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Holmberg, Hans-ChristerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246
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Publications (10 of 369) Show all publications
Kunz, P., Engel, F. A., Holmberg, H.-C. & Sperlich, B. (2019). A Meta-Comparison of the Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training to Those of Small-Sided Games and Other Training Protocols on Parameters Related to the Physiology and Performance of Youth Soccer Players. Sports Medicine - Open, 5(1), Article ID 7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Comparison of the Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training to Those of Small-Sided Games and Other Training Protocols on Parameters Related to the Physiology and Performance of Youth Soccer Players
2019 (English)In: Sports Medicine - Open, ISSN 2199-1170, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 7Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently employed to improve the endurance of various types of athletes. To determine whether youth soccer players may benefit from the intermittent load and time efficiency of HIIT, we performed a meta-analysis of the relevant scientific literature. Objectives: Our primary objective was to compare changes in various physiological parameters related to the performance of youth soccer players in response to running-based HIIT to the effects of other common training protocols (i.e., small-sided games, technical training and soccer-specific training, or high-volume endurance training). A secondary objective was to compare specifically running-based HIIT to a soccer-specific form of HIIT known as small-sided games (SSG) in this same respect, since this latter type of training is being discussed extensively by coaches. Method: A systematic search of the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed in August of 2017 and updated during the review process in December of 2018. The criteria for inclusion of articles for analysis were as follows: (1) comparison of HIIT to SSG or some other training protocol employing a pre-post design, (2) involvement of healthy young athletes (≤ 18 years old), and (3) assessment of variables related to endurance or soccer performance. Hedges’ g effect size (dppc2) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of the responses to HIIT and other interventions were calculated. Results: Nine studies, involving 232 young soccer players (mean age 16.2 ± 1.6 years), were examined. Endurance training in the form of HIIT or SSG produced similar positive effects on most parameters assessed, including peak oxygen uptake and maximal running performance during incremental running (expressed as Vmax or maximal aerobic speed (MAS)), shuttle runs (expressed as the distance covered or time to exhaustion), and time-trials, as well as submaximal variables such as running economy and running velocity at the lactate threshold. HIIT induced a moderate improvement in soccer-related tests involving technical exercises with the soccer ball and other game-specific parameters (i.e., total distance covered, number of sprints, and number of involvements with the ball). Neuromuscular parameters were largely unaffected by HIIT or SSG. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis indicates that HIIT and SSG have equally beneficial impacts on variables related to the endurance and soccer-specific performance of youth soccer players, but little influence on neuromuscular performance. 

Keywords
Adolescents, Children, Conditioning, Endurance, Repeated sprint
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37308 (URN)10.1186/s40798-019-0180-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072073477 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Psilander, N., Eftestøl, E., Cumming, K. T., Juvkam, I., Ekblom, M. M., Sunding, K., . . . Gundersen, K. (2019). Effects of training, detraining, and retraining on strength, hypertrophy, and myonuclear number in human skeletal muscle. Journal of applied physiology, 126(6), 1636-1645
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of training, detraining, and retraining on strength, hypertrophy, and myonuclear number in human skeletal muscle
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2019 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 126, no 6, p. 1636-1645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previously trained mouse muscles acquire strength and volume faster than naïve muscles; it has been suggested that this is related to increased myonuclear density. The present study aimed to determine whether a previously strength-trained leg (mem-leg) would respond better to a period of strength training than a previously untrained leg (con-leg). Nine men and 10 women performed unilateral strength training (T1) for 10 wk, followed by 20 wk of detraining (DT) and a 5-wk bilateral retraining period (T2). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after each training period and analyzed for myonuclear number, fiber volume, and cross-sectional area (CSA). Ultrasound and one repetition of maximum leg extension were performed to determine muscle thickness (MT) and strength. CSA (~17%), MT (~10%), and strength (~20%) increased during T1 in the mem-leg. However, the myonuclear number and fiber volume did not change. MT and CSA returned to baseline values during DT, but strength remained elevated (~60%), supporting previous findings of a long-lasting motor learning effect. MT and strength increased similarly in the mem-leg and con-leg during T2, whereas CSA, fiber volume, and myonuclear number remained unaffected. In conclusion, training response during T2 did not differ between the mem-leg and con-leg. However, this does not discount the existence of human muscle memory, since no increase in the number of myonuclei was detected during T1 and no clear detraining effect was observed for cell size during DT; thus, the present data did not allow for a rigorous test of the muscle memory hypothesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY If a long-lasting intramuscular memory exists in humans, this will affect strength-training advice for both athletes and the public. Based on animal experiments, we hypothesized that such a memory exists and that it is related to the myonuclear number. However, a period of unilateral strength training, followed by detraining, did not increase the myonuclear number. The training response, during a subsequent bilateral retraining period, was not enhanced in the previously trained leg. 

Keywords
CSA, Exercise, Motor learning, Muscle memory, Myonuclei
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36706 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067636120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Martin-Rincon, M., Perez-Suarez, I., Pérez-López, A., Ponce-González, J. G., Morales-Alamo, D., de Pablos-Velasco, P., . . . Calbet, J. A. L. (2019). Protein synthesis signaling in skeletal muscle is refractory to whey protein ingestion during a severe energy deficit evoked by prolonged exercise and caloric restriction. International Journal of Obesity, 43(4), 872-882
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein synthesis signaling in skeletal muscle is refractory to whey protein ingestion during a severe energy deficit evoked by prolonged exercise and caloric restriction
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 872-882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exercise and protein ingestion preserve muscle mass during moderate energy deficits. Objective: To determine the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and protein ingestion may spare muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day).

Design: Fifteen overweight, but otherwise healthy men, underwent a pre-test (PRE), caloric restriction (3.2 kcals/kg body weight/day) + exercise (45 min one-arm cranking + 8 h walking) for 4 days (CRE), followed by a control diet (CD) for 3 days, with a caloric content similar to pre-intervention while exercise was reduced to less than 10,000 steps per day. During CRE, participants ingested either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7) (0.8 g/kg body weight/day). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trained and untrained deltoid, and vastus lateralis.

Results: Following CRE and CD, serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, and testosterone were reduced, whereas cortisol and the catabolic index (cortisol/total testosterone) increased. The Akt/mTor/p70S6K pathway and total eIF2α were unchanged, while total 4E-BP1 and Thr37/464E-BP1 were higher. After CRE, plasma BCAA and EAA were elevated, with a greater response in PRO group, and total GSK3β, pSer9GSK3β, pSer51eIF2α, and pSer51eIF2α/total eIF2α were reduced, with a greater response of pSer9GSK3β in the PRO group. The changes in signaling were associated with the changes in leptin, insulin, amino acids, cortisol, cortisol/total testosterone, and lean mass.

Conclusions: During severe energy deficit, pSer9GSK3β levels are reduced and human skeletal muscle becomes refractory to the anabolic effects of whey protein ingestion, regardless of contractile activity. These effects are associated with the changes in lean mass and serum insulin, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. 

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35045 (URN)10.1038/s41366-018-0174-2 (DOI)000462994400025 ()30242237 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053695498 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Supej, M. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2019). Recent Kinematic and Kinetic Advances in Olympic Alpine Skiing: Pyeongchang and Beyond. Frontiers in Physiology, 10(FEB), Article ID 111.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Kinematic and Kinetic Advances in Olympic Alpine Skiing: Pyeongchang and Beyond
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, no FEB, article id 111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alpine skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in 1936. Nowadays, skiers compete in four main events: slalom, giant slalom, super-G and downhill. Here, we present an update on the biomechanics of alpine ski racers and their equipment. The technical and tactical ability of today's world-class skiers have adapted substantially to changes in equipment, snow conditions and courses. The wide variety of terrain, slopes, gate setups and snow conditions involved in alpine skiing requires skiers to continuously adapt, alternating between the carving and skidding turning techniques. The technical complexity places a premium on minimizing energy dissipation, employing strategies and ski equipment that minimize ski-snow friction and aerodynamic drag. Access to multiple split times along the racing course, in combination with analysis of the trajectory and speed provide information that can be utilized to enhance performance. Peak ground reaction forces, which can be as high as five times body weight, serve as a measure of the external load on the skier and equipment. Although the biomechanics of alpine skiing have significantly improved, several questions concerning optimization of skiers' performance remain to be investigated. Recent advances in sensor technology that allow kinematics and kinetics to be monitored can provide detailed information about the biomechanical factors related to success in competitions. Moreover, collection of data during training and actual competitions will enhance the quality of guidelines for training future Olympic champions. At the same time, the need to individualize training and skiing equipment for each unique skier will motivate innovative scientific research for years to come.

Keywords
downhill, giant slalom, performance, super-G, tactics, technique
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35803 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2019.00111 (DOI)000459161800001 ()30842740 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065901187 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Supej, M., Nedergaard, N., Nord, J. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2019). The impact of start strategy on start performance in alpine skiing exists on flat, but not on steep inclines. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(6), 647-655
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of start strategy on start performance in alpine skiing exists on flat, but not on steep inclines
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, we explored the relationship between incline and start strategy during alpine skiing. Eight FIS skiers performed starts on a flat (3°) and steep (21°) incline employing five different strategies. Their times, trajectories and velocities were monitored with a GNSS system and video. A significant interaction was observed between slope incline and start strategy with respect to the skier’s exit velocity (p < 0.001, ƞ2 p = 0.716), but not for the start section time (p = 0.732, ƞ2 p = 0.037). On the almost flat incline, both section time (p = 0.022, ƞ2 p = 0.438) and exit velocity (p < 0.001, ƞ2 p = 0.786) were influenced significantly by start strategy, with four V2 skate-pushes being optimal. On the steep incline, neither section time nor exit velocity was affected significantly by start strategy, the fastest section time and exit velocity being attained with four and two V2 skate-pushes, respectively. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the start strategy exerts considerable impact on start performance on almost flat inclines, with strategies involving three or more V2 skate-pushes being optimal. In contrast, start performance on the steep incline was not influenced by strategy.

Keywords
Biomechanics, coach evaluation, kinematic, pole-push, skate stroke
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35079 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2018.1522698 (DOI)000456817600006 ()30317917 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Sperlich, B., Hahn, L.-S., Edel, A., Behr, T., Helmprobst, J., Leppich, R., . . . Holmberg, H.-C. (2018). A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID e423.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id e423Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiplejoint conditioning (CircuitHiu) performed either once (IxCircuitmu) or twice (2xCircuitHiu) daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 +/- 5 years) first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either IxCircuitnirr or 2xCircuitHiu (5 men and 7 women in each group) daily. The IxCircuitnirr and 2xCircuitHiu participants carried out 90.7 and 85.7% of all planned training sessions, respectively, with average heart rates during the 6-min sessions of 74.3 and 70.8% of maximal heart rate. Body, fat and fat-free mass, and metabolic rate at rest did not differ between the groups or between time-points of measurement. Heart rate while running at 6 km h(-1) declined after the intervention in both groups. Submaximal and peak oxygen uptake, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate recovery were not altered by either intervention. The maximal numbers of push-ups, leg-levers, burpees, 45 degrees-one-legged squats and 30-s skipping, as well as perception of general health improved in both groups. Our IxCircuitHiu or 2xCircuitHiiT interventions improved certain parameters of functional strength and certain dimensions of quality of life in young untrained individuals. However, they were not sufficient to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness, in particular peak oxygen uptake.

Keywords
aerobic fitness, body composition, functional training, mHealth, power training, V800, wearable, Web-based apps
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33677 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00423 (DOI)000431783900001 ()2-s2.0-85046654801 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-06-10Bibliographically approved
Gejl, K. D., Vissing, K., Hansen, M., Thams, L., Rokkedal-Lausch, T., Plomgaard, P., . . . Ørtenblad, N. (2018). Changes in metabolism but not myocellular signaling by training with CHO-restriction in endurance athletes. Physiological Reports, 6(17), Article ID e13847.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in metabolism but not myocellular signaling by training with CHO-restriction in endurance athletes
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2018 (English)In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, no 17, article id e13847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbohydrate (CHO) restricted training has been shown to increase the acute training response, whereas less is known about the acute effects after repeated CHO restricted training. On two occasions, the acute responses to CHO restriction were examined in endurance athletes. Study 1 examined cellular signaling and metabolic responses after seven training-days including CHO manipulation (n = 16). The protocol consisted of 1 h high-intensity cycling, followed by 7 h recovery, and 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise (120SS). Athletes were randomly assigned to low (LCHO: 80 g) or high (HCHO: 415 g) CHO during recovery and the 120SS. Study 2 examined unaccustomed exposure to the same training protocol (n = 12). In Study 1, muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1 h after 120SS, and blood samples drawn during the 120SS. In Study 2, substrate oxidation and plasma glucagon were determined. In Study 1, plasma insulin and proinsulin C-peptide were higher during the 120SS in HCHO compared to LCHO (insulin: 0 min: +37%; 60 min: +135%; 120 min: +357%, P = 0.05; proinsulin C-peptide: 0 min: +32%; 60 min: +52%; 120 min: +79%, P = 0.02), whereas plasma cholesterol was higher in LCHO (+15-17%, P = 0.03). Myocellular signaling did not differ between groups. p-AMPK and p-ACC were increased after 120SS (+35%, P = 0.03; +59%, P = 0.0004, respectively), with no alterations in p-p38, p-53, or p-CREB. In Study 2, glucagon and fat oxidation were higher in LCHO compared to HCHO during the 120SS (+26-40%, P = 0.03; +44-76%, P = 0.01 respectively). In conclusion, the clear respiratory and hematological effects of CHO restricted training were not translated into superior myocellular signaling after accustomization to CHO restriction.

Keywords
Cycling, endurance performance, fat oxidation, glycogen, train-low
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34538 (URN)10.14814/phy2.13847 (DOI)000444544300018 ()30175557 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053290885 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Pellegrini, B., Stöggl, T. L. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2018). Developments in the Biomechanics and Equipment of Olympic Cross-Country Skiers. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(JUL), Article ID 976.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developments in the Biomechanics and Equipment of Olympic Cross-Country Skiers
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no JUL, article id 976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, our aim was to describe the major changes in cross-country (XC) skiing in recent decades, as well as potential future developments. XC skiing has been an Olympic event since the very first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Over the past decades, considerable developments in skiing techniques and improvements in equipment and track preparation have increased skiing speed. In contrast to the numerous investigations on the physiological determinants of successful performance, key biomechanical factors have been less explored. Today's XC skier must master a wide range of speeds, terrains, and race distances and formats (e.g., distance races with individual start, mass-start or pursuit; knock-out and team-sprint; relays), continuously adapting by alternating between various sub-techniques. Moreover, several of the new events in which skiers compete head-to-head favor technical and tactical flexibility and encourage high-speed techniques (including more rapid development of propulsive force and higher peak forces), as well as appropriate training. Moreover, the trends toward more extensive use of double poling and skiing without grip wax in classical races have given rise to regulations in connection with Olympic distances that appear to have preserved utilization of the traditional classical sub-techniques. In conclusion, although both XC equipment and biomechanics have developed significantly in recent decades, there is clearly room for further improvement. In this context as well, for analyzing performance and optimizing training, sensor technology has a potentially important role to play.

Keywords
performance, pole, poling force, ski, skiing technique, track preparation
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34228 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00976 (DOI)000439607400002 ()30087621 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050637667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Zoppirolli, C., Bortolan, L., Stella, F., Boccia, G., Holmberg, H.-C., Schena, F. & Pellegrini, B. (2018). Following a Long-Distance Classical Race the Whole-Body Kinematics of Double Poling by Elite Cross-Country Skiers Are Altered. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(JUL), Article ID 978.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Following a Long-Distance Classical Race the Whole-Body Kinematics of Double Poling by Elite Cross-Country Skiers Are Altered
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no JUL, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Although short-term (approximately 10-min) fatiguing DP has been reported not to alter the joint kinematics or displacement of the centre of mass (COM) of high-level skiers, we hypothesize that prolonged DP does change these kinematics, since muscular strength is impaired following endurance events lasting longer than 2 h. Methods: During the 58-km Marcialonga race in 2017, the fastest 15 male skiers were videofilmed (100 fps, FHD resolution in the sagittal plane) on two 20-m sections (inclines: 0.7 +/- 0.1 degrees) 48 km apart (i.e., 7 and 55 km from the start), approximating 50-km Olympic races. The cameras were positioned perpendicular to and about 40 m from the middle of each section and spatial dimensions adjusted for each individual track skied. Pole and joint kinematics, as well as displacement of the COM during two DP cycles were assessed. Results: The 10 skiers who fulfilled our inclusion criteria finished the race in 2 h 09 min 19 s +/- 28 s. Displacements of the joints and COM were comparable to previous observations on skiers roller skiing on a flat treadmill at similar speeds in the laboratory. 55 km after the start, cycle velocity and length were lower (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and the angular range of elbow joint flexion during the initial part of the poling phase reduced, while shoulder angle was greater during the first 35% of the DP cycle (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the ankle angle was increased and forward displacement of the COM reduced during the first 80% of the cycle. Conclusion: Prolonged DP reduced the forward displacement of the COM and altered arm kinematics during the early poling phase. The inefficient utilization of COM observed after 2 h of competition together with potential impairment of the stretch-shortening of arm extensor muscles probably attenuated generation of poling force. To minimize these effects of fatigue, elite skiers should focus on maintaining optimal elbow and ankle kinematics and an effective forward lean during the propulsive phase of DP.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34272 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00978 (DOI)000439827300001 ()30090070 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050587911 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Stöggl, T., Welde, B., Supej, M., Zoppirolli, C., Rolland, C. G., Holmberg, H.-C. & Pellegrini, B. (2018). Impact of incline, sex and level of performance on kinematics during a distance race in classical cross-country skiing. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), 17(1), 124-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of incline, sex and level of performance on kinematics during a distance race in classical cross-country skiing
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, female and male elite cross-country (XC) skiers were compared on varying terrain during an official 10-km (women) and 15-km (men) Norwegian championship race. On the basis of race performance, 82 skiers were classified as fast (FS) (20 women, 20 men) or slower (SS) (21, 21) skiers. All were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°), uphill (7.1°) and steep uphill (11°) terrain during the race at a distance of 0.8, 1.2, 2.1 and 7.1 km from the start, respectively. All skiers employed exclusively double-poling (DP) on the flat section and, except for the male winner, exclusively diagonal stride (DIA) on the uphill sections. On the intermediate section, more men than women utilized DP and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with no difference in kick double-poling (DPK). More FS than SS utilized DPK and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with similar usage of DP. Males skied with faster and longer cycles but lower cycle rate compared with females (p < 0.001), with largest absolute sex differences on flat terrain (p < 0.001) and largest relative differences for cycle velocity and length on intermediate and uphill terrain. External power output rose with increasing incline, being higher for men and FS (p < 0.001). Cycle velocity on flat terrain was the best predictor of mean race velocity for the men, while cycle velocity on steep uphill was the best predictor for the women (both p < 0.001). In conclusion, incline, sex and level of performance influenced cycle characteristics and power output. Greatest absolute sex gap was on flat terrain, whereas the relative difference was greatest on intermediate and steep uphill terrain. We recommend usage of more DP and/or DPK, and less DIA and fewer transitions between techniques on intermediate terrain. Predictors of race performance are sex specific with greatest potential for enhancing performance on flat terrain for men and on steep uphill terrain for women. 

Keywords
Cycle characteristics, Diagonal stride, Double poling, Kick double poling, Power output, Video analysis
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33275 (URN)000425786500015 ()2-s2.0-85042669483 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246

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