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Dreier, T., Krapohl, D., Maneuski, D., Lawal, N., Schöwerling, J. O., O'Shea, V. & Fröjdh, C. (2018). A USB 3.0 readout system for Timepix3 detectors with on-board processing capabilities. Paper presented at 20th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sundsvall, Sweden, JUN 24-28, 2018. Journal of Instrumentation, 13, Article ID C11017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A USB 3.0 readout system for Timepix3 detectors with on-board processing capabilities
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id C11017Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Timepix3 is a high-speed hybrid pixel detector consisting of a 256 x 256 pixel matrix with a maximum data rate of up to 5.12 Gbps (80 MHit/s). The ASIC is equipped with eight data channels that are data driven and zero suppressed making it suitable for particle tracking and spectral imaging.

In this paper, we present a USB 3.0-based programmable readout system with online preprocessing capabilities. USB 3.0 is present on all modern computers and can, under real-world conditions, achieve around 320MB/s, which allows up to 40 MHit/s of raw pixel data. With on-line processing, the proposed readout system is capable of achieving higher transfer rate (approaching Timepix4) since only relevant information rather than raw data will be transmitted. The system is based on an Opal Kelly development board with a Spartan 6 FPGA providing a USB 3.0 interface between FPGA and PC via an FX3 chip. It connects to a CERN T imepix 3 chipboard with standard VHDCI connector via a custom designed mezzanine card. The firmware is structured into blocks such as detector interface, USB interface and system control and an interface for data pre-processing. On the PC side, a Qt/C++ multi-platformsoftware library is implemented to control the readout system, providing access to detector functions and handling high-speed USB 3.0 streaming of data from the detector.

We demonstrate equalisation, calibration and data acquisition using a Cadmium Telluride sensor and optimise imaging data using simultaneous ToT (Time-over-Threshold) and ToA (Timeof- Arrival) information. The presented readout system is capable of other on-line processing such as analysis and classification of nuclear particles with current or larger FPGAs.

Keywords
Data processing methods, Detector control systems (detector and experiment monitoring and slow-control systems, architecture, hardware, algorithms, databases), Front-end electronics for detector readout, X-ray detectors
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34944 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/13/11/C11017 (DOI)000450981800001 ()2-s2.0-85057630487 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Sundsvall, Sweden, JUN 24-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Alqaysi, H., Lawal, N., Fedorov, I. & O'Nils, M. (2018). Full Coverage Optimization for Multi Camera Dome Placement in Volumetric Monitoring. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2018; Eindhoven; Netherlands; 3 September 2018 through 4 September 2018. New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, Article ID Article No. 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full Coverage Optimization for Multi Camera Dome Placement in Volumetric Monitoring
2018 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id Article No. 2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Volumetric monitoring can be challenging due to having a 3D target space and moving objects within it. Multi camera dome is proposed to provide a hemispherical coverage of the 3D space around it. This paper introduces a method that optimizes multi camera placement for full coverage in volumetric monitoring system. Camera dome placement is modeled in a volume by adapting the hexagonal packing of circles to provide full coverage at a given height, and 100% detection of flying objects within it. The coverage effectiveness of different placement configurations was assessed using an evaluation environment. The proposed placement is applicable in designing and deploying surveillance systems for remote outdoor areas, such as sky monitoring in wind farms and airport runways in order to record and analyze flying activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
Volumetric surveillance, sky monitoring, camera dome, placement optimization.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34589 (URN)10.1145/3243394.3243690 (DOI)000455840700002 ()2-s2.0-85056662761 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6511-6 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2018; Eindhoven; Netherlands; 3 September 2018 through 4 September 2018
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Fedorov, I., Lawal, N., Thörnberg, B., Alqaysi, H. & O'Nils, M. (2018). Towards calibration of outdoor multi-camera visual monitoring system. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at ICDSC'18 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 3-4 September 2018.. New York, NY, US: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards calibration of outdoor multi-camera visual monitoring system
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2018 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, New York, NY, US: ACM Digital Library, 2018, , p. 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a method for calibrating of multi-camera systems where no natural reference points exist in the surrounding environment. Monitoring the air space at wind farms is our test case. The goal is to monitor the trajectories of flying birds to prevent them from colliding with rotor blades. Our camera calibration method is based on the observation of a portable artificial reference marker made out of a pulsed light source and a navigation satellite sensor module. The reference marker can determine and communicate its position in the world coordinate system at centimeter precision using navigartion sensors. Our results showed that simultaneous detection of the same marker in several cameras having overlapping field of views allowed us to determine the markers position in 3D world coordinate space with an accuracy of 3-4 cm. These experiments were made in the volume around a wind turbine at distances from cameras to marker within a range of 70 to 90 m.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, US: ACM Digital Library, 2018. p. 6
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34643 (URN)10.1145/3243394.3243695 (DOI)000455840700017 ()2-s2.0-85056618979 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6511-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ICDSC'18 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 3-4 September 2018.
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Alqaysi, H., Lawal, N., Fedorov, I. & O'Nils, M. (2017). Evaluating Coverage Effectiveness of Multi-Camera Domes Placement for Volumetric Surveillance. In: ICDSC 2017 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras: . Paper presented at The 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC), Stanford University, Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017 (pp. 49-54). New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), F132201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Coverage Effectiveness of Multi-Camera Domes Placement for Volumetric Surveillance
2017 (English)In: ICDSC 2017 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. F132201, p. 49-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multi-camera dome is composed of a number of cameras arranged to monitor a half sphere of the sky. Designing a network of multi-camera domes can be used to monitor flying activities in open large area, such as birds' activities in wind parks. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating the coverage effectiveness of the multi-camera domes placement in such areas. We used GPS trajectories of free flying birds over an area of 9 km2 to analyze coverage effectiveness of randomly placed domes. The analysis is based on three criteria namely, detection, positioning and the maximum resolution captured. The developed method can be used to evaluate results of designing and optimizing dome placement algorithms for volumetric monitoring systems in order to achieve maximum coverage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32311 (URN)10.1145/3131885.3131916 (DOI)2-s2.0-85038865753 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5487-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC), Stanford University, Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Shallari, I., Imran, M., Lawal, N. & O'Nils, M. (2017). Evaluating Pre-Processing Pipelines for Thermal-Visual Smart Camera. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, Stanford University, Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017 (pp. 95-100). ACM Digital Library, F132201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Pre-Processing Pipelines for Thermal-Visual Smart Camera
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ACM Digital Library, 2017, Vol. F132201, p. 95-100Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Smart camera systems integrating multi-model image sensors provide better spectral sensitivity and hence better pass-fail decisions. In a given vision system, pre-processing tasks have a ripple effect on output data and pass-fail decision of high level tasks such as feature extraction, classification and recognition. In this work, we investigated four pre-processing pipelines and evaluated the effect on classification accuracy and output transmission data. The pre-processing pipelines processed four types of images, thermal grayscale, thermal binary, visual and visual binary. The results show that the pre-processing pipeline, which transmits visual compressed Region of Interest (ROI) images, offers 13 to 64 percent better classification accuracy as compared to thermal grayscale, thermal binary and visual binary. The results show that visual raw and visual compressed ROI with suitable quantization matrix offers similar classification accuracy but visual compressed ROI offers up to 99 percent reduced communication data as compared to visual ROI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2017
Keywords
Thermal imaging, FPGA, intelligence partitioning
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32437 (URN)10.1145/3131885.3131908 (DOI)2-s2.0-85038877488 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5487-5 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, Stanford University, Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Fedorov, I., Lawal, N., O'Nils, M. & Alqaysi, H. (2017). Placement Strategy of Multi-Camera Volumetric Surveillance System for Activities Monitoring. In: ICDSC 2017 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras: . Paper presented at The 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC), Stanford University Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017 (pp. 113-118). New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), F132201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Placement Strategy of Multi-Camera Volumetric Surveillance System for Activities Monitoring
2017 (English)In: ICDSC 2017 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. F132201, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of multi-camera surveillance system comes with many advantages, for example it facilitates as understanding how flying objects act in a given volume. One possible application is for the observation interaction of birds and calculate their trajectories around wind turbines to create promising systems for preventing bird collisions with turbine blades. However, there are also challenges, such as finding the optimal node placement and camera calibration. To address these challenges we investigated a trade-off between calibration accuracy and node requirements, including resolution, modulation transfer function, field of view and angle baseline. We developed a strategy for camera placement to achieve improved coverage for golden eagle monitoring and tracking. This strategy based on the modified resolution criterion taking into account the contrast function of the camera and the estimation of the base angle between the cameras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
Keywords
Multi-camera, outdoor monitoring, placement, camera calibration
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32726 (URN)10.1145/3131885.3131911 (DOI)2-s2.0-85038856097 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5487-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 11th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC), Stanford University Stanford; United States; 5 September 2017 through 7 September 2017
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Lawal, N., O'Nils, M. & Imran, M. (2016). Design exploration of a multi-camera dome for sky monitoring. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2016, 12 September 2016 through 15 September 2016 (pp. 14-18). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 12-15-September-2016, Article ID 2967419.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design exploration of a multi-camera dome for sky monitoring
2016 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, Vol. 12-15-September-2016, p. 14-18, article id 2967419Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sky monitoring has many applications but also many challenges to be addressed before it can be realized. Some of the challenges are cost, energy consumption and complex deployment. One way to address these challenges is to compose a camera dome by grouping cameras that monitor a half sphere of the sky. In this paper, we present a model for design exploration that investigates how characteristics of camera chips and objective lenses affect the overall cost of a node of a camera dome. The investigation showed that by accepting more cameras in a single node can result in a reduced total cost of the system. This concludes that by using suitable design and camera placement technique, a cost-effective solution can be proposed for massive open-area i.e. sky monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016
Keywords
Design exploration, Distributed smart cameras, Sky monitoring, Volumetric surveillance
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29141 (URN)10.1145/2967413.2967419 (DOI)2-s2.0-84989322238 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)9781450347860 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
10th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2016, 12 September 2016 through 15 September 2016
Projects
SMART (Smarta system och tjänster för ett effektivt och innovativt samhälle)
Note

Conference Paper

Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Imran, M., Wang, X., Lawal, N. & O'Nils, M. (2016). Pre-processing Architecture for IR-Visual Smart Camera Based on Post-Processing Constraints. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International Workshop on Cellular Nanoscale Networks and their Applications, Dresden, Germany, August 23-25, 2016. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-processing Architecture for IR-Visual Smart Camera Based on Post-Processing Constraints
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In embedded vision systems, the efficiency of pre-processing architectures have a ripple effect on post-processing functions such as feature extraction, classification and recognition. In this work, we investigated a pre-processing architecture for smart camera system, integrating a thermal and vision sensors, by considering the constraints of post-processing. By utilizing the locality feature of the system, we performed pre-processing on the camera node by using FPGA and post-processing on the client device by using the microprocessor platform, NVIDIA Tegra. The study shows that for outdoor people surveillance applications with complex background and varying lighting conditions, the pre-processing architecture, which transmits thermal binary Region-of-Interest (ROI) images, offers better classification accuracy and smaller complexity as compared to alternative approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
Wireless smart camera, Infrared, Thermal, Pre-processing, Architecture, Post-processing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27371 (URN)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
15th International Workshop on Cellular Nanoscale Networks and their Applications, Dresden, Germany, August 23-25, 2016
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Lawal, N., Lateef, F. & Usman, M. (2015). Power Consumption Measurement & Configuration Time of FPGA. In: 2015 POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES (PGSRET-2015): . Paper presented at Conference Power Generation System and Renewable Energy Technologies (PGSRET), Islamabad, PAKISTAN, JUN 10-11, 2015 (pp. 63-67). , Article ID 7312250.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Consumption Measurement & Configuration Time of FPGA
2015 (English)In: 2015 POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES (PGSRET-2015), 2015, p. 63-67, article id 7312250Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we presents results concerning power consumption and configuration time for FPGA. FPGAs re-programmability, flexibility and re-configurability give rise to number of possibilities like adding more and more features, increasing lifetime duration to embedded systems. Power consumption of the peripheral devices is also meaningfully affects by Time behavior. Estimation based on average activity may not being useful for accurate power estimation of system. The configuration time of FPGA depend on configuration data width, size file, clock frequency and flash time access. We measured the total power consumption on each voltage supply and the total configuration time of Spartan-6 FPGA Atlys board using LabVIEW. Comparison had been made between estimated power value and measured power value. Hence, we believe that our experiment results will be useful to other FPGA-based embedded systems.

Keywords
Power measuring; FPGA; configuration time
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29741 (URN)10.1109/PGSRET.2015.7312250 (DOI)000380412300071 ()2-s2.0-84962359283 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-6813-1 (ISBN)978-1-4673-6812-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference Power Generation System and Renewable Energy Technologies (PGSRET), Islamabad, PAKISTAN, JUN 10-11, 2015
Note

Power Generation System and Renewable Energy Technologies (PGSRET), Islamabad, PAKISTAN, JUN 10-11, 2015

Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Imran, M., Khursheed, K., Ahmad, N., O'Nils, M., Lawal, N. & Waheed, M. A. (2014). Complexity Analysis of Vision Functions for Comparison of Wireless Smart Cameras. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Art. no. 710685
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity Analysis of Vision Functions for Comparison of Wireless Smart Cameras
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2014 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. Art. no. 710685-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are a number of challenges caused by the large amount of data and limited resources such as memory, processing capability, energy consumption, and bandwidth, when implementing vision systems on wireless smart cameras using embedded platforms. It is usual for research in this field to focus on the development of a specific solution for a particular problem. There is a requirement for a tool which facilitates the complexity estimation and comparison of wireless smart camera systems in order to develop efficient generic solutions. To develop such a tool, we have presented, in this paper, a complexity model by using a system taxonomy. In this model, we have investigated the arithmetic complexity and memory requirements of vision functions with the help of system taxonomy. To demonstrate the use of the proposed model, a number of actual systems are analyzed in a case study. The complexity model, together with system taxonomy, is used for the complexity estimation of vision functions and for a comparison of vision systems. After comparison, the systems are evaluated for implementation on a single generic architecture. The proposed approach will assist researchers in benchmarking and will assist in proposing efficient generic solutions for the same class of problems with reduced design and development costs.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22002 (URN)10.1155/2014/710685 (DOI)000330458300001 ()2-s2.0-84893189660 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3429-273X

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