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Björklund, G., Danvind, J. & Sundström, D. (2019). The effect of speed and gradient on running economy and oxygen uptake during downhill running. In: : . Paper presented at The 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 2019, 3-6 July, Prague, Czech Republic..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of speed and gradient on running economy and oxygen uptake during downhill running
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Downhill running poses challenges were the gradient is of importance for energy cost and oxygen uptake. While demonstrated that downhill running at a slight gradient is most efficient, the energy cost increases with a steeper gradient (1). However, the additional effect of running speed has not been studied for downhill running. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyse the combined effect of gradient and speed in downhill running on oxygen cost and running economy. METHODS:Runners (n=6) were recruited for the study and performed 1) VO2max and running economy (J·kg-1·m-1) tests and 2) an experimental running protocol at two speeds,12 km·h-1 and 80% of the speed at VO2max (V80) and three gradients (0, -5° and -10°). V80 was higher than 12 km·h-1 for all participants. All testing was performed on a large treadmill 3x5 m (Rodby, Sweden) that were controlled for speed and gradient. The experimental protocol was performed continuously with 5 min at each workload in a randomized order, 30 min in total. VO2 was measured throughout the experimental protocol using a mixing chamber (Moxus Metabolic Cart, USA). RESULTS:VO2 expressed as ml·kg-1·min-1 increased because of speed (F1,5=27.8, p=0.003) and decreased with gradient (F1,5=87.6, p<0.001). Between -5° and -10°, VO2 decreased less during V80 compared to 12 km·h-1 shown by an interaction (F2,10=7.9, p=0.009). However, speed did not influence running economy (F1,5=0.9, p=0.38) while gradient increased running economy (F1,5=90.1, p<0.001). A non-significant interaction effect suggests a shift in running economy between -5° and -10° depending on speed (F2,10=3.5, p=0.07). The running economy at V80 was higher compared to 12 km·h-1 at -5° but reversed at -10°. While a relation between running economy at V80 -10°, V80 -5° and 12 km·h-1 -10° (rs>0.88, p<0.019) was found, no relations between running economy on level terrain and steep downhill running (-10°) were recognised. CONCLUSION:While we found no effect on running economy from speed alone, we did see a shift in the running economy for different speeds at an increased downhill gradient. This indicates that a high speed (V80) is more efficient at moderate downhill gradients, while a lower speed (12 km·h-1) is more efficient in steeper downhill gradients. While previous research demonstrate that gradient is of great influence to running economy, the findings of this study suggest that speed also affects the running economy in downhill running.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36647 (URN)
Conference
The 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 2019, 3-6 July, Prague, Czech Republic.
Available from: 2019-07-07 Created: 2019-07-07 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Carlsson, P. & Andersson, E. (2018). Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing. In: Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings: . Paper presented at The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA). Basel: MDPI AG, 2, Article ID 312.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing
2018 (English)In: Proceedings / [ed] Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel, Basel: MDPI AG , 2018, Vol. 2, article id 312Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare various power output estimates and estimate anaerobic energy supply during treadmill roller-skiing. Roller-skiing sprint time-trial performance on a treadmill was compared to numerical simulations of three different power output estimates; non-inertial power estimate (NIP), inertial power estimate (IP), and optimization power estimate (OP). The OP was in best agreement with the measured speed of the skier. However, the IP was in better agreement with the measured finishing time of the real time trial, which may suggest that the IP better approximated the mean power than the other two estimates. Moreover, the NIP and IP are more simplistic than the OP and thereby more practical from a scientific standpoint. Based on this we recommend the use of the IP estimate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32849 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060312 (DOI)
Conference
The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA)
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D. & Bäckström, M. (2017). Optimization of pacing strategies for variable wind conditions in road cycling. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 231(3), 184-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of pacing strategies for variable wind conditions in road cycling
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 231, no 3, p. 184-199Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been shown theoretically that performance can be enhanced by varying power in parallel with variable ambient conditions. However, no theoretical model has considered aerobic substrate utilization dynamics, limited carbohydrate stores, force-velocity relationships, and proper efficiency modelling. Furthermore, no study has investigated optimal pacing for courses with continuously variable ambient wind directions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a model for the optimization of pacing strategies in road cycling with an updated bioenergetics model. The purpose of this model was to optimize pacing strategies for courses with continuously variable wind directions on both short (2 km) and long (100 km) courses. For this purpose, a numerical model consisting of three sub-models was programmed into the MATLAB software. This model consisted of one mechanical simulation model for cycling locomotion, one bioenergetics model based on the Margaria-Morton-Sundström model, and the method of moving asymptotes for optimization of the pacing strategy. Results showed that by optimizing the pacing strategies, time gains of 4.9 and 5.7% were attained for the 2 km courses with and without an ambient wind of 5 m·s-1 respectively. The corresponding time gains for the 100 km courses were 1.4 and 2.0% with and without ambient wind respectively. The theoretical model in this study further resulted in all-out strategies for the flat 2 km courses with and without ambient wind. Moreover, the 100 km course without wind was met with a positive pacing strategy and the 100 km course with ambient wind was met with a compromise of positive pacing and variable power distribution in parallel with the variable ambient wind conditions. In conclusion, the model presented in this study performed more detailed bioenergetic simulations than previous pacing strategy optimization studies and this resulted in more detailed pacing strategies for long courses.

Keywords
Pacing strategy, Differential equation, Power, Performance, Bioenergetics
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26924 (URN)10.1177/1754337117700550 (DOI)000408626200003 ()2-s2.0-85028656239 (Scopus ID)
Note

Ingår i avhandling NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PACING STRATEGIES IN LOCOMOTIVE ENDURANCE SPORTS som delarbete 6 (manuskript) under titel Numerical optimization of pacing strategies for variable wind conditions in road cycling

Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P., Danvind, J., Koptioug, A., Sundström, D. & Tinnsten, M. (2016). A New Wind Tunnel Facility Dedicated to Sports Technology Research and Development. In: Procedia Engineering: . Paper presented at 11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, ISEA 2016, 11 July 2016 through 14 July 2016 (pp. 62-67). Elsevier, 147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Wind Tunnel Facility Dedicated to Sports Technology Research and Development
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2016 (English)In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 147, p. 62-67Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is desirable to test sportswear and sports equipment at exactly the same conditions experienced during use. Although outdoor tests are in many cases the most adequate, they are at the same time quite complex, demand special measurement technology and wearable equipment. Results of such tests are often hard to interpret due to large variations because of rapidly varying ambient conditions and individual specifics of human objects, among other factors, which are hard or impossible to control. One common alternative is provided through indoor tests made in a stable, controlled environment. Controlling such parameters as temperature, wind speed and direction, air humidity with indoor facilities intended to replicate ambient conditions, and designed to house large objects, is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, replicating seasonal conditions complicates matters even more. A significant amount of research and development related to the operation of sports and other related equipment at high speeds and windy conditions has been carried out in wind tunnels with different degrees of climatic realism. However, the majority of such facilities are designed and constructed for the automotive industry, the aerospace industry and for marine research. A new wind tunnel facility, opened in March 2015 at the Sports Tech Research Centre at Mid Sweden University, is currently among the very few facilities in the world designed under the direct control of sports technology specialists and dedicated primarily to research and development within sports, outdoor clothing and footwear as well as equipment development and testing. The main goal when constructing this dedicated facility has been to successfully replicate ambient conditions for training and equipment testing in environments with controlled wind speed, temperature (+4 to +35°C) and precipitation (from fine mist to heavy downfall). The wind tunnel facility houses the largest moving belt in Sweden (5 m long and 2.7 m wide) which can be adjusted for leveled, uphill and downhill motion. The moving belt is placed in a 10 m2 test section in which the wind speed can be adjusted to match belt speed or independently up to 55 km/h (without narrowing the test section). A fog and rain system, mounted in the test section, can generate rainy conditions varying from fine mist to heavy monsoon. It is also possible to open the facility in order to allow experiments to be performed in wide range of outdoor, ambient conditions. This paper presents the basic parameters of the new wind tunnel facility. As this facility is open for wider international cooperation, we also report the general directions of current research and the future work planned to be carried out at this facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058
Keywords
climate control, indoor testing, moving belt, product development, wind tunnel
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28942 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.190 (DOI)000387454000011 ()2-s2.0-84982913097 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, ISEA 2016, 11 July 2016 through 14 July 2016
Note

Conference Paper

Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D. (2016). Anpassa farten för snabbare tider. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anpassa farten för snabbare tider
2016 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629Article in journal, Editorial material (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning, 2016
Keywords
Löpning, farthållning, prestation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29615 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D. (2016). Numerical optimization of pacing strategies in locomotive endurance sports. (Doctoral dissertation). Östersund: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical optimization of pacing strategies in locomotive endurance sports
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is devoted to the optimization of pacing strategies in two locomotive endurance sports; cross-country skiing and road cycling. It has been established that constant pace and variable power distributions are optimal if purely mechanical aspects of locomotion are considered in these sports. However, there is a lack of research that theoretically investigates optimal pacing for real world athletes who are constrained in their ability to generate power output through the bioenergetics of the human body.

The aims of this thesis are to develop numerical pacing strategy optimization models and bioenergetic models for locomotive endurance sports and use these to assess objectives relevant in optimal pacing. These objectives include: Investigate the impact of hills, sharp course bends, ambient wind, and bioenergetic models on optimal pacing and assess the effect of optimal pacing strategies on performance.

This thesis presents mathematical models for optimization of pacing strategies. These models are divided into mechanical locomotion, bioenergetic, and optimization models that are connected and programmed numerically. The locomotion and bioenergetic models in this thesis consist of differential equations and the optimization model is described by an iterative gradient-based routine. The mechanical model describes the relation between the power output generated by an athlete and his/her locomotion along a course profile, giving the finishing time. The bioenergetic model strives to mimic the human ability to generate power output. Therefore, the bioenergetic model is set to constrain the power output that is used in the mechanical locomotion model. The optimization routine strives to minimize the finishing time in the mechanical locomotion model by varying the distribution of power output along the course, still satisfying the constraints in the bioenergetic model.

The studies contained within this thesis resulted in several important findings regarding the general application of pacing strategies in cross-country skiing and road cycling. It was shown that the constant pace strategy is not optimal if ambient conditions change over the course distance. However, variable power distributions were shown beneficial if they vary in parallel with course inclination and ambient winds to decrease variations in speed. Despite these power variations, speed variations were not eliminated for most variable ambient conditions. This relates to the athlete’s physiological restrictions and the effect of these are hard to predict without thorough modeling of bioenergetics and muscle fatigue. Furthermore, it vi

was shown that substantial differences in optimal power distributions were attained for various bioenergetic models.

It was also shown that optimal braking and power output distributions for cycling on courses that involve sharp bends consisted of three or four phases, depending on the length of the course and the position of the bends. The four phases distinguished for reasonably long courses were a steady-state power phase, a rolling phase, a braking phase, and an all-out acceleration phase. It was also shown that positive pacing strategies are optimal on relatively long courses in road cycling where the supply of carbohydrates are limited. Finally, results indicated that optimal pacing may overlook the effect of some ambient conditions in favor of other more influential, mechanical or physiological, aspects of locomotion.

In summary, the results showed that athletes benefit from adapting their power output with respect not only to changing course gradients and ambient winds, but also to their own physiological and biomechanical abilities, course length, and obstacles such as course bends. The results of this thesis also showed that the computed optimal pacing strategies were more beneficial for performance than a constant power distribution. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates the feasibility of using numerical simulation and optimization to optimize pacing strategies in cross-country skiing and road cycling.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen handlar om optimering av farthållningsstrategier inom längdskidåkning och landsvägscykling. Det finns ett utbrett stöd för att konstant fart och varierande effektfördelningar är optimala om endast mekaniska aspekter beaktas i dessa sporter. Ändå saknas teoretiska studier som undersöker optimal farthållning för verkliga idrottsutövare som är begränsade i sin förmåga att generera effekt genom kroppens bioenergetiska system.

Målen med den här avhandlingen är att utveckla metoder för bioenergetik och optimering av farthållningsstrategier i uthållighetsidrott. Dessutom är målet att undersöka påverkan av backar, svängar, omgivande vind och bioenergetisk modellering på den optimala farthållningsstrategin samt att utreda potentialen till prestationsförbättring med optimala farthållningsstrategier.

Avhandling presenterar matematiska modeller för optimering av farthållningsstrategier. Dessa modeller delas in i en mekanisk modell för förflyttning, en bioenergetisk modell och en optimeringsmodell. De mekaniska och bioenergetiska modellerna som presenteras i avhandlingen består av differentialekvation och optimeringsmodellen utgörs av en gradient-baserad algoritm. Den mekaniska modellen beskriver förhållandet mellan utövarens effekt och den resulterande rörelsen längs banan som ger tiden mellan start och mål. Den bioenergetiska modellen beskriver människokroppens olika energisystem och dess begränsningar att generera effekt. Den bioenergetiska modellen interagerar med optimeringsmodellen genom att utgöra dess begränsningar för vad den mänskliga kroppen klarar av. Sammanfattningsvis försöker optimeringsmodellen minimera tiden mellan start och mål i den mekaniska modellen genom att variera effekten längs banan. Samtidigt ser optimeringsmetoden till att denna effektfördelning inte kränker den bioenergetiska modellen.

Studierna som ingår i avhandlingen resulterade i flera viktiga upptäckter om generella tillämpningar av farthållningsstrategier inom längdskidåkning och landsvägscykling. Det visade sig att konstant fart inte är optimalt om omgivande betingelser varierade längs banans sträckning. Däremot var varierande effektfördelning fördelaktig om den varierar parallellt med banlutning och omgivande vindpåverkan för att minska fartens variationer. Trots denna variation, visade resultaten att fartvariationerna inte eliminerades helt. Detta har att göra med utövarens fysiologiska begränsningar, vars påverkan är svår att förutspå utan genomgående modellering av bioenergetik relaterat till muskeltrötthet. Dessutom viii

visade resultaten att olika bioenergetiska metoder gav upphov till betydande skillnader i de optimala farthållningsstrategierna.

Resultaten i avhandlingen visade också att optimal effektfördelning vid kurvtagning i landsvägscykling innehåller tre eller fyra faser. The fyra faser som var utmärkande på relativt långa banor var en tröskelfas, en rullfas, en bromsfas och en maximal accelerationsfas. Resultaten visar också att positiv farthållning är optimal på relativt långa banor i landsvägscykling där tillgången på kolhydrater är begränsad. Samtidigt visade resultaten på optimala farthållningsstrategier ibland att inverkan av omgivande betingelser förbisågs till fördel för med inflytelserika betingelser som påverkar framdrivningen.

Sammantaget visar resultaten i denna avhandling att utövare gagnas av att anpassa effekten med hänsyn till varierande terräng, omgivande vind, atletens egen fysiologiska och biomekaniska förmåga, banans längd och hinder såsom kurvor. Resultaten visar också att de optimala farthållningsstrategier med varierande effektfördelning som beräknats i denna avhandling förbättrar prestationen jämfört med konstanta effektfördelningar. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling på möjligheterna att använda numerisk simulering och optimering för att optimera farthållningsstrategier i längdskidåkning och landsvägscykling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2016. p. 122
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 237
Keywords
Pacing strategy, optimization, numerical simulation, equations of motion, method of moving asymptotes, cross-country skiing, cycling, Farthållningsstrategi, optimering, numerisk simulering, rörelseekvationer, method of moving asymptotes, längdskidåkning, cykling
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26925 (URN)978-91-88025-51-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-25, Q 221, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 5 accepterat, delarbete 6 manuskript.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 5 accepted, paper 6 manuscript.

Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D. (2016). On a bioenergetic four compartment model for human exercise. Sports Engineering, 19(4), 251-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On a bioenergetic four compartment model for human exercise
2016 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioenergetic models for exercise performance simulations and pacing strategy optimizations currently lag behind empirical knowledge in human bioenergetics. Therefore, the objective of this study was the construction of a four compartment bioenergetic model that incorporates separate oxidative phosphorylation of lipids and carbohydrates and describes the regulation of these energy substrates’ utilization. Furthermore, the aim was also to model efficiency and the impact of muscle fatigue and the force-velocity relationship on the maximal attainable rate of energy expenditure. The model was formulated with five systems of differential equations that regulated the fluid levels in three of the compartments, while the lipid compartment energy was kept constant. Regulations had to be imposed on the system of compartments to achieve the desired carbohydrate dependent functionality and efficiency of the model. Equilibrium equations were modeled for the alactic compound composition and a constraint was modeled for the maximal energy expenditure rate, dependent on the intramuscular inorganic phosphate. A separate force-velocity relationship was modeled to constrain power output at low speeds and efficiency was modeled with a linear but off-set relationship between power output and rate of energy expenditure. The relative aerobic contribution to total energy expenditure showed good congruence with empirical results, while time to exhaustion was overestimated due to the constraint on maximal rate of energy expenditure. Therefore, further experimental studies are necessary for complete validation of the model.

Keywords
Bioenergetics, Compartment model, Differential equation, Power, Performance, Substrate utilization
National Category
Other Mathematics Other Mechanical Engineering Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26923 (URN)10.1007/s12283-016-0205-y (DOI)000387943400004 ()2-s2.0-84966388954 (Scopus ID)
Note

First Online: 06 May 2016

Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2015). A four compartment model on human exercise bioenergetics. In: A. Subic, F.K. Fuss, F. Alam, T.Y. Pang and M. Takla (Ed.), Procedia Engineering: . Paper presented at 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015 (pp. 4-9). Elsevier, 112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A four compartment model on human exercise bioenergetics
2015 (English)In: Procedia Engineering / [ed] A. Subic, F.K. Fuss, F. Alam, T.Y. Pang and M. Takla, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 112, p. 4-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Performance in endurance sports depends on the athlete's ability to generate power output through muscle contraction. The energy requirements of muscles are satisfied by the alactic and lactic bioenergetic pathways, working anaerobically, and the aerobic oxidative phosphorylation of fats and carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to apply further extensions to hydraulic bioenergetic modelling to better describe the regulation of oxidative fuel selection. For this reason, a four compartment bioenergetic model was introduced and regulation of fat and carbohydrate oxidation was implemented. Further regulation was applied to both oxidative fuel selection and anaerobic glycolysis to depend on the current carbohydrate store. The model was formulated mathematically as differential equations, which were solved numerically to perform simulations of human bioenergetics in exercise. Simulation results showed good consistency with experimental findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058 ; 112
Keywords
Bioenergetics; fuel selection; compartment model; differential equation; numerics
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25888 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.167 (DOI)000380503800001 ()2-s2.0-84945566907 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, P., Ainegren, M., Tinnsten, M., Sundström, D., Esping, B., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Cross-Country Ski. In: Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E. (Ed.), The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports: (pp. 107-152). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Country Ski
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2015 (English)In: The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports / [ed] Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E., Springer, 2015, p. 107-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski orienteering are competitive sports with practitioners who are mostly from countries in the northern hemisphere. The competition season is during the time when the ground is covered with snow, which roughly extends from mid-November to late March. During the rest time of the year, which is a long preparatory period of training for the skiers before the competition season, the skiers use roller skis for dryland training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Furthermore, over the last few decades, fairly specific indoor testing methods for cross-country skiers have become possible due to the development of treadmills that allow roller skiing using classical and freestyle techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26337 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4939-3020-3_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-84955660951 (Scopus ID)978-1-4939-3019-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2015). Optimal distribution of power output and braking for corners in road cycling. In: : . Paper presented at Science and Cycling, Utrecht 1-2 July 2015. Utrecht
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal distribution of power output and braking for corners in road cycling
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Utrecht: , 2015
Keywords
pacing; corner; power output; braking; road cycling
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26047 (URN)
Conference
Science and Cycling, Utrecht 1-2 July 2015
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1324-9828

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