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Kjällman Alm, Annika
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Kjällman Alm, A., Danielsson, S. & Porskrog-Kristiansen, L. (2018). Non-Pharmalogical Interventions towards Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of  Dementia—An Integrated Literature Review. Open Journal of Nursing (8), 434-447
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Pharmalogical Interventions towards Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of  Dementia—An Integrated Literature Review
2018 (English)In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, no 8, p. 434-447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this integrated literature review was to identify and examine

effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions towards BPSD. Database

searches were documented following the PRISMA flow diagram and included

papers were judged by the researchers using the SAHTAASS protocol. Coding

of the papers was carried out using Polit and Beck matrix for literature review.

It was concluded that several non-pharmacological interventions showed a

positive influence on BPSD such as stimulating interventions, social and personalized

activities and physical exercise. Also, education/training of healthcare

professionals and equipment in form of a structured BPSD protocol resulted

in decreased BPSD.

Keywords
BPSD, Complimentary Therapies, Dementia, Integrated Literature Review
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35032 (URN)10.4236/ojn.2018.87034 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A., Hagglund, P., Norbergh, K.-G. & Hellzén, O. (2015). Sense of Coherence in Persons with Dementia and Their Next of Kin: A Mixed-Method Study. Open Journal of Nursing, 5, 490--499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sense of Coherence in Persons with Dementia and Their Next of Kin: A Mixed-Method Study
2015 (English)In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 5, p. 490--499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indications of dementia disease include deterioration of memory, thinking, behaviour, and the

ability to perform everyday activities. Any of these symptoms can lead to stress and difficulties

organizing everyday life. As a way to view factors that support human health and well-being despite

stressful situations, Antonovsky introduced a salutogenic model. This model proposes that

sense of coherence primarily determines physical and mental health i.e. psychological well-being.

Having a sense of coherence in everyday life can reduce the impact of stress on the individual in

everyday life. The study’s aim of this study was to explore how participants in existing support

groups scored on the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and what they perceived as contributory

factors to a meaningful, manageable, and comprehensible everyday life in the presence of dementia

using a mixed method. Persons with dementia had the highest scores on the SOC scale and their

partners the lowest. Persons with dementia expressed that being with others who understood

them made their everyday life comprehensible and manageable. Their partners expressed that

learning about dementia was helpful in managing and comprehending everyday situations. The

adult children expressed that it was meaningful to care for their parents and they scored slightly

higher than the partners on the SOC scale. Long-term ongoing support supplemented with information

and social support can contribute to the sense of coherence in persons with dementia and

their next of kin.

Keywords
Dementia, Next of Kin, Nursing, Mixed Method, Sense of Coherence, Support Groups
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28766 (URN)10.4236/ojn.2015.55052 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A., Hellzén, O. & Norbergh, K.-G. (2014). Experiences of Family Relationships when a Family Member Has Dementia. Open Journal of Nursing, 4, 520-527
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Family Relationships when a Family Member Has Dementia
2014 (English)In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 4, p. 520-527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approximately 66 million people worldwide will suffer from dementia in 2030. The dementia’s impact affects people with the disorder and those in their social networks, most notably, their families. This study’s aim was to explore the experiences of family relationships when a family member has dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews with people diagnosed with dementia, their spouses and adult children. Seventeen participants were interviewed. All participants were recruited in open-ended ongoing structured support groups provided by a Swedish municipality in order to elicit the participants’ subjective experiences on family relationships after the dementia diagnosis. Researchers used content analysis to examine the transcripts. Two main themes were identified, one relating to changed relationships where the participants experienced longing, lost closeness, loneliness and changed sibling relationships. The second theme related to supporting relationships within the family with experiences such as kinship, shared responsibilities and love and appreciation. Support should therefore focus on creating relationships and giving opportunities for conversations about changes within the families and difficult decisions, creating family or team support for those who need it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2014
Keywords
Dementia, Family Relationships, Next of Kin, Qualitative Study
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22676 (URN)10.4236/ojn.2014.47055 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-08-27 Created: 2014-08-27 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A., Hellzén, O. & Norbergh, K.-G. (2014). Experiences of long-term ongoing structured support in early stage of dementia – a case study. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 9(4), 289-297
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of long-term ongoing structured support in early stage of dementia – a case study
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 289-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prevalence of dementia diseases is increasing worldwide with advancing age and growing populations. In Sweden alone, which currently has a population of approximately 9 million, there are about 25, 000 persons diagnosed each year with a dementia disease. Consequently, after such a diagnosis there is a tremendous need for support not only in Sweden but other countries as well. The recipients of that support include next of kin who seek all sorts of information including conversations about upcoming lifestyle changes and ways to handle personality changes in their loved one who is suffering from dementia. The aim of this study was to explore four couples´ experiences in structured support groups. A single case study with multiple data collection methods was used. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed by content analysis, which revealed three main categories representing the findings in four cases: Kinship through shared experiences, Knowledge about the disease, and Sense of comfort and support. One category, Longing for kinship was created exclusively for one of the couples. Viewing the emerging categories from a healthy aging perspective, both comfort and support and kinship through shared experiences can be considered as components of larger themes of support and social interaction. Findings suggest that structured support groups are a good way to encourage discussions, allow persons with dementia to express themselves, and support healthy aging in partners. Facilitators, regardless of whether they are social workers or registered nurses, should be trained in the group process to enable the individuals in the group to communicate and find meaning in their experiences.

Keywords
Case study, Experiences, Dementia, Older people, Support groups
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20627 (URN)10.1111/opn.12034 (DOI)23758956 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84911477518 (Scopus ID)
Note

Publ online 11 June 2013

Available from: 2013-12-11 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A. (2014). Long-Term Ongoing Structured Support in Early Stage of Dementia: A Family Affair. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-Term Ongoing Structured Support in Early Stage of Dementia: A Family Affair
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Demenssjukdomar drabbar mer än 35 miljoner människor världen över, en summa som kommer att fördubblas vart tjugonde år.

   Demens är en global störning av intellektuella funktioner: förmågan att minnas försämras, och förmågor som att orientera sig i tid och rum, språklig förmåga, tankeprocesser som att gå från tanke till handling, problemlösande, utföra saker praktiskt och känna igen föremål. Symtomen följs ofta av förändringar i beteende och personlighet, som låg initiativförmåga, irritation, grovt socialt beteende och humörsvängningar. I Sverige diagnostiseras 25 000 personer per år, totalt så lever 160 000 personer med sjukdomen i Sverige idag. I Sverige ställs diagnosen ofta utifrån blodprover, hjärnröntgen och Mini Mental Score Evaluation-Swedish Revision tillsammans med personens sjukdomshistoria.

 

Efter diagnosen har ofta anhöriga många frågor om hur livet kommer att te sig framöver, är det bra att flytta eller ska man bo kvar? Hur kommer sjukdomen att förändra livet och personligheten hos den drabbade? Tidigare studier visar att dessa frågor ofta förblir obesvarade, det är svårt att få en uppföljning hos läkare och det finns få länder där stöd efter diagnosen är vanligt förekommande.

   Sverige har sen 2009 lagstiftat om rätten till stöd till anhöriga och närstående med demenssjukdom eller andra kroniska sjukdomar med funktionshinder. Typen av stöd som ges skiljer sig däremot åt, Socialstyrelsen kom därför hösten 2013 ut med riktlinjer för hur stödet bör se ut för att vara effektivt: 8-10 träffar under 3-6 månader med information och socialt stöd till anhöriga.

En kommun i norra delen av Sverige har gett långvarigt stöd till personer med demenssjukdom och deras anhöriga sen 2006.

Ett nära samarbete med Landstinget i regionen och på senare tid även privata vårdcentraler i området har lett till att stöd kan erbjudas i direkt samband med diagnostillfället. Personerna deltar ofta i stödgrupp inom ca 4-6 veckor efter sin diagnos. Avhandlingens syfte var att fördjupa kunskapen om personernas upplevelse av att vara i stödgrupp under lång tid; den längsta i 4 år. Intervjuer gjordes med anhöriga och personer med demenssjukdom.

Resultaten visade att de par som varit med längst i stödgrupp kände sig trygga, de upplevde att de fick god kunskap om demens och var förberedda på den förändring som skulle komma. Resultaten visade också att vara vuxet barn till en person med demens innebar att vara tyngd av ansvar för att agera i den sjuka förälderns intresse trots en djup känsla av sorg of förlust vilket ofta leder till frustration med situationen. Relationerna inom familjen kan förändras efter demens diagnosen både till det bättre; att man sluter upp kring den demenssjuke föräldern men också till det sämre; att familjen splittras då relationerna utsätts för påfrestningar. Personerna med demenssjukdom som deltog i stödgrupperna upplevde och skattade sin känsla av sammanhang högt; att livet var meningsfullt, begripligt och hanterbart. Deras friska partner upplevde mindre begriplighet och hanterbarhet och de vuxna barnen mer meningsfullhet.

Avhandlingens resultat har legat till grund för en modell för stöd till personer med demenssjukdom och deras anhöriga kallat PER-modellen®; Pedagogisk, Emotionell och Relationsbaserad modell för stöd.

Abstract [en]

Dementia disorders affect more than 35 million people around the world, which will double every twenty years. Dementia is a global disruption of intellectual functioning; there is a decrease of memory ability and other intellectual abilities such as orientation, visuospatial- perceptive ability, language, thinking, executive abilities, problem solving, apraxia and agnosia.  These symptoms are often followed by behavioral changes and changes in the personality, such as loss of initiative, emotional instability, irritation, apathy, coarse social behaviour and mood changes. The most frequent symptoms were apathy, depression, irritability, and agitation. About 25, 000 persons are diagnosed with dementia each year in Sweden. Today, estimates are that 160, 000 persons in total are suffering from dementia in Sweden. In Sweden, most diagnoses are done in the primary health care setting by general practitioners  and are based on the person´s own history, interviews with next of kin and an Mini Mental Score Evaluation- Swedish Revision (MMSE-SR) along with blood work and a brain scan to rule out any other diseases.

After diagnosis the next of kin often have many questions about the coming lifestyle changes and ways to handle the personality changes that the person suffering from dementia may go through. Previous studies show that in many cases these questions are left unanswered, because it is difficult to get a follow up with a physician and there are few countries where support after diagnose is common.

   In 2009, the Swedish Parliament passed a new law that states that support is to be given to persons caring for people with chronic illnesses, elderly people, or people with functional disabilities. There was, however, no detailed description of the extent or kind of services to be provided, and the municipalities had extensive freedom in implementing the legislation. In the autumn of 2013 the Swedish National Health Board therefore, issued guidelines where eight to ten meetings during a three- to six-month period with information and social support were recommended.A municipality in northern Sweden have a long term ongoing support to persons with dementia and their next of kin since 2006. A close collaboration with the geriatric clinic and private health centers has resulted in support being offered within 4-6 weeks after diagnose.  

 

The overall aim of this thesis was to explore experiences of living with dementia both as a sufferer and as a next of kin; and being part of a long-term ongoing support group, the longest for four years.

    Interviews were done with persons with dementia and their next of kin. Results showed that couples who had been the longest in a support group felt great comfort and support. They experienced that their knowledge about the disorder was good and that they could prepare for the changes to come.

Results also showed that to be an adult child of a person with dementia disease means being burdened with the responsibility to act on behalf of the diseased parent despite a deep sense of grief and loss, which leads to frustration with the situation. 

   Relationships within the family can sometimes change when a family member is affected by dementia. Sometimes for the better; where the family rallied to support the affected member and sometimes for worse; where the relationships were strained when pressure became too much. The persons with dementia who participated in the support groups experienced a great sense of coherence and felt that life was manageable, comprehensible and meaningful. Their healthy partners experienced less comprehensibility and manageability and the adult children more meaningfulness.

 

The results of the thesis have founded a model for support called PER-model®; Pedagogical, Emotional and Relationship based model of support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2014. p. 56
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 197
Keywords
Dementia, Next of kin, Relationships, Support group
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22673 (URN)978-91-87557-76-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-12, M 108, Campus Sundsvall, Sundsvall, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-27 Last updated: 2014-09-11Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A. (2014). Long-term ongoing structured support in early stage of dementia: PER-model. In: OMICS Group Conference (Ed.), 2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain: . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term ongoing structured support in early stage of dementia: PER-model
2014 (English)In: 2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain / [ed] OMICS Group Conference, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dementia is a global disruption of intellectual functioning; there is a decrease of memory ability and other intellectual abilities. About 25, 000 persons are diagnosed with dementia each year in Sweden. In 2009, the Swedish Parliament passed a new law that stated that support should be given to persons caring for people with chronic illnesses, elderly people, or people with functional disabilities. A municipality in northern Sweden have a long term ongoing support to persons with dementia and their next of kin since 2006. A close collaboration with the geriatric clinic and private health centers has resulted in support being offered within 4-6 weeks after diagnose.  The overall aim of the thesis was to explore experiences of living with dementia both as a sufferer and as a next of kin; and being part of a long-term ongoing support group. Results showed that couples who had been the longest in a support group felt great comfort and support. They experienced that their knowledge about the disorder was good and that they could prepare for the changes to come. Persons with dementia who participated in the support groups experienced a great sense of coherence and felt that life was manageable, comprehensible and meaningful. The results have founded a model for support called PER-model®; Pedagogical, Emotional and Relationship based model of support.  The PER model ® focuses on creating and supporting relationships between participants and moderators, pedagogical information about dementia and supporting emotions as a means making the best of what is.

National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28767 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2017-01-12Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A. & Norbergh, K.-G. (2013). Nurses' opinions of pain and the assessed need for pain medication for the elderly. Pain Management Nursing, 14(2), e31-e38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nurses' opinions of pain and the assessed need for pain medication for the elderly
2013 (English)In: Pain Management Nursing, ISSN 1524-9042, E-ISSN 1532-8635, Vol. 14, no 2, p. e31-e38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The undertreatment of pain in the elderly living in nursing homes is a significant problem. In Swedish nursing homes, the registered nurse on duty is often responsible for 20-40 patients during the day with no daily contact from attending physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of registered nurses regarding pain and the assessed need for pain medication for elderly patients using patient scenarios. Two patient scenarios were used in this study; a questionnaire and background information was provided. The scenarios consisted of one smiling patient and one grimacing patient, both with the same numeric rating scale value of pain, blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. Three questions regarding pain assessment and management followed the scenarios. The questionnaire was sent to all 128 registered nurses working daytime in elderly care in both municipal nursing homes and municipal home care in the mid-Sweden region. A total of 56 nurses participated, providing an answering frequency of 45%. Results showed that registered nurses with more experience did not have the same opinion about pain as the smiling patient and gave inadequate medication, which was not in accordance with recommendations from the county hospital and the World Health Organization. © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing.

National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19361 (URN)10.1016/j.pmn.2010.07.007 (DOI)23688369 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84878112296 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A., Norbergh, K.-G. & Hellzen, O. (2013). What it means to be an adult child of a person with dementia. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 8, Art. no. 21676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What it means to be an adult child of a person with dementia
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 8, p. Art. no. 21676-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prevalence of dementia as a disease has increased worldwide with advancing age and growing population numbers, affecting whole families. However, most previous research does not separate the spouses or cohabitants from the adult children, but instead regards all next of kin involved in the everyday care of the person suffering from dementia as caregivers. This has made it difficult to find previous research regarding what it means to be an adult child of a person with dementia, and as such, the aim of this study is to explore that topic. The method used was narrative interviews analysed using phenomenological hermeneutics. Our comprehensive understanding showed that to be an adult child of a person with dementia means being burdened with the responsibility to act on behalf of the diseased parent despite a deep sense of grief and loss, which leads to frustration and despondence. The adult children’s existence and reality are threatened not only by the loss of the parent but also by the possibility that one day they too may inherit the disease. This could be compared to a psychic crisis, which is defined as a situation that leads to radical changes in the afflicted person’s relationship to life and reality, or, simply, ‘‘an upset in a steady state’’. The findings suggest that adult children of people with dementia are in need of support for a substantial period of time in order to adapt to the fact that they have lost a parent who is still alive. They also need information about the disease and the process of diagnosis and treatment to feel more a part of the process, as well as understand the behavior and needs of their parent.

Keywords
Adult children, dementia, life world, phenomenological hermeneutics, qualitative research
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20628 (URN)10.3402/qhw.v8i0.21676 (DOI)000325897500001 ()2-s2.0-84886691968 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-11 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kjällman Alm, A. (2011). Enhancing transcultural awareness in nursing education - the impact of Rainbow Intensive Program. In: Fernando Henriques (Ed.), 11th Iberoamerican Conference on Nursing Education of ALADEFE, Coimbra, 18-24 september. Paper presented at 11th Iberoamerican Conference on Nursing Education of ALADEFE, Coimbra, 18-24 september.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing transcultural awareness in nursing education - the impact of Rainbow Intensive Program
2011 (English)In: 11th Iberoamerican Conference on Nursing Education of ALADEFE, Coimbra, 18-24 september / [ed] Fernando Henriques, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Enhancing transcultural awareness in nursing education - the impact of Rainbow Intensive Program

Authors

Ana Isabel Fernandes Querido*, Anouk Verburg**, Annika Elisabet Kjallman Alm***

Presenters

Ana Isabel Fernandes Querido*, Anouk Verburg**, Annika Elisabet Kjallman Alm***

Introduction: Today’s globalization society makes transcultural nursing education, a priority. Leininger’s Transcultural nursing is the humanistic-scientific study of people from different cultures, so nurses can assist them in health and living needs. Rainbow Network - Sweden, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania partners, have operated Intensive programmes to explore contemporary nursing issues from transcultural perspective. Cultural/linguistic competence can reduce health care disparities, improving quality of care delivered to patients and nursing performance. We address nursing students´ transcultural awereness.

Objectives: Analyze the impact of the IP “Preventing and Care for people in Chronic Conditions” on students Transcultural awareness; Explore IP pedagogical structure /methods; Characterize cultural attitudes and behaviors of students participating the IP; Identify areas of cultural consciousness (Personal Reflection) and cultural competence (Service Delivery) changed; Correlate students transcultural skills - values, attitudes, behaviors in caring for culturally diverse clients and families, before and after IP.

Methodology: Quasi-experimental study without group control correlates students’ cultural competence before/after Rainbow IP. IP consisted of pedagogical strategies combined with socio-cultural activities in an international environment. A convenience sample of 78 students from Rainbow partners participating in 2010 and 2011 IPs, consented to fill in a socio demographic questionnaire and cultural competence checklist (Goode, 2002) - self-assessment of cultural awareness: Personal Reflection (values/attitudes) - Lower scores mean better attitude; Service Delivery (behaviors) - Lower scores mean better skills caring for cultural different populations, applied before and after IPs.

Results: Students were mostly women (91,0%), mean age 22,4 (+/-3,6) [19-42] years, from urban context (62,8%). During Rainbow, 44,2% attended 2nd year of nursing studies; 36,8% the 4th semester. 97,4% had clinical practice before attending the IP, Mean= 23,21 (+/-)15,56 [2; 61 weeks]. 67,9% learnt transcultural issues during nursing studies. Overall, students revealed good cultural values, attitudes and behaviors. After IP students improved respect for culture/language differences accepting clients decisions (p<0,01); showed better cultural sensibility being motivated to respond to insensitive comments/behaviors; recognized Family as decision maker (p<0,01); and revealed better understanding of communication disability and communication differences (p<0,05). They became more aware of culture background Impact in future expectations (p<0,01) and in daily living activities (p<0,05). Cultural skills improved by taking time to learn about behaviors/customs of clients culture (p<0,01), adopting strategies to overcome language barriers, providing clients written information to take home in their language (p<0,05); assessing clients linguistic ability using specific instruments (p<0,01).

Conclusions: Study provided evidence supporting the positive effect of Rainbow IP in enhancing students’ transcultural awareness. By attending the IP, students became more aware of culture differences and the importance of language skills in a transcultural context. Gains were evident in both attitudes/values and behaviors. Pedagogical strategies and English interaction in multicultural groups may explain improvements achieved in transcultural awareness. Results might be due to the group work themes “client centered care”, “family oriented care”, “empowerment”, but also listening to families’ stories, visiting health care facilities, and discussing nursing ethics. This effect should be monitored over time complemented by qualitative research.

Keywords: Cultural Competence, intensive programs, international cooperation, nursing education, pedagogy, students, transcultural nursing.

* Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, Enfermagem

** Amsterdam School of Health Professions, Nursing

*** Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University

Abstract [en]

Enhancing transcultural awareness in nursing education: Pedagogical strategies used in the Rainbow IP.

Presenter; Kjallman Alm, Annika, PhD student, Lecturer, RN, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University

Abstract

Introduction: Transcultural nursing is described as the humanistic and scientific study of all people from different cultures in the world with thought to the ways the nurse can assist people with their daily health and living needs. Culture is defined as the integratedpattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior and also the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. Todays world makes the introduction of transcultural nursing in the nursing education a priority. Objectives: to enhance nursing students abilities to demonstrate both theoretical and practical competence in approaching transcultural nursing community health care for people with chronic conditions. Students analyze transcultural differences and similarities to synthesize a new European approach in nursing issues in a transcultural group. Developing personal skills as e-learning skills and language skills (verbal and non-verbal), use of internet and database search for subject relevant material and pre course contact. Methods: The pedagogical methods used in the network, is divided in several stages. First the students research their own national policies and reflect on their knowledge about transcultural nursing before the IP. Then the IP starts with a group discussion on the researched national policies, on similarities and differences, leading to a group paper. The group paper states the “Golden standard” of transcultural nursing for this group. The paper is peer reviewed in an opponent /respondent situation and a large discussion known as the House of Commons ends the course. Results: The preparation assignment leads to a greater understanding about their own countries policies. On site they discuss and compare policies to find similarities or differences. The discussion and the activity in the group leads to the groups own consensus for a transcultural nursing care strategy that can be implemented in all participating countries or a European Golden standard of nursing for a specific chronic condition. The group paper is peer reviewed by the other students in the IP using respondent/opponent discussions to go in depth on content and clarify the Golden standard set by the group. The House of Commons ends the IP with presenting a case and dividing the students into two groups of pro and con arguing the statement made in the case. The case consists of a multilayered situation with cultural, ethical, social and economic implications from which a statement is made “The multidisciplinary team is the only responsible for choosing where Achmed should be dismissed to”.

Conclusions: The Rainbow intensive program does enhance students’ transcultural awareness and the pedagogical strategies do work to that effect.  The Rainbow IP is a vehicle to give the students greater understanding and an international perspective to facilitate professional success and global competence. It also gives them the opportunity to explore cultural differences in health care by sharing experiences with other nursing students from other cultures.

Keywords:  nursing education, pedagogy, transcultural nursing

 

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15486 (URN)
Conference
11th Iberoamerican Conference on Nursing Education of ALADEFE, Coimbra, 18-24 september
Note
Abstract 1 presenterades av samtlliga författare i ett"symposium in concurrent session" där olika delar av forskningen presenterades. Annika Kjällman Alm presenterade de pedagogiska strategier som användes under intensiv programmet (IP) för att uppnå lärandemålen och syftet med IP. Abstrakt 2 publicerades också i boken med alla bidrag till konferensen.Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2011-12-20Bibliographically approved
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