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Dobslaw, F., Zhang, T. & Gidlund, M. (2016). End-to-End Reliability-aware Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 12(2), 758-767
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-End Reliability-aware Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 758-767Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are gaining popularity as a flexible and economical alternative to field-bus installations for monitoring and control applications. For missioncritical applications, communication networks must provide endto- end reliability guarantees, posing substantial challenges for WSN. Reliability can be improved by redundancy, and is often addressed on the MAC layer by re-submission of lost packets, usually applying slotted scheduling. Recently, researchers have proposed a strategy to optimally improve the reliability of a given schedule by repeating the most rewarding slots in a schedule incrementally until a deadline. This Incrementer can be used with most scheduling algorithms but has scalability issues which narrows its usability to offline calculations of schedules, for networks that are rather static. In this paper, we introduce SchedEx, a generic heuristic scheduling algorithm extension which guarantees a user-defined end-to-end reliability. SchedEx produces competitive schedules to the existing approach, and it does that consistently more than an order of magnitude faster. The harsher the end-to-end reliability demand of the network, the better SchedEx performs compared to the Incrementer. We further show that SchedEx has a more evenly distributed improvement impact on the scheduling algorithms, whereas the Incrementer favors schedules created by certain scheduling algorithms.

Keywords
Mission-Critical, Industrial Wireless Sensor Net- works, Reliable Packet Delivery, TDMA
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24017 (URN)10.1109/TII.2014.2382335 (DOI)000373949100030 ()2-s2.0-84963878040 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Projects
ASIS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-12-23 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2017-08-15Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F., Zhang, T. & Gidlund, M. (2016). QoS-Aware Cross-layer Configuration for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 12(5), 1679-1691, Article ID 7485858.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoS-Aware Cross-layer Configuration for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1679-1691, article id 7485858Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many applications of Industrial Sensor Networks, stringentreliability and maximum delay constraints paired with priority demands ona sensor-basis are present. These QoS requirements pose tough challenges forIndustrial Wireless Sensor Networks that are deployed to an ever largerextent due to their flexibility and extendibility.In this paper, we introduce an integrated cross-layer framework, SchedEx-GA, spanning MAC layer and networklayer. SchedEx-GA attempts to identify a network configuration that fulfills all application-specific process requirements over a topology including the sensorpublish rates, maximum acceptable delay, service differentiation, and eventtransport reliabilities. The network configuration comprisesthe decision for routing, as well as scheduling.

For many of the evaluatedtopologies it is not possible to find a valid configuration due to the physicalconditions of the environment. We therefore introduce a converging algorithm on top of the frameworkwhich configures a given topology by additional sink positioning in order tobuild a backbone with the gateway that guaranteesthe application specific constraints.The results show that, in order to guarantee a high end-to-end reliability of 99.999% for all flows in a network containing emergency, control loop, andmonitoring traffic, a backbone with multiple sinks is often required for thetested topologies. Additional features, such as multi-channel utilization andaggregation, though, can substantially reduce the demand for required sinks.In its present version, the framework is used for centralized control, butwith the potential to be extended for de-centralized control in future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
Quality if Service, Priority, Wireless Sensor Networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26294 (URN)10.1109/TII.2016.2576964 (DOI)000389219800005 ()2-s2.0-85012039893 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F., Gidlund, M. & Zhang, T. (2015). Challenges for the use of data aggregation in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering: . Paper presented at 11th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2015; Elite Park Avenue HotelGothenburg; Sweden; 24 August 2015 through 28 August 2015; Category numberCFP15ASE-ART; Code 116992 (pp. 138-144). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for the use of data aggregation in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2015 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 138-144Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The provision of quality of service for Wireless Sensor Networks is more relevant than ever now where wireless solutions with their flexibility advantages are considered for the extension/substitution of wired networks for a multitude of industrial applications. Scheduling algorithms that give end-to-end guarantees for both reliability and latency exist, but according to recent investigations is the achieved quality of service insufficient for most control applications. Data aggregation is an effective tool to significantly improve on end-to-end contention and energy efficiency compared to single packet transmissions. In practice, though, it is not extensively used for process data processing on the MAC layer. In this paper, we outline the challenges for the use of data aggregation in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. We further extend SchedEx, a reliability-aware scheduling algorithm extension, for packet aggregation. Our simulations for scheduling algorithms from the literature show its great potential for industrial applications. Features for the inclusion of data aggregation into industrial standards such as WirelessHART are suggested, and remaining open issues for future work are presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keywords
quality of service, telecommunication network reliability, wireless sensor networks, MAC layer, SchedEx, data aggregation, end-to-end contention, energy efficiency, industrial wireless sensor networks, reliability-aware scheduling algorithm, Payloads, Relays, Reliability, Scheduling, Scheduling algorithms, Topology
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26292 (URN)10.1109/CoASE.2015.7294052 (DOI)000380453000021 ()2-s2.0-84952794497 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
11th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2015; Elite Park Avenue HotelGothenburg; Sweden; 24 August 2015 through 28 August 2015; Category numberCFP15ASE-ART; Code 116992
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F. (2015). End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantees for Wireless Sensor Networks. (Doctoral dissertation). Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantees for Wireless Sensor Networks
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks have been a key driver of innovation and societal progressover the last three decades. They allow for simplicity because they eliminate ca-bling complexity while increasing the flexibility of extending or adjusting networksto changing demands. Wireless sensor networks are a powerful means of fillingthe technological gap for ever-larger industrial sites of growing interconnection andbroader integration. Nonetheless, the management of wireless networks is difficultin situations wherein communication requires application-specific, network-widequality of service guarantees. A minimum end-to-end reliability for packet arrivalclose to 100% in combination with latency bounds in the millisecond range must befulfilled in many mission-critical applications.The problem addressed in this thesis is the demand for algorithmic support forend-to-end quality of service guarantees in mission-critical wireless sensor networks.Wireless sensors have traditionally been used to collect non-critical periodic read-ings; however, the intriguing advantages of wireless technologies in terms of theirflexibility and cost effectiveness justify the exploration of their potential for controland mission-critical applications, subject to the requirements of ultra-reliable com-munication, in harsh and dynamically changing environments such as manufactur-ing factories, oil rigs, and power plants.This thesis provides three main contributions in the scope of wireless sensor net-works. First, it presents a scalable algorithm that guarantees end-to-end reliabilitythrough scheduling. Second, it presents a cross-layer optimization/configurationframework that can be customized to meet multiple end-to-end quality of servicecriteria simultaneously. Third, it proposes an extension of the framework used toenable service differentiation and priority handling. Adaptive, scalable, and fast al-gorithms are proposed. The cross-layer framework is based on a genetic algorithmthat assesses the quality of service of the network as a whole and integrates the phys-ical layer, medium access control layer, network layer, and transport layer.Algorithm performance and scalability are verified through numerous simula-tions on hundreds of convergecast topologies by comparing the proposed algorithmswith other recently proposed algorithms for ensuring reliable packet delivery. Theresults show that the proposed SchedEx scheduling algorithm is both significantlymore scalable and better performing than are the competing slot-based schedulingalgorithms. The integrated solving of routing and scheduling using a genetic al-vvigorithm further improves on the original results by more than 30% in terms of la-tency. The proposed framework provides live graphical feedback about potentialbottlenecks and may be used for analysis and debugging as well as the planning ofgreen-field networks.SchedEx is found to be an adaptive, scalable, and fast algorithm that is capa-ble of ensuring the end-to-end reliability of packet arrival throughout the network.SchedEx-GA successfully identifies network configurations, thus integrating the rout-ing and scheduling decisions for networks with diverse traffic priority levels. Fur-ther, directions for future research are presented, including the extension of simula-tions to experimental work and the consideration of alternative network topologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2015. p. 97
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 234
Keywords
Wireless Sensor Networks, Reliability, Quality of Service, Genetic Algorithms
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26289 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-46-3 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2015-12-11, L111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 4 (manuskript inskickat för granskning), delarbete 5 (manuskript inskickat för granskning)

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 4 (manuscript under review), paper 5 (manuscript under review)

Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F., Tingting, Z. & Gidlund, M. (2015). Latency Improvement Strategies for Reliability-Aware Scheduling in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Article ID 178368.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency Improvement Strategies for Reliability-Aware Scheduling in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, article id 178368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose novel strategiesfor end-to-end reliability-aware scheduling in Industrial WirelessSensor Networks (IWSN). Because of stringent reliability requirements inindustrial applications where missed packets may have disastrous or lethalconsequences, all IWSN communication standards are based on TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), allowing for deterministic channel access onthe MAC layer. We therefore extend an existing generic and scalablereliability-aware scheduling approach by name SchedEx. SchedEx has proven toquickly produce TDMA schedules that guarantee auser-defined end-to-end reliability level $\underline\rho$ for all multi-hopcommunication in a WSN. Moreover, SchedEx executes orders of magnitude fasterthan recent algorithms in the literature while producing schedules withcompetitive latencies.We generalize the original problem formulation from single-channel tomulti-channel scheduling and propose a scalable integration into the existingSchedEx approach.We further introduce a novel optimal bound that produces TDMAschedules with latencies around 20\% shorter than the original SchedExalgorithm. Combining the novel strategies with multiple sinks, multiplechannels, and the introduced optimal bound, we could through simulationsverify latency improvements by almost an order of magnitude, reducingthe TDMA super-frame execution times from tens of seconds to seconds only, whichallows for a utilization of SchedEx for many time-critical control applications.

Keywords
Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks, Reliable Packet Delivery, TDMA, Multi-channel Scheduling
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24928 (URN)10.1155/2015/178368 (DOI)000364677000001 ()2-s2.0-84947758859 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, P., Thörnberg, B., Dobslaw, F. & Vaa, T. (2015). Road Condition Imaging: Model Development. In: : . Paper presented at Transportation Research Board 2015 Annual Meeting.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road Condition Imaging: Model Development
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is important to classify road conditions to plan winter road maintenance, carry out proper actions and issue warnings to road users. Existing sensor systems only cover parts of the road surface and manual observations can vary depending on those who classify the observations. One challenge is to classify road conditions with automatic monitoring systems. This paper presents a model based on data from winter 2013-2014, retrieved from two installations in Sweden and Norway. To address that challenge an innovative and cost effective road condition imaging system, capable of classifying individual pixels of an image as dry, wet, icy or snowy, is evaluated. The system uses a near infra-red image detector and optical wavelength filters. By combining data from images taken from different wavelength filters it is possible to determine the road status by using multiclass classifiers. One classifier for each road condition was developed, which implies that a pixel can be classified to two or more road conditions at the same time. This multiclass problem is solved by developing a Bayesian Network that uses road weather information system data for the calculation of the probabilities for different road conditions.

Keywords
Road condition, Near Infra Red, classification, remote sensing, Bayesian Networks
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24250 (URN)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Transportation Research Board 2015 Annual Meeting
Note

Paper number: 15-0885

Presented at the conference in Washington.

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F., Zhang, T. & Gidlund, M. (2013). QoS Assessment for Mission-critical Wireless Sensor Network Applications. In: Matthias Wählisch (Ed.), Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN: . Paper presented at 38th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2013; Sydney, NSW; Australia; 21 October 2013 through 24 October 2013; Category numberCFP13068-ART; Code 104226 (pp. 663-666). IEEE Xplore
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoS Assessment for Mission-critical Wireless Sensor Network Applications
2013 (English)In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN / [ed] Matthias Wählisch, IEEE Xplore , 2013, p. 663-666Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) must ensure worst-case end-to-end delay and reliability guarantees for mission-critical applications.TDMA-based scheduling offers delay guarantees, thus it is used in industrial monitoring and automation. We propose to evolve pairs of TDMA schedule and routing-tree in a cross-layer in order to fulfill multiple conflicting QoS requirements,exemplified by latency and reliability.The genetic algorithm we utilize can be used as an analytical tool for both the feasibility and expected QoS in production. Near-optimal cross-layer solutions are found within seconds and can be directly enforced into the network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Xplore, 2013
Keywords
QoS, Wirless Sensor Networks, TDMA, GA
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20803 (URN)10.1109/LCN.2013.6761305 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898025203 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
38th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2013; Sydney, NSW; Australia; 21 October 2013 through 24 October 2013; Category numberCFP13068-ART; Code 104226
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
Shen, W., Zhang, T., Gidlund, M. & Dobslaw, F. (2013). SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless networks, 19(6), 1155-1170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2013 (English)In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1155-1170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scheduling algorithms play an importantrole for TDMA-based wireless sensor networks. ExistingTDMA scheduling algorithms address a multitude of objectives.However, their adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wirelesssensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactorymanner. This is a key issue considering the challenges withinindustrial applications for wireless sensor networks, given thetime-constraints and harsh environments.In response to those challenges, we present SAS-TDMA, asource-aware scheduling algorithm. It is a cross-layer solutionwhich adapts itself to network dynamics. It realizes a tradeoffbetween scheduling length and its configurational overheadincurred by rapid responses to routes changes. We implementeda TDMA stack instead of the default CSMA stack and introduceda cross-layer for scheduling in TOSSIM, the TinyOS simulator.Numerical results show that SAS-TDMA improves the qualityof service for the entire network. It achieves significant improvementsfor realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks whencompared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim tominimize latency for real-time communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
US: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013
Keywords
Real-time communication, TDMA scheduling algorithms, wireless sensor networks, cross-layer protocol
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17632 (URN)10.1007/s11276-012-0524-2 (DOI)000321974700009 ()2-s2.0-84880319804 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2012-12-11 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, P. & Dobslaw, F. (2012). Decision support system for variable speed regulation. In: : . Paper presented at SIRWEC - 16th International Road Weather Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision support system for variable speed regulation
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The problem of recommending a suitable speed limit for roads is important for road authorities in order to increase traffic safety. Nowadays, these speed limits can be given more dynamically, with digital speed regulation signs. The challenge here is input from the environment, in combination with probabilities for certain events. Here we present a decision support model based on a dynamic Bayesian network. The purpose of this model is to predict the appropriate speed on the basis of weather data, traffic density and road maintenance activities. The dynamic Bayesian network principle of using uncertainty for the involved variables gives a possibility to model the real conditions. This model shows that it is possible to develop automated decision support systems for variable speed regulation.

Keywords
Decision support system, variable speed limits, Bayesian Network
National Category
Signal Processing Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24251 (URN)
Conference
SIRWEC - 16th International Road Weather Conference
Note

Paper Id: 0022

Presented in Helsinki

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Dobslaw, F. (2012). InPUT: The Intelligent Parameter Utilization Tool. In: GECCO Companion 12: Proceedings of the fourteenth international conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, GECCO'12;Philadelphia, PA;7 July 2012through11 July 2012;Code91623 (pp. 149-156). New York, NY, USA: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>InPUT: The Intelligent Parameter Utilization Tool
2012 (English)In: GECCO Companion 12: Proceedings of the fourteenth international conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2012, p. 149-156Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Computer experiments are part of the daily business formany researchers within the area of computational intelligence. However, there is no standard for either human orcomputer readable documentation of computer experiments.Such a standard could considerably improve the collaboration between experimental researchers, given it is intuitiveto use. In response to this deficiency the Intelligent Param-eter Utilization Tool ( InPUT ) is introduced. InPUT offers ageneral and programming language independent format forthe definition of parameters and their ranges. It providesservices to simplify the implementation of algorithms andcan be used as a substitute for input mechanisms of existing frameworks. InPUT reduces code-complexity and increases the reusability of algorithm designs as well as the reproducibility of experiments. InPUT is available as open-source for Java and this will soon also be extended to C++, two ofthe predominant languages of choice for the development ofevolutionary algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2012
Keywords
InPUT, InPUT4J, automated algorithm design, computer experiments, intelligent parameter utilization tool
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16869 (URN)10.1145/2330784.2330807 (DOI)2-s2.0-84864976394 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-1178-6 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, GECCO'12;Philadelphia, PA;7 July 2012through11 July 2012;Code91623
Available from: 2012-08-26 Created: 2012-08-26 Last updated: 2012-10-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9372-3416

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