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Hammarling, K., Engholm, M., Andersson, H., Sandberg, M. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2018). Broad-Range Hydrogel-Based pH Sensor with Capacitive Readout Manufactured on a Flexible Substrate. Chemosensors, 6(3), Article ID 30.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broad-Range Hydrogel-Based pH Sensor with Capacitive Readout Manufactured on a Flexible Substrate
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2018 (English)In: Chemosensors, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 15article id 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental monitoring of land, water and air, is an area receiving greater attention because of human health and safety concerns. Monitoring the type of pollution and concentration levels is vital, so that appropriate contingency plans can be determined. To effectively monitor the environment, there is a need for new sensors and sensor systems that suits these type of measurements. However, the diversity of sensors suitable for low, battery powered- and large area sensor systems are limited. We have manufactured and characterized a flexible pH sensor using laser processing and blade coating techniques that is able to measure pH between 2.94 and 11.80. The sensor consists of an interdigital capacitance with a pH sensitive hydrogel coating. Thin sensors can reach 95% of their final value value within 3 min, and are stable after 4 min. Good repeatability was achieved in regard to cycling of the sensor with different pH and multiple measurements from dry state. We have also studied the relation between an interdigital capacitance penetration depth and hydrogels expansion. We believe that our passive sensor is suitable to be used in low power and large area sensor networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2018. p. 15
Keywords
interdigital, hydrogel, penetration depth, pH, sensor, coating, thin film, laser ablation, oligo (β-amino esters)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34203 (URN)10.3390/chemosensors6030030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052627188 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Balliu, E., Andersson, H., Engholm, M., Öhlund, T., Nilsson, H.-E. & Olin, H. (2018). Selective laser sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle inks on paper substrates to achieve highly conductive patterns. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 10408.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective laser sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle inks on paper substrates to achieve highly conductive patterns
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 10408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly manufacturing methods will enable important advances for the production of large-scale flexible electronics. Laser processing has shown to be a promising candidate that offers a fast and non-destructive way to produce highly conductive patterns on flexible substrates such as plastics. However, an emerging option with a lower environmental impact is instead the use of cellulose-based flexible substrates, such as paper. In this work we investigate the use of laser sintering of silver nanoparticle inks, which were inkjet-printed on three different types of paper. Patterns with a high conductivity could be manufactured where a special care was taken to prevent the substrates from damage by the intense laser light. We found that the best results was obtained for a photopaper, with a conductivity of 1.63 107 S/m corresponding to nearly 26% of the bulk silver conductivity. In addition, we demonstrate laser sintering to fabricate a fully functional near field communication tag printed on a photopaper. Our results can have an important bearing for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly production methods for flexible electronics on a large scale. 

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34558 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-28684-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049841147 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Sandberg, M., Engholm, M., Andersson, H. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2018). Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(beta-Amino Esters). CHEMOSENSORS, 6(1), Article ID 10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(beta-Amino Esters)
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2018 (English)In: CHEMOSENSORS, ISSN 2227-9040, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (AOBAE) to be coated on fibers and printed electronics without solvents and to be cross-linked to a pH-responsive coatings, makes AOBAE-based coatings a potential type of pH-sensor coating. However, there are currently no reports of AOBAEs used as a pH-responsive coating material in sensor applications. Here we present an investigation of the synthesis, curing behavior and swell tests of AOBAEs. AOBAEs were synthesized from reacting an excess of asymmetric diacrylates with piperazine without the use of any solvents. They were then cross-linked to an insoluble network by UV-curing. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the AOBAEs. NMR was used to clarify the irregular structure of the AOBAE. FTIR was used to monitor the effects of UV-curing dose and air exposure on monomer conversion during curing. An interferometric technique was used to monitor the swelling behavior of the coating in response to pH variations. Swell experiments showed that the AOBAE also responded to pH variations after polymerization. Therefore, AOBAE is an interesting class of material with potential use as a pH responsive coating in optical-and printed electronics pH-sensors applications.

Keywords
oligo(beta-amino esters), acryl-terminated, 1, 3-butanediol diacrylate, piperazine, pH, sensor, coating, thin film
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33576 (URN)10.3390/chemosensors6010010 (DOI)000428506700009 ()2-s2.0-85045393278 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, T., Schuppert, A., Andres, B., Andersson, H., Forsberg, S., Schmidt, W., . . . Olin, H. (2015). Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings. RSC Advances, 5, 64841-64849
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings
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2015 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

Keywords
printed electronics, sintering, inkjet printing, silver nanoparticles, AgNP, thin films, paper, coatings, chemical sintering, mesoporous, flexible electronics
National Category
Materials Engineering Nano Technology Materials Chemistry Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23418 (URN)10.1039/c5ra06626c (DOI)000359136500003 ()2-s2.0-84938717754 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, T., Schuppert, A., Hummelgård, M., Bäckström, J., Nilsson, H.-E. & Olin, H. (2015). Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7(33), 18273-18282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings
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2015 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 18273-18282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-cost solution-processing of highly conductive films is important for the expanding market of printed electronics. For roll-to-roll manufacturing, suitable flexible substrates and compatible postprocessing are essential. Here, custom-developed coated papers are demonstrated to facilitate the inkjet fabrication of high performance copper patterns. The patterns are fabricated in ambient conditions using water-based CuO dispersion and intense pulsed light (IPL) processing. Papers using a porous CaCO3 precoating, combined with an acidic mesoporous absorption coating, improve the effectiveness and reliability of the IPL process. The processing is realizable within 5 ms, using a single pulse of light. A resistivity of 3.1 ± 0.12 μΩ·cm is achieved with 400 μm wide conductors, corresponding to more than 50% of the conductivity of bulk copper. This is higher than previously reported results for IPL-processed copper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
Keywords
intense pulsed light sintering, flash light sintering, printed flexible electronics, inkjet printing, paper coatings, copper patterns, IPL sintering, IPL processing, paper electronics, CuO reduction, inkjet fabrication
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Engineering Nano Technology Materials Chemistry Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23419 (URN)10.1021/acsami.5b03061 (DOI)000360322000012 ()2-s2.0-84940528167 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Manuilskiy, A., Haller, S., Hummelgård, M., Sidén, J., Hummelgård, C., . . . Nilsson, H.-E. (2014). Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board. Nanotechnology, 25, Art. no. 094002
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board
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2014 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 25, p. Art. no. 094002-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with inkjet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2014
Keywords
printed electronics, component mounting, conductive adhesives, ink jet, printed circuit board, silver nano particle ink
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21474 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/25/9/094002 (DOI)000331573500004 ()2-s2.0-84894165167 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hammarling, K., Hilborn, J., Nilsson, H.-E. & Manuilskiy, A. (2014). Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change. In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE: . Paper presented at Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XIV, 1 February 2014 through 2 February 2014, San Francisco, CA (pp. Art. no. 89381F).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change
2014 (English)In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 2014, p. Art. no. 89381F-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (β-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR. © 2014 SPIE.

Keywords
Absorption, Blood, Evanescent wave, Hydrogel, Optical fiber, PH, Sensor
National Category
Medical Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22047 (URN)10.1117/12.2040077 (DOI)000334100600034 ()2-s2.0-84897465448 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)9780819498519 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XIV, 1 February 2014 through 2 February 2014, San Francisco, CA
Note

Sponsors: The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Available from: 2014-05-30 Created: 2014-05-30 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Manuilskiy, A., Sidén, J., Gao, J., Hummelgård, M., Kunninmel, G. & Nilsson, H.-E. (2014). Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit. Materials Research Express, 1(3), 035021
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit
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2014 (English)In: Materials Research Express, ISSN 2053-1591, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 035021-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2014
Keywords
printed electronis, memory, nano particle ink, ink-jet, paper substrate
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22547 (URN)10.1088/2053-1591/1/3/035021 (DOI)000209665200024 ()2-s2.0-84945307487 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-08-11 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved
Esebamen, O. X., Thungström, G., Nilsson, H.-E. & Lundgren, A. (2014). Comparative Study of UV Radiation Hardness of n+p and p+n Duo-Lateral Position Sensitive Detectors. European Physical Journal: Applied physics, 68(2), Art. no. 21301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of UV Radiation Hardness of n+p and p+n Duo-Lateral Position Sensitive Detectors
2014 (English)In: European Physical Journal: Applied physics, ISSN 1286-0042, E-ISSN 1286-0050, Vol. 68, no 2, p. Art. no. 21301-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report experimental results on the degree of radiation damage in two duo-lateral position sensitive detectors (LPSDs) exposed to 193 nm and253 nm ultraviolet (UV) beam. One of the detectors was an in-house fabricated n(+) p LPSD and the other was a commercially available p(+) n LPSD. We report that at both wavelengths, the degradation damage from the UV photons absorption caused a much more significant deterioration in responsivity in the p(+) n LPSD than in the n(+) p LPSD. By employing a simple method, we were able to visualize the radiation damage on the active area of the LPSDs using 3-dimensional graphs. We were also able to characterize the impact of radiation damage on the linearity and position error of the detectors.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22226 (URN)10.1051/epjap/2014140253 (DOI)000344614900010 ()2-s2.0-84908010170 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Thungström, G., Esebamen, O. X., Krapohl, D., Fröjdh, C., Nilsson, H.-E., Petersson, S. & Brenner, R. (2014). Fabrication, Characterization and Simulation of Channel Stop for n in p-Substrate Silicon Pixel Detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 9(7), Art. no. C07013
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication, Characterization and Simulation of Channel Stop for n in p-Substrate Silicon Pixel Detectors
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 7, p. Art. no. C07013-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon detectors made on p-substrates are expected to have a better radiation hardness as compared todetectors made on n-substrates. However, the fixed positive oxide charges induce an inversion layer ofelectrons in the substrate, which connects the pixels. The common means of solving this problem isby using a p-spray, individual p-stops or a combination of the two. Here, we investigate the use offield plates to suppress the fixed positive charges and to prevent the formation of an inversion layer.The fabricated detector shows a high breakdown voltage and low interpixel leakage current for astructure using biased field plates with a width of 20 μm. By using a spice model for simulation of thepreamplifier, a cross talk of about 1.6 % is achieved with this detector structure. The cross talk iscaused by capacitive and resistive coupling between the pixels

Keywords
Electronic detector readout concepts (solid-state), Radiation-hard detectors, Solid state detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22224 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/9/07/C07013 (DOI)000340050700013 ()2-s2.0-84905165594 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3790-0729

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