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Holmberg, Hans-ChristerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246
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Publications (10 of 351) Show all publications
Sperlich, B., Hahn, L.-S., Edel, A., Behr, T., Helmprobst, J., Leppich, R., . . . Holmberg, H.-C. (2018). A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID e423.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id e423Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiplejoint conditioning (CircuitHiu) performed either once (IxCircuitmu) or twice (2xCircuitHiu) daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 +/- 5 years) first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either IxCircuitnirr or 2xCircuitHiu (5 men and 7 women in each group) daily. The IxCircuitnirr and 2xCircuitHiu participants carried out 90.7 and 85.7% of all planned training sessions, respectively, with average heart rates during the 6-min sessions of 74.3 and 70.8% of maximal heart rate. Body, fat and fat-free mass, and metabolic rate at rest did not differ between the groups or between time-points of measurement. Heart rate while running at 6 km h(-1) declined after the intervention in both groups. Submaximal and peak oxygen uptake, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate recovery were not altered by either intervention. The maximal numbers of push-ups, leg-levers, burpees, 45 degrees-one-legged squats and 30-s skipping, as well as perception of general health improved in both groups. Our IxCircuitHiu or 2xCircuitHiiT interventions improved certain parameters of functional strength and certain dimensions of quality of life in young untrained individuals. However, they were not sufficient to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness, in particular peak oxygen uptake.

Keywords
aerobic fitness, body composition, functional training, mHealth, power training, V800, wearable, Web-based apps
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33677 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00423 (DOI)000431783900001 ()2-s2.0-85046654801 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-06-10Bibliographically approved
Stöggl, T., Welde, B., Supej, M., Zoppirolli, C., Rolland, C. G., Holmberg, H.-C. & Pellegrini, B. (2018). Impact of incline, sex and level of performance on kinematics during a distance race in classical cross-country skiing. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), 17(1), 124-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of incline, sex and level of performance on kinematics during a distance race in classical cross-country skiing
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, female and male elite cross-country (XC) skiers were compared on varying terrain during an official 10-km (women) and 15-km (men) Norwegian championship race. On the basis of race performance, 82 skiers were classified as fast (FS) (20 women, 20 men) or slower (SS) (21, 21) skiers. All were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°), uphill (7.1°) and steep uphill (11°) terrain during the race at a distance of 0.8, 1.2, 2.1 and 7.1 km from the start, respectively. All skiers employed exclusively double-poling (DP) on the flat section and, except for the male winner, exclusively diagonal stride (DIA) on the uphill sections. On the intermediate section, more men than women utilized DP and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with no difference in kick double-poling (DPK). More FS than SS utilized DPK and fewer DIA (p = 0.001), with similar usage of DP. Males skied with faster and longer cycles but lower cycle rate compared with females (p < 0.001), with largest absolute sex differences on flat terrain (p < 0.001) and largest relative differences for cycle velocity and length on intermediate and uphill terrain. External power output rose with increasing incline, being higher for men and FS (p < 0.001). Cycle velocity on flat terrain was the best predictor of mean race velocity for the men, while cycle velocity on steep uphill was the best predictor for the women (both p < 0.001). In conclusion, incline, sex and level of performance influenced cycle characteristics and power output. Greatest absolute sex gap was on flat terrain, whereas the relative difference was greatest on intermediate and steep uphill terrain. We recommend usage of more DP and/or DPK, and less DIA and fewer transitions between techniques on intermediate terrain. Predictors of race performance are sex specific with greatest potential for enhancing performance on flat terrain for men and on steep uphill terrain for women. 

Keywords
Cycle characteristics, Diagonal stride, Double poling, Kick double poling, Power output, Video analysis
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33275 (URN)000425786500015 ()2-s2.0-85042669483 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Marsland, F., Anson, J., Waddington, G., Holmberg, H.-C. & Chapman, D. W. (2018). Macro-Kinematic Differences Between Sprint and Distance Cross-Country Skiing Competitions Using the Classical Technique. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, Article ID 570.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macro-Kinematic Differences Between Sprint and Distance Cross-Country Skiing Competitions Using the Classical Technique
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We compare the macro-kinematics of six elite female cross-country skiers competing in 1.1-km Sprint and 10.5-km Distance classical technique events on consecutive days under similar weather and track conditions. The relative use of double pole (DP), kick-double pole (KDP), diagonal stride (DS), tucking (Tuck) and turning (Turn) sub-techniques, plus each technique's respective velocities, cycle lengths and cycle rates were monitored using a single micro-sensor unit worn by each skier during the Sprint qualification, semi-final and finals, and multiple laps of the Distance race. Over a 1.0-km section of track common to both Sprint and Distance events, the mean race velocity, cyclical sub-technique velocities, and cycle rates were higher during the Sprint race, while Tuck and Turn velocities were similar. Velocities with KDP and DS on the common terrain were higher in the Sprint (KDP +12%, DS +23%) due to faster cycle rates (KDP +8%, DS +11 %) and longer cycle lengths (KDP +5%, DS +10%), while the DP velocity was higher (+8%) with faster cycle rate (+16%) despite a shorter cycle length (-9%). During the Sprint the percentage of total distance covered using DP was greater (+15%), with less use of Tuck (-19%). Across all events and rounds, DP was the most used sub-technique in terms of distance, followed by Tuck, DS, Turn and KDP. KDP was employed relatively little, and during the Sprint by only half the participants. Tuck was the fastest sub-technique followed by Turn, DP, KDP, and DS, These findings reveal differences in the macro-kinematic characteristics and strategies utilized during Sprint and Distance events, confirm the use of higher cycle rates in the Sprint, and increase our understanding of the performance demands of cross-country skiing competition.

Keywords
kinematics, cycle length, cycle rate, performance analysis, wearable sensors, Winter Olympics
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33689 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00570 (DOI)000432411000001 ()
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Messler, C. F., Holmberg, H.-C. & Sperlich, B. (2018). Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(8), 806-812
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 806-812Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. Method: A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 x 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Results: Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p < .05), self-esteem, friends, and competence (p < .05) and, moreover, improved subjective ratings of attention. Conclusion: Three weeks of multimodal therapy including HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

Keywords
ADHD, children, exercise, HIIT, training
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33734 (URN)10.1177/1087054716636936 (DOI)000432874800010 ()27013028 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-10 Created: 2018-06-10 Last updated: 2018-06-10Bibliographically approved
Ström, K., Morales-Alamo, D., Ottosson, F., Edlund, A., Hjort, L., Jörgensen, S. W., . . . Hansson, O. (2018). N1-methylnicotinamide is a signalling molecule produced in skeletal muscle coordinating energy metabolism. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 3016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>N1-methylnicotinamide is a signalling molecule produced in skeletal muscle coordinating energy metabolism
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 3016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obesity is a major health problem, and although caloric restriction and exercise are successful strategies to lose adipose tissue in obese individuals, a simultaneous decrease in skeletal muscle mass, negatively effects metabolism and muscle function. To deeper understand molecular events occurring in muscle during weight-loss, we measured the expressional change in human skeletal muscle following a combination of severe caloric restriction and exercise over 4 days in 15 Swedish men. Key metabolic genes were regulated after the intervention, indicating a shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was the most consistently upregulated gene following the energy-deficit exercise. Circulating levels of N1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), the product of NNMT activity, were doubled after the intervention. The fasting-fed state was an important determinant of plasma MNA levels, peaking at ~18 h of fasting and being lowest ~3 h after a meal. In culture, MNA was secreted by isolated human myotubes and stimulated lipolysis directly, with no effect on glucagon or insulin secretion. We propose that MNA is a novel myokine that enhances the utilization of energy stores in response to low muscle energy availability. Future research should focus on applying MNA as a biomarker to identify individuals with metabolic disturbances at an early stage. 

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33265 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-21099-1 (DOI)000424985800054 ()29445118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042133592 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Sandbakk, O., Solli, G. S. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2018). Sex Differences in World Record Performance: The Influence of Sport Discipline and Competition Duration. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(1), 2-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex Differences in World Record Performance: The Influence of Sport Discipline and Competition Duration
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 2-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990’s, sex differences between the world’s best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 12%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%. The physiological advantages in men include a larger body size with more skeletal muscle mass, a lower percentage of body fat, as well as greater maximal delivery of anaerobic and aerobic energy. The greater strength and anaerobic capacity in men normally disappears when normalized for fat-free body mass, whereas the higher hemoglobin concentrations leads to 5-10% greater maximal oxygen uptakes in men also with such normalization. The higher percentage of muscle mass in the upper-body of men results in a particularly large sex difference in power production during upper-body exercise. While the exercise efficiency of men and women is usually similar, women have a better capacity to metabolize fat and demonstrate better hydrodynamics and more even pacing, which may be advantageous in particular during long-lasting swimming competitions.

Keywords
anaerobic capacity, body composition, exercise efficiency, gender difference, maximal oxygen uptake, muscle mass
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32617 (URN)10.1123/ijspp.2017-0196 (DOI)000429366800002 ()28488921 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041833905 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-23 Created: 2017-12-23 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Düking, P., Holmberg, H.-C. & Sperlich, B. (2018). The potential usefulness of virtual reality systems for athletes: A short SWOT analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(MAR), Article ID 128.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential usefulness of virtual reality systems for athletes: A short SWOT analysis
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no MAR, article id 128Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Keywords
EHealth, Internet of sports, MHealth, Telemedicine, Telerehabilitation, Wearable
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33276 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00128 (DOI)000426552200001 ()29551978 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042759819 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Kirby, R., Holmberg, H.-C. & Karlöf, L. (2018). Understanding ski-glide test data: Acquisition and interpretation. In: Science and Skiing VII: (pp. 365-375). Meyer & Meyer Sport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding ski-glide test data: Acquisition and interpretation
2018 (English)In: Science and Skiing VII, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2018, p. 365-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32613 (URN)978-1-78255-124-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-12-23 Created: 2017-12-23 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Sperlich, B., Düking, P. & Holmberg, H.-C. (2017). A SWOT Analysis of the Use and Potential Misuse of Implantable Monitoring Devices by Athletes. Frontiers in Physiology, 8(SEP), Article ID 629.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A SWOT Analysis of the Use and Potential Misuse of Implantable Monitoring Devices by Athletes
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, no SEP, article id 629Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Keywords
implant, implantable neurostimulators, ingestible sensor, sensor assessment, athletes
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31875 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2017.00629 (DOI)000409197700001 ()28928670 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028969507 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Azzinnari, M., Martin-Rincon, M., Juan-Habib, J., Gelabert-Rebato, M., Calbet, J., Holmberg, H.-C. & Morales –Alamo, D. (2017). Efectos del ejercicio en la señalización de NF-kB durante la restricción calórica severa. In: : . Paper presented at I Congreso Internacional en Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte: Actividad Física Saludable y Segura en la Montaña Trabajo Interdisciplinar en Salud, Huesca, Spain, March 30 - April 1, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efectos del ejercicio en la señalización de NF-kB durante la restricción calórica severa
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2017 (Spanish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [es]

El sobrepeso y la obesidad, en crecimiento en todo el mundo, se asocian con una alta tasa de mortalidad e morbilidad[1,2]. La causa principal que conduce a éstas condiciones patológicas es un balance energético positivo sostenido a largo plazo, debido a la inactividad física y la ingesta calórica excesiva[3]. Por lo tanto, ejercicio físico y restricción calórica podrían ser dos estratégias eficaces para prevenir y contrastar el excesivo acumulo de grasa corporal que caracteriza estas patologías. Sin embargo, durante dietas muy bajas en calorías (<800 Kcal/día) se pierde no solo masa grasa sino también masa muscular, reportando efectos negativos para la salud[4]. En dichas condiciones,  el ejercicio físico permite preservar masa muscular de manera local y dosis-dependiente, mientras la ingestión de proteínas no ejerce particulares efectos protectivos sobre el tejido contráctil[5]. Los mecanismos moleculares implicados en la preservación de la masa muscular inducida por el ejercicio durante este tipo de dietas no han sido definidos claramente. NF-kB es un factor de transcripción cuya activación provoca atrofia muscular, y su bloqueo puede parcialmente limitar este fenomeno[6]. NF-kB se ha mostrado activado de manera aguda por el ejercicio y la restricción calorica, sin embargo no ha sido definida su respuesta a la restricción calórica en conjunción con el ejercicio prolongado de baja intensidad. Además, cuando los niveles basales de NF-kB son altos, el ejercicio no parece aumentar ulteriormente su señalización[7]. Por las razones presentadas, NF-kB podría desempeñar un rol en la preservación de masa magra inducida por el ejercicio durante  la restricción calórica.

El objetivo del estudio es establecer la respuesta de NF-kB a la restricción calórica severa en conjunción con el ejercicio prolongado de baja intensidad. Las hipótesis fueron las siguientes: 1) la restricción calórica severa activaría la via de NF-kB y 2) dicha activación será atenuada por el ejercicio de manera local y dosis-dependiente.

15 sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad fueron sometidos a tres fases experimentales: fase 1, en la que la dieta y el nivel de actividad física de los participantes fue monitorizado durante una semana (PRE); fase 2, caracterizada por cuatro días de ejercicio prolongado y de restricción calórica severa (RCE); fase 3, caracterizada por tres días de ejercicio reducido y una dieta isoenergética (DC). Durante la fase 2, los sujetos ingeriron hidratos de carbono o proteínas (0.8 g/kg peso corporal/día; 320 kcal/día) y hicieron 45 minutos de pedaleo con un solo miembro superior (15% Ppeak) seguidos de 8 horas de caminata (4.5 km/h; 35 km/día). Las biopsias musculares fueron recogidas de ambos los deltoides y del vasto lateral en la fase 1 y después de la fase 2 y 3. Mediante Western blot, se determinó la expresión de NF-κB p105, NF-κB p50, la fosforilación de la Serina 32/36 de IκBα e IκBα total. La composición corporal se midió mediante DXA. Estadística: ANOVA para medidas repetidas.

Durante los 4 días de restricción calórica severa el deficit energético fue de 5500 Kcal. Después de la fase 2 los sujetos perdieron menos masa magra en los miembros inferiores y en el brazo ejercitado respecto al brazo de control: 57% (P<0.05) y 29% (P=0.05), respectivamente. Tras la fase 2 y 3, el contenido de p105 y de p50 fue menor en los miembros inferiores respecto a los superiores: efecto extremidad P=0.003 y P=0.024 para p105 y p50, respectivamente. Tras la fase 3, la fosforilación de la Serina 32/36 de IkBα aumentó únicamente en las piernas, mientras la expresión total IkBα fue mayor solo en los miembros ejercitados (P<0.05).

El ejercicio físico atenuó la activación de la señalización de NF-kB durante 4 días de restricción calórica severa, limitando el incremento de la expresión de p50 y p105, que resultó más baja después de la fase 2 y la fase 3 en los miembros inferiores respecto a los miembros superiores, posiblemente debido a la mayor cantidad de ejercicio a la que fueron sometidos. Además, la expresión total de IkBα fue más alta tras la fase 3 solo en los miembros ejercitados, indicando una posible inhibición de la vía de   NF-kB inducida por el ejercicio. Por lo tanto, dado la menor activación de la señalización de NF-kB en los miembros que perdieron menor masa muscular, los resultados sugieren que los efectos protectores del ejercicio físico sobre el tejido contráctil podrían ser mediados a una menor activación de la señalización de NF-kB.

El ejercicio físico desempeña una función preservadora sobre la masa muscular durante la restricción calórica severa. La preservación de masa muscular es dosis-dependiente (a mayor volumen, mayor preservación) y está mediada, al menos parcialmente, por una menor activación de la señalización por NF-kB.

1.Hill, J. O., H. R. Wyatt, et al. (2012). Circulation 126(1): 126-132.2.Di Angelantonio, E., N. Bhupathiraju Sh, et al. (2016). Lancet 388(10046): 776-786. 3.Chaston, T. B., J. B. Dixon, et al. (2007). Int J Obes (Lond) 31(5): 743-750. 4.Calbet, J. A., J. G. Ponce-Gonzalez, et al. (2017). Front Physiol (Accepted, In press).5.Cai, D., J. D. Frantz, et al. (2004). Cell 119(2): 285-298.6.Tantiwong, P., K. Shanmugasundaram, et al. (2010). Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299(5): E794-801.7.NCD-RisC (2016). Lancet 387(10026): 1377-1396.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32663 (URN)
Conference
I Congreso Internacional en Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte: Actividad Física Saludable y Segura en la Montaña Trabajo Interdisciplinar en Salud, Huesca, Spain, March 30 - April 1, 2017
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3814-6246

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