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Carlsson, Peter
Publications (10 of 61) Show all publications
Ainegren, M., Tuplin, S., Carlsson, P. & Render, P. (2019). Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 233(1), 86-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

Keywords
Aerodynamic drag, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, gravitational force, oxygen uptake, physiology, rain, rolling resistance, treadmill
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34649 (URN)10.1177/1754337118801729 (DOI)000460054400010 ()
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 163382
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Carlsson, P. & Andersson, E. (2018). Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing. In: Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings: . Paper presented at The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA). Basel: MDPI AG, 2, Article ID 312.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing
2018 (English)In: Proceedings / [ed] Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel, Basel: MDPI AG , 2018, Vol. 2, article id 312Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare various power output estimates and estimate anaerobic energy supply during treadmill roller-skiing. Roller-skiing sprint time-trial performance on a treadmill was compared to numerical simulations of three different power output estimates; non-inertial power estimate (NIP), inertial power estimate (IP), and optimization power estimate (OP). The OP was in best agreement with the measured speed of the skier. However, the IP was in better agreement with the measured finishing time of the real time trial, which may suggest that the IP better approximated the mean power than the other two estimates. Moreover, the NIP and IP are more simplistic than the OP and thereby more practical from a scientific standpoint. Based on this we recommend the use of the IP estimate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI AG, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32849 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060312 (DOI)
Conference
The 12th Biennial conference on the Engineering of Sport on behalf of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA)
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P., Danvind, J., Koptioug, A., Sundström, D. & Tinnsten, M. (2016). A New Wind Tunnel Facility Dedicated to Sports Technology Research and Development. In: Procedia Engineering: . Paper presented at 11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, ISEA 2016, 11 July 2016 through 14 July 2016 (pp. 62-67). Elsevier, 147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Wind Tunnel Facility Dedicated to Sports Technology Research and Development
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2016 (English)In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 147, p. 62-67Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is desirable to test sportswear and sports equipment at exactly the same conditions experienced during use. Although outdoor tests are in many cases the most adequate, they are at the same time quite complex, demand special measurement technology and wearable equipment. Results of such tests are often hard to interpret due to large variations because of rapidly varying ambient conditions and individual specifics of human objects, among other factors, which are hard or impossible to control. One common alternative is provided through indoor tests made in a stable, controlled environment. Controlling such parameters as temperature, wind speed and direction, air humidity with indoor facilities intended to replicate ambient conditions, and designed to house large objects, is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, replicating seasonal conditions complicates matters even more. A significant amount of research and development related to the operation of sports and other related equipment at high speeds and windy conditions has been carried out in wind tunnels with different degrees of climatic realism. However, the majority of such facilities are designed and constructed for the automotive industry, the aerospace industry and for marine research. A new wind tunnel facility, opened in March 2015 at the Sports Tech Research Centre at Mid Sweden University, is currently among the very few facilities in the world designed under the direct control of sports technology specialists and dedicated primarily to research and development within sports, outdoor clothing and footwear as well as equipment development and testing. The main goal when constructing this dedicated facility has been to successfully replicate ambient conditions for training and equipment testing in environments with controlled wind speed, temperature (+4 to +35°C) and precipitation (from fine mist to heavy downfall). The wind tunnel facility houses the largest moving belt in Sweden (5 m long and 2.7 m wide) which can be adjusted for leveled, uphill and downhill motion. The moving belt is placed in a 10 m2 test section in which the wind speed can be adjusted to match belt speed or independently up to 55 km/h (without narrowing the test section). A fog and rain system, mounted in the test section, can generate rainy conditions varying from fine mist to heavy monsoon. It is also possible to open the facility in order to allow experiments to be performed in wide range of outdoor, ambient conditions. This paper presents the basic parameters of the new wind tunnel facility. As this facility is open for wider international cooperation, we also report the general directions of current research and the future work planned to be carried out at this facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058
Keywords
climate control, indoor testing, moving belt, product development, wind tunnel
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28942 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.190 (DOI)000387454000011 ()2-s2.0-84982913097 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, ISEA 2016, 11 July 2016 through 14 July 2016
Note

Conference Paper

Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
Ek, R., Rännar, L.-E., Bäckström, M. & Carlsson, P. (2016). The Effect of EBM Process Parameters upon Surface Roughness. Rapid prototyping journal, 22(3), 495-503
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of EBM Process Parameters upon Surface Roughness
2016 (English)In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 495-503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose-The surface roughness of products manufactured using the additive manufacturing (AM) technology of electron beam melting (EBM) has a special characteristic. Different product applications can demand rougher or finer surface structure, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the process parameters of EBM to find out how they affect surface roughness. Design/methodology/approach-EBM uses metal powder to manufacture metal parts. A design of experiment plan was used to describe the effects of the process parameters on the average surface roughness of vertical surfaces. Findings-The most important electron beam setting for surface roughness, accorDing to this study, is a combination of speed and current in the contours. The second most important parameter is contour offset. The interaction between the number of contours and contour offset also appears to be important, as it shows a much higher probability of being active than any other interaction. The results show that the line offset is not important when using contours. Research limitations/implications-This study examined contour offset, number of contours, speed in combination with current and line offset, which are process parameters controlling the electron beam. Practical implications-The surface properties could have an impact on the product's performance. A reduction in surface processing will not only save time and money but also reduce the environmental impact. Originality/value-Surface properties are important for many products. New themes containing process parameters have to be developed when introducing new materials to EBM manufacturing. During this process, it is very important to understand how the electron beam affects the melt pool.

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Electron beam melting, Process parameters, Surface roughness
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25708 (URN)10.1108/RPJ-10-2013-0102 (DOI)000379421200006 ()2-s2.0-84971264825 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2015). A four compartment model on human exercise bioenergetics. In: A. Subic, F.K. Fuss, F. Alam, T.Y. Pang and M. Takla (Ed.), Procedia Engineering: . Paper presented at 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015 (pp. 4-9). Elsevier, 112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A four compartment model on human exercise bioenergetics
2015 (English)In: Procedia Engineering / [ed] A. Subic, F.K. Fuss, F. Alam, T.Y. Pang and M. Takla, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 112, p. 4-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Performance in endurance sports depends on the athlete's ability to generate power output through muscle contraction. The energy requirements of muscles are satisfied by the alactic and lactic bioenergetic pathways, working anaerobically, and the aerobic oxidative phosphorylation of fats and carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to apply further extensions to hydraulic bioenergetic modelling to better describe the regulation of oxidative fuel selection. For this reason, a four compartment bioenergetic model was introduced and regulation of fat and carbohydrate oxidation was implemented. Further regulation was applied to both oxidative fuel selection and anaerobic glycolysis to depend on the current carbohydrate store. The model was formulated mathematically as differential equations, which were solved numerically to perform simulations of human bioenergetics in exercise. Simulation results showed good consistency with experimental findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058 ; 112
Keywords
Bioenergetics; fuel selection; compartment model; differential equation; numerics
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25888 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.167 (DOI)000380503800001 ()2-s2.0-84945566907 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015; IDEC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra123 Balmes StBarcelona; Spain; 23 September 2015 through 25 September 2015
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, P., Ainegren, M., Tinnsten, M., Sundström, D., Esping, B., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2015). Cross-Country Ski. In: Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E. (Ed.), The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports: (pp. 107-152). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Country Ski
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2015 (English)In: The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports / [ed] Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E., Springer, 2015, p. 107-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski orienteering are competitive sports with practitioners who are mostly from countries in the northern hemisphere. The competition season is during the time when the ground is covered with snow, which roughly extends from mid-November to late March. During the rest time of the year, which is a long preparatory period of training for the skiers before the competition season, the skiers use roller skis for dryland training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Furthermore, over the last few decades, fairly specific indoor testing methods for cross-country skiers have become possible due to the development of treadmills that allow roller skiing using classical and freestyle techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26337 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4939-3020-3_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-84955660951 (Scopus ID)978-1-4939-3019-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Bäckström, M., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2015). Optimal distribution of power output and braking for corners in road cycling. In: : . Paper presented at Science and Cycling, Utrecht 1-2 July 2015. Utrecht
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal distribution of power output and braking for corners in road cycling
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Utrecht: , 2015
Keywords
pacing; corner; power output; braking; road cycling
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26047 (URN)
Conference
Science and Cycling, Utrecht 1-2 July 2015
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Carlsson, P. & Tinnsten, M. (2014). Comparing bioenergetic models for the optimisation of pacing strategy in road cycling. Sports Engineering, 17(4), 207-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing bioenergetic models for the optimisation of pacing strategy in road cycling
2014 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Road cycling performance is dependent on race tactics and pacing strategy. To optimise the pacing strategy for any race performed with no drafting, a numerical model was introduced, one that solves equations of motion while minimising the finishing time by varying the power output along the course. The power output was constrained by two different hydraulic models: the simpler critical power model for intermittent exercise (CPIE) and the more sophisticated Margaria–Morton model (M–M). These were compared with a constant power strategy (CPS). The simulation of the three different models was carried out on a fictional 75 kg cyclist, riding a 2,000 m course. This resulted in finishing times of 162.4, 155.8 and 159.3 s and speed variances of 0.58, 0.26 and 0.29 % for the CPS, CPIE and M–M simulations, respectively. Furthermore, the average power output was 469.7, 469.7 and 469.1 W for the CPS, CPIE and M–M simulations, respectively. The M–M model takes more physiological phenomena into consideration compared to the CPIE model and, therefore, contributes to an optimised pacing strategy that is more realistic. Therefore, the M–M model might be more suitable for future studies on optimal pacing strategy, despite the relatively slower finishing time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London, 2014
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21879 (URN)10.1007/s12283-014-0156-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84920253100 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Sundström, D., Tinnsten, M. & Carlsson, P. (2014). The influence of course bends on pacing strategy in road cycling. In: David James, Simon Choppin, Tom Allen, Jon Wheat, Paul Fleming (Ed.), Conference Proceedings of The Engineering of Sport 10: . Paper presented at The 2014 Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (pp. 835-840). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of course bends on pacing strategy in road cycling
2014 (English)In: Conference Proceedings of The Engineering of Sport 10 / [ed] David James, Simon Choppin, Tom Allen, Jon Wheat, Paul Fleming, Elsevier, 2014, p. 835-840Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Road cycling races in general, but particularly criteriums (short circuit race), have a considerable number of bends along the race course. Sharp bends force the rider to decelerate in order to retain the grip between the tires and the road. This study focused on how these course bends influence the optimal pacing strategy in road cycling. For this purpose, we used a numerical model that simulates cycling by solving the equation of motion. The optimisation was carried out with the Method of Moving Asymptotes, constrained with the Margaria-Morton model for human energetics and a separate course bend constraint. The results showed that sharp course bends greatly affect the pacing strategy and finishing time. The average power output and the average speed decreased with a decrease in the curve radius. Moreover, the kinetic energy lost due to braking in sharp course bends is likely to be the crucial mechanism affecting the finishing time. Therefore, we believe that the outcome of races that contain sharp bends may be strongly dependent on the athlete’s pacing strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058 ; 72
Keywords
Pacing strategy; power distribution; cycling; bend; performance; optimisation
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22843 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.141 (DOI)000346367700140 ()2-s2.0-84903794163 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 2014 Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association
Available from: 2014-09-09 Created: 2014-09-09 Last updated: 2016-01-26Bibliographically approved
Ainegren, M., Carlsson, P., Laaksonen, M. S. & Tinnsten, M. (2014). The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(2), 301-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μ S) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼14%), heart rate (∼7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μ S similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μ S. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μ S, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μ S.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
adjustable grip, center of pressure, normal and tangential forces, ratcheted wheel, skiing economy, static friction
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Mechanical Engineering Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16445 (URN)10.1111/sms.12006 (DOI)000332982700011 ()2-s2.0-84896404410 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online 28 sep 2012

Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
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