment, ozone electrocatalysis
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31226 (URN)10.5599/jese.374 (DOI)000409210400005 ()
Projects
högox
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-07-06 Created: 2017-07-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Eivazihollagh, A., Bäckström, J., Norgren, M. & Edlund, H. (2017). Influences of the operational variables on electrochemical treatment of chelated Cu(II) in alkaline solutions using a membrane cell. Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), 92(6), 1436-1445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of the operational variables on electrochemical treatment of chelated Cu(II) in alkaline solutions using a membrane cell
2017 (English)In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 1436-1445Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

The electrochemical recovery of copper and chelating agent from their complex solution using a membrane flow cell was investigated. The parameters electrolysis time, solution pH, current density, and temperature were investigated.

RESULTS

Electrochemical investigation indicated that chelating ligands can be recovered by the electrodeposition of copper ions on the cathode. For copper and EDTA recovery, the results indicated that recovery efficiency was affected by time, current density, and temperature. The recovery process was not influenced by pH in the range studied (pH 8–12), which can be explained by the low variation in the conditional stability constant, i.e. Δlog10 K' ≤ 0.7, over the pH range. However, when NTA, EDTA, and DTPA were compared, the results indicated that the recovery efficiency decreased as the conditional stability constant of the chelating agent–Cu(II) complex increased. The maximum current efficiency of copper and EDTA recovery after 5 h of treatment was approximately 85%, whereas the recovery was 80% of the initial concentration (0.05 mol L−1) at a current density of 1 A dm−2, temperature of 333 K, and pH of 10.

CONCLUSION

Relatively high recovery efficiency makes the process fairly sustainable and hinders the discharge of copper ions and chelating ligands as pollutants into the environment. 

Keywords
electrochemistry, heavy metals, recovery, waste-water, hydrometallurgy
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29558 (URN)10.1002/jctb.5141 (DOI)000403025100035 ()2-s2.0-85006827367 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Hedenstedt, K., Bäckström, J. & Ahlberg, E. (2017). In-Situ Raman Spectroscopy of α- and γ-FeOOH during Cathodic Load. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 164(9), H621-H627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Situ Raman Spectroscopy of α- and γ-FeOOH during Cathodic Load
2017 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 9, p. H621-H627Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water reduction on corroded iron surfaces is technologically and fundamentally important. Here, the technological interest originatesfrom the chlorate process where water reduction is the main cathodic process. Fundamentally, water reduction on oxide surfaces raisesquestions on the stability of the oxide and the nature of electrocatalytic surface sites. Two iron oxyhydroxides,α-andγ-FeOOH,were electrodeposited on titanium substrate and their reduction processes were followed in detail with in-situ Raman spectroscopy,using low incident laser power to avoid sample damaging. Polarization to negative potentials show two reduction peaks forγ-FeOOHand one peak forα-FeOOH prior to hydrogen evolution. The characteristic Raman peaks gradually disappear as the potential ismade more negative but no new peaks can be observed.δ-FeOOH was detected as an intermediate phase upon oxidation of thereduced surface layer. This indicates that Fe(OH)2is formed during cathodic polarization and initially re-oxidized to the isostructuralδ-FeOOH. Characteristic Raman signals of the original phases appear upon further oxidation in air.

National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31256 (URN)10.1149/2.0731709jes (DOI)000413256400051 ()2-s2.0-85042378399 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2010-4035Swedish Energy Agency, 33280-1
Available from: 2017-07-09 Created: 2017-07-09 Last updated: 2018-03-14Bibliographically approved
Blomquist, N., Wells, T., Andres, B., Bäckström, J., Forsberg, S. & Olin, H. (2017). Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 39836.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 39836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
Keywords
Supercapacitor, EDLC, Graphene, Graphite, Nanoparticles
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29827 (URN)10.1038/srep39836 (DOI)000391182900001 ()2-s2.0-85008701942 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Published online:05 January 2017

Available from: 2017-01-06 Created: 2017-01-06 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Eivazihollagh, A., Bäckström, J., Dahlström, C., Carlsson, F., Ibrahem, I., Lindman, B., . . . Norgren, M. (2017). One-pot synthesis of cellulose-templated copper nanoparticles with antibacterial properties. Materials letters (General ed.), 187, 170-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One-pot synthesis of cellulose-templated copper nanoparticles with antibacterial properties
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2017 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 187, p. 170-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report a facile in situ synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles (NPs) templated by a gelled cellulose II matrix under alkaline aqueous reaction conditions. In under 20 min, the hybrid material could be obtained in a one-pot reaction. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that the polycrystalline NPs of 200–500 nm were well distributed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. The average Cu crystallite size was of the order of 20 nm, as estimated from both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FE-SEM. XRD data also indicated that the composite contained up to approximately 20% Cu2O. In suspensions containing the hybrid material, growth of Escerichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains was inhibited by 80% and 95%, respectively, after 72 h. The synthesis procedure offers a general approach to designing various low-cost hybrid materials of almost any shape, and the concept could be extended to utilization areas such as catalysis, functional textiles, and food packaging as well as to electronic applications.

Keywords
One-pot synthesis, Copper nanoparticles, Cellulose, Hybrid material, Antibacterial properties
National Category
Nano Technology Chemical Engineering Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29336 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2016.10.026 (DOI)000390628200045 ()2-s2.0-84994876232 (Scopus ID)FSCN (Local ID)FSCN (Archive number)FSCN (OAI)
Projects
NovoCell - Novel use of native cellulose in dispersions and functional biocomposites
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-251
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, V., Zhang, R., Joakim, B., Dahlström, C., Andres, B., Norgren, M., . . . Olin, H. (2016). Exfoliated MoS2 in Water without Additives. PLoS ONE, 11(4), Article ID 0154522.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exfoliated MoS2 in Water without Additives
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2016 (Swedish)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 0154522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many solution processing methods of exfoliation of layered materials have been studied during the last few years; most of them are based on organic solvents or rely on surfactants andother funtionalization agents. Pure water should be an ideal solvent, however, it is generallybelieved, based on solubility theories that stable dispersions of water could not be achievedand systematic studies are lacking. Here we describe the use of water as a solvent and thestabilization process involved therein. We introduce an exfoliation method of molybdenumdisulfide (MoS2) in pure water at high concentration (i.e., 0.14±0.01 g L−1). This was achieved by thinning the bulk MoS2by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and dis-persing it by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication in water. We observed thin MoS2nanosheets in water characterized by TEM, AFM and SEM images. The dimensions of thenanosheets were around 200 nm, the same range obtained in organic solvents. Electropho-retic mobility measurements indicated that electrical charges may be responsible for the sta-bilization of the dispersions. A probability decay equation was proposed to compare thestability of these dispersions with the ones reported in the literature. Water can be used as asolvent to disperse nanosheets and although the stability of the dispersions may not be ashigh as in organic solvents, the present method could be employed for a number of applications where the dispersions can be produced on site and organic solvents are not desirable.

Keywords
liquid exfoliation; MoS2; solar cells; water exfoliation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27560 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0154522 (DOI)000374976200086 ()2-s2.0-85002584946 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Paper Solar Cells
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, V., Zhang, R., Andersson, H., Bäckström, J., Dahlström, C., Norgren, M., . . . Olin, H. (2016). Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing. In: Printing for Fabrication 2016: Materials, Applications, and Processes. Paper presented at 32nd International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP) Printing for Fabrication : Materials, Applications, and Processes, Manchester, UK, September 12-16, 2016. USA: Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing
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2016 (English)In: Printing for Fabrication 2016: Materials, Applications, and Processes, USA: Curran Associates, Inc., 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

MoS2 is a layered material which is abundant and non-toxic and has been increasingly studied during the last few years as a semiconducting alternative to graphene. While most studies have been performed on single MoS2 nanosheets, for example to demonstrate high-performance electronic transistors, more work is needed to explore the use of MoS2 in printed electronics. The importance of using MoS2 as a printed electronic material could be understood by considering the several orders higher electron mobility in MoS2, even in several nanometer thick layers, compared to the organic and other materials used today. In the few studies performed so far on printing MoS2, the developed dispersions used mainly organic solvents that might be detrimental for the environment. Here, we show an environmentally friendly liquid-based exfoliation method in water where the solution was stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. The dispersions consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets with average lateral size of about 150 nm, surface tension of 28 mN m-1 and a shelf life of a year. Although both the concentration and viscosity was less than optimal, we were able to inkjet print the MoS2 solution on paper and on PET films, using multiple printing passes. By tuning the concentration/viscosity, this approach might lead to an environmentally friendly MoS2 ink suitable for printed electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Curran Associates, Inc., 2016
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31651 (URN)978-0-89208-322-0 (ISBN)978-0-89208-323-7 (ISBN)978-0-89208-321-3 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (NIP) Printing for Fabrication : Materials, Applications, and Processes, Manchester, UK, September 12-16, 2016
Projects
Paper Solar Cells
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

This paper was also publised at the JIST, Journal of imaging and Science and Technology. It was connected to the conference.

Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-11-01Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, V., Zhang, R., Andersson, H., Bäckström, J., Dahlström, C., Norgren, M., . . . Olin, H. (2016). Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing. Paper presented at Printing for Fabrication 2016 (JIST First Paper). Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 60(4), 1-7, Article ID 040405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 1-7, article id 040405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MoS2 is a layered material which is abundant and non-toxic and has been increasingly studied during the last few years as a semiconducting alternative to graphene. While most studies have been performed on single MoS2 nanosheets, for example to demonstrate high-performance electronic transistors, more work is needed to explore the use of MoS2 in printed electronics. The importance of using MoS2 as a printed electronic material could be understood by considering the several orders higher electron mobility in MoS2, even in several nanometer thick layers, compared to the organic and other materials used today. In the few studies performed so far on printing MoS2, the developed dispersions used mainly organic solvents that might be detrimental for the environment. Here, we show an environmentally friendly liquid-based exfoliation method in water where the solution was stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. The dispersions consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets with average lateral size of about 150 nm, surface tension of 28 mN m(-1), and a shelf life of a year. Although both the concentration and viscosity was less than optimal, we were able to inkjet print the MoS2 solution on paper and on PET films, using multiple printing passes. By tuning the concentration/viscosity, this approach might lead to an environmentally friendly MoS2 ink suitable for printed electronics.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28750 (URN)10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2016.60.4.040405 (DOI)000381636200006 ()2-s2.0-85016315340 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Printing for Fabrication 2016 (JIST First Paper)
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8868-4766

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